8242139 Poultry Handbook Necunoscut(a)

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8242139 Poultry Handbook Necunoscut(a)

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  • ASA HANDBOOK ON

    POULTRY DISEASES

    Published by:American Soybean Association

    541 Orchard Road#11-03 Liat TowersSingapore 238881

    Tel: (65) 6737 6233Fax: (65) 6737 5849

    Website: www.asasea.com

    Simon M. ShaneFRCVS, PhD, MBL, ACPV

    Adjunct ProfessorNorth Carolina State University

    Professor EmeritusSchool of Veterinary Medicine

    Louisiana State UniversityUSA

  • Handbook on Poultry Diseases2nd Edition

    Copyright2005 by American Soybean Association

    All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be produced or distributed in any form orby any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without prior written permission ofthe copyright owners.

    Printed in Singapore, 2005PO 52-2005MITA (P) 052/04/2005MO4GX19403-062005-1000

  • HANDBOOK ON POULTRY DISEASES

  • SOUTHEAST ASIAMr. John A Lindblom,Regional DirectorAmerican Soybean Association541 Orchard Road#11-03 Liat TowersREPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE 238881Phone: (65) 6737-6233Fax: (65) 6737-5849Email: asaspore@pacific.net.sgWebsite: www.asasea.com

    INDONESIAMr. Ali Basry, ConsultantAmerican Soybean AssociationWisma Mitra Sunter, #402Blok C-2 Boulevar Mitra SunterJl Yos Sudarso Kav. 89, Jakarta 14350INDONESIAPhone: (6221) 651 4752Fax: (6221) 651 4753Email: asagrain@indosat.net.id

    PHILIPPINESMr. Teodoro M Cortes, ConsultantAmerican Soybean Association1408-B, Robinsons - Equitable Tower#4 ADB Avenue cor. Poveda, Ortigas Ctr.1605 Pasig City, MMPHILIPPINESPhone: (632) 637 5387Fax: (632) 637 5388Email: asatcj@mozcom.com

    THAILANDMr. Opas Supamornpun, ConsultantAmerican Soybean Association59/43 Baan Klang MuangLadprao 71 RoadLadprao, Bangkok 10230THAILANDPhone: (662) 5395373, 5395332Fax: (662) 539 5256Email: asathai@loxinfo.co.th

    VIETNAMMr. Tran Trong Chien, ConsultantAmerican Soybean Association13/F Hanoi Towers49 Hai Ba Trung StreetHanoi, VietnamPhone: (844) 934 3979Fax: (844) 934 3966Email: asa-usgc@fpt.vn

    PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINAMr. Phillip Laney,Country DirectorAmerican Soybean AssociationSuite 902 China World Tower 2No. 1 Jianguomenwai AvenueBEIJING 100004, PRCPhone: (8610) 6505-1830Fax: (8610) 6505-2201Email: beisoya@asachina.org

    American Soybean AssociationRm. 1802, SITCNo. 2201 Yanan Xi LuSHANGHAI, 200336, PRCPhone: (8621) 6219-1661Fax: (8621) 6219-5590Email: shasoya@asachina.org

    ASA WORLD HEADQUARTERSAmerican Soybean Association

    12125 Woodcrest Executive DriveSuite 100 St. Louis

    MO 63141-5829, USATel: (1314) 576-1770Fax: (1314) 576-2786

    ASA INTERNATIONAL OFFICES

  • ASIA SUBCONTINENTMr. Virgil Miedema, DirectorAmerican Soybean Association149 Jor BaghNew Delhi - 110 003INDIAPhone: (91 11) 2465-1659Fax: (91 11) 2465-1526Email: asaasc@vsnl.netWebsite: www.asaasc.com

    JAPANMr. Takehiko Nishio,Country DirectorAmerican Soybean Association7th Fl., Toshin Tameike Building1-1-14 AkasakaMinato-ku, Tokyo 107-0052JAPANPhone: (81 3) 5563-1414Fax: (81 3) 5563-1415Email: asatokyo@gol.comWebsite: www.asajapan.org

    KOREAMr. Say Young Jo,Country DirectorAmerican Soybean AssociationRm 301, 3rd Floor, Leema Building146-1 Susong-dong, Chongro-kuSeoul 110-755KOREAPhone: (822) 738-7056Fax: (822) 736-5501Email: soyakor@kornet.netWebsite: www.asa.or.kr

    TAIWANMr. Anthony Thang,Country DirectorAmerican Soybean Association6 Fl., No. 27, Chang An East Road, Section1, Taipei 104,TAIWANPhone: (8862) 2560-2927Fax: (8862) 2568-3869Email: asatwn@ms75.hinet.netWebsite: www.soybean.org.tw

