Limba engleza II sinteza - · 1 Universitatea Spiru Haret Facultatea de...

1 Universitatea Spiru Haret Facultatea de Psihologie si Stiintele educatiei Limba engleza II sinteza Anul I semestrul 2 An universitar: 2017 - 2018 Lector univ dr. Ana Munteanu

Transcript of Limba engleza II sinteza - · 1 Universitatea Spiru Haret Facultatea de...


Universitatea Spiru Haret Facultatea de Psihologie si Stiintele educatiei

Limba engleza II sinteza

Anul I semestrul 2 An universitar: 2017 - 2018

Lector univ dr. Ana Munteanu


Obiectivele generale ale cursului de Limba engleza II

Dezvoltarea competenţei orale şi competenţei scrise în limba engleză; Achiziţionarea fondului lexical de specialitate; Dezvoltarea structurilor gramaticale corecte; Integrarea cunoştinţelor şi a deprinderilor lingvistice şi de interpretare în diferite situaţii de comunicare.

Obiectivele specifice ale ccursului de Limba engleza II

Prin audierea, însuşirea problemelor dezbătute şi prin promovarea acestui curs, cursanţii vor fi capabili: - să achiziţioneze si dezvolte vocabularul de specialitate; - să-şi dezvolte abilităţile de comprehensiune orală şi scrisă; - să reacţioneze în mod adecvat la diferite tipuri de texte şi contexte; - să identifice ideile centrale ale unui text scris sau oral; - să recunoască referinţele culturale din textele studiate, să realizeze comparaţii; - să selecteze şi să sintetizeze informaţia necesară dintr-un text dat; - să aplice în mod practic cunoştinţele de gramatică dobândite în cadrul cursului; - să-şi exprime propriile opinii în mod corect, fluent şi coerent în limba engleză; - să exerseze conversaţii/dialoguri pe teme specifice meseriei. Bibliografie obligatorie Munteanu, Ana, English for Psychology, Editura Psihomedia, Sibiu, 2005 Smith, Deborah, “Five principles for research ethics”, American Psychological Association, Vol 34, No. 1, p. 56, 2003 (it can also be find at last accessed 5th June 2017) Code of Ethics and Conduct. Guidance published by the Ethics Committee of the British Psychological Society, 2009, (it can also be find at - last accessed 5th June 2017) Bibliografie facultativa Prodromou, Luke, Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate, Longman, 2010. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, American Psychological Association, 2010 at and (last accessed 5th June 2017) Psychology research methods: core skills and concepts at (last accessed 5th June 2017) Cuprins

I. English for Psychology II. Grammar III. Information about the exam


I. English for Psychology


1. If psychology interests you, you have something in common with the ancient Greek philosophers. They asked

questions about the life of the mind: What is the relationship between mind and body? How can we tell if the world is really the way we think it is?

Today's psychologists study all sorts of fascinating questions, such as the following: Why is learning a language as an infant easier than as a teenager? What are the roots of violence? What is the best way to help someone with an eating disorder like anorexia? Etc.

There are difficulties in finding one universally accepted definition. Read the definitions of the term psychology according to the following dictionaries and psychological associations. Give their Romanian equivalents. Which definition do you agree with? Comment upon each of the already-given definitions. Give your own definition for psychology.


noun [U] 1 STUDY the study of the human mind and feelings child psychology He's studying psychology and philosophy. 2 BEHAVIOUR the way someone thinks and behaves the psychology of serial killers

(from Cambridge Learner's Dictionary)

psychology n. The study of the nature, functions, and phenomena of behaviour and mental experience. The etymology of the word (from Greek psyche soul or mind + logos word, discourse, or reason) implies that it is simply the study of the mind, but much of modern psychology focuses on behaviour rather than the mind, and some aspects of psychology have little to do with the mind.

(adapted after Oxford Dictionary of Psychology)

psychology Psychology simply cannot be defined; indeed, it cannot even be easily characterized. Even if one were to frame a definition or characterization today, tomorrow would render the effort inadequate. Psychology is what scientists and philosophers of various persuasions have created to try to fulfil the need to understand the minds and behaviours of various organisms, form the most primitive to the most complex. Hence, it really isn’t a thing at all: it is about a thing, or about many things. It has few boundaries, and aside from the canons of science and the ethical standards of a free society it should not have any imposed upon it either by its practitioners or by its critics. It is an attempt to understand what has so far pretty much escaped understanding, and any effort to circumscribe it or box it in is to imply that something is known about the edges of our knowledge, and that must be wrong.

As a discipline psychology finds its roots a mere century and a half or so back in the faculties of medicine and philosophy. From medicine it took the orientation that explication of that which is done, thought and felt must ultimately be couched in biology and physiology; from philosophy it took a class of deep problems concerning mind, will and knowledge. Since then, it has been variously defined as ‘the science of mind’, ‘the science of mental life’, ‘the science of behaviour’, etc.

