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  • Behavioral Method of Research

    Social Method of Research

    Scientific Method of Research

    Research Process

    Research

  • Research is the systematic process of collecting and analysing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. Research involves three main stages:

    planning data collection analysis.

    *

    In simpler terms, research is a way of going about finding answers to questions. The three stages usually require equal time periods eg 6 month project 2 months per section. Do not underestimate the planning stage! Also do not carry on with the data collection for too long. (1) Analysis does take time and youll need it! (2) It is tempting to keep on collecting data just a few more questionnaires etc. Remember data dates! Fix your schedule and stick with it. Also, disasters will happen so keep spirits up.

  • Originates with a question or problem.Requires a clear articulation of a goal.Follows a specific plan of procedure.Usually divides the principal problems into more manageable sub-problems (hypotheses), which guide the research.Accepts certain critical assumptions.Requires collection and interpretation of data to answer original research question.

    *(5) Assumptions accepting conditions that are necessary for carrying out the research. Not hypotheses (they test the question). The beginner researcher is recommended to evaluate each assumption and not to take too much for granted. Research is cyclical by nature. In reality, it often raises new areas of research.

  • Scientific Method of ResearchFour Steps: If the experiments prove the hypothesis to be true, it becomes a theory or law of nature. If the experiments prove the hypothesis to be false, the hypothesis must be rejected or modified. The scientific method used properly should give us predictive power (to understand phenomena which have not been tested).

  • Observation an act of recognizing and noting a fact or occurrence often involving measurement with instruments

    Experiments performed in the laboratory.Experiments gained from knowledge of the literature.

    Keys to Implementation in your Research:Sorting Observations (from Literature Searches):

    Note Results (in report format- optional) for future use in confirming/denying your hypothesis (once your hypothesis is found)!Formulate Hypothesis!

    UsefulNot Useful (Yet!)Contains unanswered questions which you think you have means of addressingProclaims research has explained everything (does not contain unanswered questions)

  • Hypothesis tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences

    Example, Hypothesis of author Anton (UTRC paper) : Ionic radius of Ti4+ enhances desorption kinetics.Observation in Paper by Anton et al.: NaAlH4 doped with Ti4+, Ti3+ and Ti2+ have different ionic radii, but the same rate of enhanced H2 desorption kinetics.New Hypothesis in Paper by Anton (not tested by Anton, et al.): Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ adopt the same oxidation state after entering the NaAlH4 structure.

    Keys to Implementation in your Research: Good Hypothesis can be TESTED with Experiment or Calculation. This requires A LOT of thought and reading--- leap from observation to hypothesis. It is worth the effort because after thinking this through, you are ready to go into the laboratory (which is the FUN part of research)!

  • Experimental Testing to be assigned a standing or evaluation on the basis of tests 2 : to apply a test as a means of analysis or diagnosis

    Example, New Hypothesis: Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ adopt the same oxidation state after entering the NaAlH4 structure.Test: EXAFS Absorption spectroscopy can measure bond length and # of bonds. We may dope NaAlH4 with Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ and measure bond length of each. If they are the same, then they have all assumed one oxidation state after entering the structure (and we can measure this oxidation state also using EXAFS by determining the # of bonds).

    Keys to Implementation in your Research: Good TESTS will prove or disprove your hypothesis. Experimental Tests can be performed within the realm of computing. (e.g. Coventor model with calculations and predictions can serve as experiment and model). Consider all alternatives. Experiment may not disprove all (but may disprove only parts) of your hypothesis. That is still alright to perform. Carefully note which aspects of your hypothesis this experiment will test. Consider the availability of instrumentation to perform your tests.

  • Predictions to declare or indicate in advance; especially : foretell on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reason

    Example, Test: EXAFS Absorption spectroscopy can measure bond length and # of bonds. We may dope NaAlH4 with Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ and measure bond length of each. If they are the same, then they have all assumed one oxidation state after entering the structure (and we can measure this oxidation state also using EXAFS by determining the # of bonds).Prediction 1: If Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+ gain equivalent oxidation states after entering the structure, then the same should be true for Co2+, Co3+, and Co4+ (or any other metal dopant). Keys to Implementation in your Research: Good Predictions can also be tested against your hypothesis. Consider going back to the basics (textbook theory) to development of a mathematical model/construct which will help to make predictions about more systems than you can reasonably test.

  • Scientific Methods Observing everyday behavior carefully.

    Constructing hypotheses or comprehensive theories .

    Drawing inferences from the observation.

    Choosing the best methods to prove your predictions.

    Analyzing the collected data and objectively interpret

    the data. Replicating the findings to generalize the findings.

  • ValuesFactsPersonal statements such as abortion should not be permittedin this country, Good people will go to heaven when they die.Objective statements determined to be accurate through empirical study such as there were over 20,000 homicides in the United states.

  • Advantage of Scientific Research1. Free from the personal bias2. Free from the investigators emotions3. Replicable by others (scientists)4. Open to others (scientists)s scrutiny.

  • It is research involving social scientific methods, theories and concepts, which can enhance our understanding of the social processes and problems encountered by individuals and groups in society. It is conducted by sociologists, psychologists, economists, political scientists and anthropologists.It is not just common sense, based on facts without theory, using personal life experience or perpetuating media myths.

    *Social research is not just common sense, based on facts without theory, using personal life experience or perpetuating media myths. (eg media article on women should drink more green tea and less black tea social scientists approach?). Social research is not just going to the library and finding articles on a subject, hanging out in exotic places observing etc.

  • It involves the systematic collection of methods to produce knowledge.It is objective.It can tell you things you do not expect.It consists of theory and observation.Sometimes called soft sciences because their subject matter (humans) are fluid and hard to measure precisely.It is an empirical research i.e. facts are assumed to exist prior to the theories that explain them.

    *Social research is a scientific process. It involves the systematic collection of methods to produce knowledge. It is objective. It can tell you things you dont expect eg divorce and children. Like science it consists of theory and observation. Because it involves the study of people, social sciences are sometimes referred to as the soft sciences doesnt mean theyre sloppy but because their subject matter is fluid and hard to measure precisely. It an empirical research (facts are assumed to exist prior to the theories that explain them) and the scientific manner in which theories are formed or tested produces objective results. Like science, different social scientists can agree in observations and conclusions despite different points of view. Social sciences make an important contribution to our understanding of a wide variety of social issues. They have generated useful and usable knowledge on socially relevant topics such as health inequalities, incidences and causes of family poverty, impact of racial discrimination etc.

  • Basic or Pure Research:aim is to develop a body of general knowledge for the understanding of human social behaviour by means of a combination of empirical enquiry and application of theory.Applied or Policy Oriented Research:aim is to provide knowledge and information that can be used to influence social policy.

    *There is a distinction in social research between basic or pure research and applied or policy oriented research. Constructing, testing and refining theory is what basic research is all about. Applied is usually defined in practical or instrumental terms. Not so much concerned with theory-building as with providing knowledge and information that can be used to influence social policy by providing an insight into contemporary social issues. Both forms of research share the fundamental principles of social scientific investigations, where they differ is that the basic social researcher is concerned with the outcomes i.e. contributing to a body of theoretical knowledge while the applied social researcher concentrates on the application of theoretical knowledge in conducting empirical research to address specific probl