Limba Romana Contemporana

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UNIVERSITATEA DE STAT ALECU RUSSO CATEDRA DE LIMBA ROMN

LIMBA ROMANA CONTEMPORANA(Note de curs)

Autor: Adela NOVAC, lect. sup. dr.

Bli, 2007

SUMARI. RAPORTURILE (RELAIILE) SINTACTICE_____________________________5 1. DEFINIIE. TRSTURI GENERALE____________________________________ 5 2. TIPOLOGIA RELAIILOR SINTACTICE__________________________________ 6 2.1. relaia de interdependen___________________________________________8 2.2. relaia de coordonare______________________________________________10 2.3. relaia de subordonare_____________________________________________12 2.4. relaia de dubl subordonare________________________________________16 2.5. relaia apozitiv__________________________________________________19 2.6. relaia de inciden_______________________________________________ 19 3. UNELE CONCLUZII___________________________________________________20 4. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE__________________________________________ 21 PRILE PRINCIPALE ALE PROPOZIIEI. SUBIECTUL________________22 1. DEFINIIE. CARACTERISTICI______________________________________ 22 2. MIJLOACE DE EXPRIMARE_________________________________________23 3. TIPURI DE SUBIECT_______________________________________________ 25 3.1. subiectul exprimat_____________________________________________26 3.1.1. subiectul simplu___________________________________________ 26 3.1.2. subiectul multiplu__________________________________________ 26 3.1.3. subiectul complex__________________________________________ 26 3.1.4. subiectul dezvoltat__________________________________________26 3.1.5. subiectul dublu exprimat_____________________________________ 26 3.1.6. subiectul compus___________________________________________ 27 3.2. subiectul neexprimat___________________________________________ 27 3.2.1. subiectul inclus_____________________________________________27 3.2.2. subiectul subneles_________________________________________ 27 3.2.3. subiectul nedeterminat_______________________________________27 3.2.4. subiectul inexprimabil_______________________________________28 4. SUBIECTUL GRAMATICAL I SUBIECTUL LOGIC_____________________28 5. UNELE DIFICULTI LA DETERMINAREA SUBIECTULUI_____________ 29 6. TOPICA SUBIECTULUI_____________________________________________ 30 7. PUNCTUAIA_____________________________________________________ 31 8. INTERPRETAREA COMUNICATIV-PRAGMATIC A SUBIECTULUI______32 9. UNELE CONCLUZII________________________________________________ 33 10. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE________________________________________34 ATRIBUTUL__________________________________________________________35 1. FUNCIA SINTACTIC DE ATRIBUT_________________________________ 35 2. DEFINIIE. CARACTERISTICI_______________________________________ 36 3. TIPURI FORMALE DE ATRIBUT_____________________________________ 37 3.1. atribut adjectival_______________________________________________ 37 3.2. atribut substantival_____________________________________________ 39 3.3. atribut pronominal_____________________________________________ 40 3.4. atribut adverbial_______________________________________________41 3.5. atribut verbal_________________________________________________ 41 4. CLASIFICAREA ATRIBUTELOR DUP GRADUL DE LEGTUR CU TERMENUL REGENT____________________________________________42 4.1. atributul izolat_________________________________________________42 4.2. atributul neizolat_______________________________________________43 5. CLASIFICAREA ATRIBUTELOR DUP STRUCTUR___________________ 43 1

II.

III.