(adapted after The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology)

“Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. The discipline embraces all aspects of the human experience – from the functions of the brain to the actions of nations, from child development to care for the aged. In every conceivable setting from scientific research centers to mental health care services, "the understanding of behavior" is the enterprise of psychologists.”

(Definition of "psychology" given by the American Psychological Association) this text is written in American English (AE); this accounts for many spelling differences that you may encounter for one and the same word, spelt differently as it appears in a British English source or in an American English one. e.g. behavior (AE) = behaviour (BE); center (AE) = centre (BE)


“Psychology is the study of people: how they think, how they act, react and interact. Psychology is concerned

with all aspects of behaviour and the thoughts, feelings, and motivations underlying such behaviour. To study psychology you have to learn scientific methods: observing, measuring, testing, using statistics to show that what you find is reliable evidence and not just down to chance.”

(Definition of "psychology" given by the British Psychological Society)

4. Fill in the gaps in the following text with the words randomly listed below: behavior, definition, discipline, field, human, motivation, nonhumans, perception, psychologists, scientific,


“Psychology is the … study of behavior and mental processes. This … seems straightforward, but its simplicity is deceptive. In fact, since the first stirrings of the … , psychologists have debated just what should constitute the appropriate scope of the …. Should … limit themselves to the study of outward, observable …? Is it possible to study internal thinking …? Should the field encompass the study of such diverse topics as physical and mental health, … , dreaming, and …? Is it appropriate to focus solely on … behavior, or should the behavior of … be included?”

(Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

5. The words to achieve, to succeed, to manage, to cope, and to reach are often confused. First read their definitions as given by the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners and then complete the sentences with the most appropriate word (use the verbs in the correct tense, aspect, and voice).

Achieve verb 1. [T] to succeed in doing or having what you planned or intended, usually after a lot of effort; 2. [I] to be successful by being determined or working hard.

Succeed verb 1. [I] to achieve something that you planned to do or attempted to do; + in (V-ing) sth; 2. [I] to do well in school, in your career, or in some other activity; + in; 3. [T] to replace someone in an important or powerful job or position; 3a. formal to follow and replace something.

Manage verb 1. [I/T] to succeed in doing something, especially something that needs a lot of effort or skill; manage to do sth; 2. [I] to deal successfully with a problem or difficult situation; + with; + without; 2a. to deal successfully with a person or animal whose behaviour is difficult; 3. [T] to organize and control the work of a company, organization, or group of people; 4. [T] to be able to provide something such as money or time.

Cope verb [I] to deal successfully with a difficult situation or job; + with. Reach verb 1. [T] to arrive somewhere; 1a. to get to a particular point in time or a particular stage in a process; 2.

[T] to achieve something after discussing it or thinking about it for a long time.

a) I … very good results in the exam. b) Ministers must … a decision before next month. c) The test was difficult but I … to do quite well. d) Tom … in passing his driving test at the first attempt. e) Many managers are driven by a desire to … . f) If the business …, she’ll be a wealthy woman. g) Last month Ann attended a seminar on ‘… with stress in the workplace’. h) The children … the age when they want more privacy. i) Young people especially find it difficult to … with death. j) Laura knows how to … difficult customers.

6. Translate into English:

„Ce este psihologia?

“Psihologia” se explică prin două cuvinte: psyche şi logos. Cuvântul psyche vine din greceşte şi înseamnă „suflet sau spirit”, tradus liber prin intelect. Iar logos înseamnă „cunoaştere”, „studiu”. Litera grecească (pronunţată „psi”) a devenit simbolul internaţional al psihologiei.

Psihologia fusese iniţial definită drept studiul minţii. Dar astăzi majoritatea psihologilor definesc altfel această ştiinţă.Ei se străduiesc să facă o distincţie clară între ceea ce ţine propriu-zis de psihologie şi ceea ce nu intră în această categorie.

Deci, cum definesc psihologii „psihologia”? ei bine, e foarte greu de găsit o definiţie unanim acceptată. Deşi majoritatea psihologilor sunt de părere că psihologia este o ştiinţă, nu este însă foarte clar pe ce principii ştiinţifice funcţionează aceasta.

O altă dificultate întâmpinată de cei care doresc să găsească o definiţie a psihologiei este una practică – unii spun chiar „imposibilă”! – de a studia „mintea” umană în mod direct. Într-adevăr, până şi încercarea de a defini


„mintea” este una foarte grea. Unii psihologi au evitat să dea o definiţie a psihologiei, mai ales behavioriştii, precum B.F. Skinner şi J.B. Watson.

„Nu e nevoie să încercăm să descoperim ce este personalitatea, sau ce sunt stările mentale, sentimentele etc. pentru a face o analiză ştiinţifică comportamentului.” (Skinner - 1971) De aceea, în practică, majoritatea psihologilor se concentrează asupra a ceea ce este evident, observabil şi măsurabil, în comportamentul uman, inclusiv procesele biologice ale trupului. În acelaşi timp, în ciuda punctelor de vedere extremiste ale unor behaviorişti, „mintea” este în continuare considerată subiectul principal de studiu al psihologiei. Astfel, o „definiţie de lucru” acceptată a psihologiei este: Psihologia este studiul ştiinţific al minţii şi al comportamentului oamenilor şi animalelor.”