    MEXICOMr. Mark Andersen,Regional DirectorAsociacion Americana de SoyaU.S. Agriculture Trade OfficeJaime Balmes #8, 2do. PisoCol. Los Morales PolancoMEXICO, D.F. C.P. 11510Phone: (52 55) 5281-0120 ext. 230Fax: (52 55) 5281-6154 & 281-0147Email: asamex@soyamex.com.mxWebsite: www.soyamex.com.mx

    WEST EUROPE & OTHER AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    Regional DirectorAmerican Soybean Association

    Rue du Luxembourg, 16b,1000 Brussels, BELGIUM

    Phone: (32 2) 548 9380Fax: (32 2) 502-6866

    Email: info@asa-europe.orgWebsite: www.asa-europe.org

    TURKEY & MIDDLE EASTMr. Christopher Andrew,Regional DirectorAmerican Soybean AssociationBJK Plaza, Suleyman Seba Cad. No. 92A-Blok, Kat-8 No. 85/8680680 Besiktas, Istanbul, TURKEYPhone: (90 212) 258 2800Fax: (90 212) 236 2620Email: asatr@superonline.com

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    PREFACE 1

    MANAGEMENT, NUTRITION AND BIOSECURITY ......................... 2

    1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 3

    2.0 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN THE PREVENTION ANDCONTROL OF POULTRY DISEASES .............................................. 6

    2.1 General Principles ................................................................... 62.2 Fixed and Variable Costs in Poultry Production ..................... 72.3 Gross Marginal Analysis ......................................................... 8

    3.0 HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE OF POULTRY IN TROPICALCLIMATES.......................................................................................... 13

    3.1 Physiological Effects of High Ambient Temperature ............. 133.2 Design of Housing in Tropical Countries ............................... 133.3 Management of Flocks at High Temperature .......................... 15

    4.0 PREVENTION OF DISEASE ............................................................ 21

    4.1 Mechanisms of Disease Transmission .................................... 214.1.1 Transovarial Route ..................................................... 214.1.2 Transmission on the Egg Shell ................................... 214.1.3 Direct Transmission ................................................... 214.1.4 Indirect Transmission ................................................. 224.1.5 Dissemination by Wind .............................................. 224.1.6 Biological Vectors ...................................................... 224.1.7 Feed ............................................................................ 224.1.8 Vaccines ..................................................................... 22

    4.2 Biosecurity .............................................................................. 234.2.1 Conceptual Biosecurity .............................................. 234.2.2 Structural Biosecurity ................................................ 234.2.3 Operational Biosecurity ............................................. 24

    4.3 Decontamination of Housing and Equipment ......................... 264.3.1 Definitions .................................................................. 264.3.2 Decontamination ........................................................ 26

    i

  • 4.3.3 Disinfectants ............................................................... 264.3.4 Public Health Considerations ..................................... 27

    4.4 Disinfection of Poultry Houses ............................................... 274.5 Control of Rodents .................................................................. 284.6 Control of Free-Living Birds .................................................. 294.7 Quality of Water ...................................................................... 30

    5.0 VACCINATION AND MEDICATION ............................................... 35

    5.1 General Principles ................................................................... 355.2 Significance of Maternal Antibody

    in Relation to Flock Protection ............................................... 355.3 Administration of Vaccines ..................................................... 385.4 Medication .............................................................................. 38

    6.0 SPECIAL PROCEDURES RELATING TO CONTROL OFDISEASES IN POULTRY OPERATIONS ......................................... 46

    6.1 Control of Disease in Multiplier Breeder Farms .................... 466.1.1 Structural Biosecurity ................................................ 466.1.2 Operational Biosecurity ............................................. 47

    6.2 Control of Disease on Commercial Broiler Farms ................. 476.2.1 Structural Biosecurity ................................................ 476.2.2 Operational Biosecurity ............................................. 48

    6.3 Control of Disease in Commercial Egg Production Units ...... 516.3.1 Operational Biosecurity ............................................. 51

    6.4 Control of Disease in Hatcheries ............................................ 536.4.1 Structural Biosecurity ................................................ 536.4.2 Operational Biosecurity ............................................. 53

    7.0 NUTRITION OF CHICKENS AND DIETARY DEFICIENCIES ..... 56

    7.1 Establishing Nutritional Specifications .................................. 567.2 Nutrient Deficiencies .............................................................. 56

    7.2.1 Causes of Nutrient Deficiencies ................................. 567.2.2 Low Energy Intake ..................................................... 577.2.3 Deficiencies of Proteins or Amino Acids ................... 577.2.4 Fats ............................................................................. 577.2.5 Oxidative Rancidity ................................................... 58

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  • 7.2.6 Vitamin Deficiencies ..................................................... 58

    7.3 Quality Control in Feed Manufacture ..................................... 62

    IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DISEASES ..................................................... 68

    8.0 MAREKS DISEASE .......................................................................... 69

    8.1 Etiology ......................................................................