5.1. atributul simplu________________________________________________44 5.2. atributul multiplu______________________________________________ 44 6. TOPICA ATRIBUTULUI_____________________________________________ 44 7. UNELE CONCLUZII________________________________________________ 45 8. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE________________________________________ 45 IV. SUBORDONATA ATRIBUTIV________________________________________ 47 1. NOIUNI GENERALE________________________________________________47 2. REGENTUL SUBORDONATEI ATRIBUTIVE____________________________48 3. ELEMENTE INTRODUCTIVE (JONCTIVELE)___________________________ 49 4. CLASIFICAREA SUBORDONATEI ATRIBUTIVE ________________________52 4.1. atributiva determinativ________________________________________ 52 4.1.1. criterii de delimitare a subordonatei atributive determinative___________________________________________52 4.2. atributiva explicativ___________________________________________54 4.3. atributiva relativ______________________________________________54 4.4. atributiva conjuncional________________________________________55 5. OMONIMIA SUBORDONATEI ATRIBUTIVE CU ALTE TIPURI DE SUBORDONATE____________________________________________________ 55 6. TOPICA SUBORDONATEI ATRIBUTIVE_______________________________ 56 7. UNELE CONCLUZII_________________________________________________ 57 8. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE_________________________________________58 A P O Z I I A________________________________________________________59 ARGUMENT 1. RELAIA APOZITIV. CARACTERISTICI. CONTROVERSE________________59 2. APOZIIA. DEFINIIE. CARACTERISTICI. BAZA APOZITIV I UNITATEA APOZAT (APOZIIA)___________________________________64 3. UNITILE RELAIEI APOZITIVE. COREFERENIALITATEA TERMENILOR________________________________________________________65 3.1. baza apozitiv________________________________________________65 3.2. exprimarea bazei apozitive______________________________________66 3.2.1. exprimarea apoziiei_________________________________________ 66 4. CLASIFICAREA APOZIIEI____________________________________________67 4.1. din punct de vedere morfologic__________________________________ 67 4.2. din punct de vedere structural___________________________________ 69 4.3. din punct de vedere semantic____________________________________ 71 5. MRCILE RELAIEI APOZITIVE_______________________________________ 71 6. IZOLAREA APOZIIEI________________________________________________ 73 7. UNELE CONCLUZII___________________________________________________74 8. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE__________________________________________ 75 PROPOZIIA APOZITIV_____________________________________________76 1. DEFINIIE. CARACTERISTICI__________________________________________76 2. ELEMENTE DE REFERIN____________________________________________76 3. ELEMENTE INTRODUCTIVE_________________________________________ 77 4. CLASIFICAREA PROPOZIIEI APOZITIVE_______________________________78 5. TOPICA______________________________________________________________79 6. PUNCTUAIA________________________________________________________79 7. CONTRAGEREA______________________________________________________79 8. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE__________________________________________ 80

V.

VI.

2

VII.

PROPOZIIA PREDICATIV_________________________________________ 81 1. DEFINIIE. TRSTURILE CARACTERISTICE ALE PREDICATIVEI_____ 81 2. REGENTUL PROPOZIIEI PREDICATIVE_____________________________ 82 3. ELEMENTE INTRODUCTIVE (JONCTIVELE)__________________________ 84 4. CLASIFICAREA PROPOZIIEI PREDICATIVE_________________________ 85 4.1. predicativele de calificare_______________________________________ 85 4.2. predicativele de identificare______________________________________86 4.3. predicativele conjuncionale______________________________________86 4.4. predicativele relative___________________________________________ 87 5. TOPICA I PUNCTUAIA PROPOZIIEI PREDICATIVE_________________ 87 6. CONTRAGEREA PROPOZIIEI PREDICATIVE_________________________88 7. SUBSTITUTUL DE PROPOZIIE PREDICATIV________________________ 88 8. CONCLUZII________________________________________________________88 9. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE________________________________________ 89

VIII. COMPLEMENTUL. COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT_________________________ 91 1. COMPLEMENTUL. NOIUNI GENERALE. CRITERII DE CLASIFICARE________________________________________________________ 91 2. COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT. DEFINIIE. CARACTERISTICI_________________92 3. REGENTUL COMPLEMENTULUI DIRECT________________________________93 4. MRCILE COMPLEMENTULUI DIRECT_________________________________ 94 5. EXPRIMAREA COMPLEMENTULUI DIRECT. RESTRICII DE SELECTARE__________________________________________________________96 6. DUBLA REALIZARE A COMPLEMENTULUI DIRECT. RELUAREA I ANTICIPAREA _______________________________________________________ 97 7. COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT INTERN____________________________________ 100 8. UNELE CONCLUZII___________________________________________________102 9. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE_________________________________________ 103 IX. SUBORDONATA COMPLETIV DIRECT_____________________________104 DEFINIIE. CARACTERISTICI_________________________________________ 104 REGENTUL SUBORDONATEI COMPLETIVE DIRECTE___________________ 105 ELEMENTE INTRODUCTIVE__________________________________________ 106 CLASIFICAREA SUBORDONATEI COMPLETIVE DIRECTE________________107 4.1. completiva relativ__________________________________________________107 4.2. completiva conjuncional____________________________________________108 5. TOPICA I PUNCTUAIA_______________________________________________109 6. RELUAREA I ANTICIPAREA COMPLETIVEI DIRECTE____________________109 7. DELIMITAREA COMPLETIVEI DIRECTE I ALTE TIPURI DE SUBORDONATE______________________________________________________ 110 8. CONTRAGEREA______________________________________________________ 111 9. UNELE CONCLUZII___________________________________________________ 112 10. REFERINE BIBLIOGRAFICE__________________________________________113 COMPLEMENTUL INDIRECT________________________________________114 DEFINIIE. CARACTERISTICI_________________________________________114 INVENTARUL CONSTRUCIILOR CU FUNCIE DE COMPLEMENT INDIRECT___________________________________________________________116 REGENTUL COMPLEMENTULUI INDIRECT_____________________________118 EXPRIMAREA COMPLEMENTULUI INDIRECT__________________________