(adapted after Nigel C. Benson – Câte ceva despre Psihologie)


1. Read the following text containing information given by the British Psychological Society about the types of psychologists and write down the new words.

“There are several main types of psychologists, depending on their specialist postgraduate qualifications or training: Clinical, Counselling, Educational, Forensic, Health, Occupational, Neuropsychologist, and Teaching and Research.

Clinical Psychologists aim to reduce psychological distress and to enhance and promote psychological well-being. They work with people with mental or physical health problems – which might include anxiety and depression, serious and enduring mental illness, adjustment to physical illness, neurological disorders, addictive behaviours, childhood behaviour disorders, personal and family relationships. They work with people throughout the life-span and with those with learning disabilities.

They work largely in health and social care settings including hospitals, health centres, community mental health teams, child and adolescent mental health services and social services. Some work as trainers, teachers and researchers in universities, and some work in the private sector.

Counselling Psychologists apply psychology to working collaboratively with people across a diverse range of human problems. These include helping people manage difficult life events such as bereavement, past and present relationships and working with mental health issues and disorders. Counselling Psychologists accept subjective experience as valid for each person, explore underlying issues and use an active collaborative relationship to empower people to consider change. Counselling Psychologists utilise a holistic stance, which involves examining the issues brought to them within the wider context of what has given rise to those issues.

Counselling Psychologists work within the NHS in general and psychiatric hospitals and GP surgeries; in private hospitals and in independent practice; within education in schools, colleges and universities; in industry and in public and private corporate institutions. Within these settings Counselling Psychologists may work directly with individuals, couples, families, groups or act as consultants.

Educational Psychologists apply psychology to helping children and young people. They use a wide range of psychological techniques in assessing abilities and assisting those who have difficulties in learning or social adjustment. They have a central role in assessing (statementing) children with special needs, under the 1996 Education Act. Services offered might include counselling, planning programmes to overcome behavioural problems, supporting teaching and learning techniques, as well as working with teachers and policy development at single school level or across the whole of the local education authority.

Most Chartered Educational Psychologists work within the local education authority system, but others work with adults, or in staff training, teaching and research in universities or private practice.

Forensic Psychologists are concerned with many aspects of psychology across the forensic field. They are interested in offending behaviour and its detection, re-offending and its reduction, the administration of justice, aspects of evidence and work of the courts. Sometimes they are called as expert witnesses in these areas.

Chartered Forensic Psychologists work in prisons and young offender institutions, youth treatment centres, health and social service settings, probation services, special hospitals, regional secure units, in research and in teaching and training within the field.

Health Psychology is the practice and application of psychological research into: the promotion and maintenance of health the prevention and treatment of illness the identification of etiological and diagnostic correlates of health and illness the analysis and improvement of the health care system and health policy formation.


Chartered Health Psychologists work primarily in universities and the health service in research, consultancy and teaching roles.

Health Psychologists with a clinical qualification will also provide a therapeutic input in general health care services.

Occupational Psychologists are concerned with people at work or in training, with developing and applying an understanding of how organisations work and how they affect individuals and groups and how organisations themselves can become more effective. Their focus is on how work, paid or not, can affect people, developing or constraining them, empowering or causing stress, and on how people’s own psychological make-up affects how work is done. Their aim is to increase effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. They are able to help individuals and organisations in such areas as selection, training and development, motivation, human factors, career counselling, job and work design, and organisational development.

Chartered Occupational Psychologists work in companies, in consultancy organisations, in the Civil Service and local government, and in private practice, as well as carrying out research and teaching in universities and schools of management.

Neuropsychologists apply their psychological training and skills specifically to help brain damaged and brain injured people. Their main aim is to improve the quality of life of those people. They will have major roles in assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of the brain injured, in research and in the training of other professionals involved in this area.

Chartered Psychologists who have specialised in working with people with neurological damage are found in a range of health care settings, including both the NHS and private sectors, in vocational, educational and social services settings and in teaching and research institutes.

Psychology as a subject is taught mainly at universities and HE and FE colleges, though also at some secondary schools. Teachers of psychology work to educate and train both psychologists and other professionals (such as doctors, nurses, the police, etc.) who require elements of psychology in their training and future work. They offer an appreciation of psychological knowledge to large numbers of non-specialists, through A-level and other pre-degree courses as well as teaching on psychology degree courses. They also apply psychological principles to course design, delivery and assessment in a variety of settings, both educational and occupational.

Psychology researchers engage in both basic and applied research. Basic research is concerned with the development of psychological theory and method, and tends to be concentrated in universities and government-funded research units. Applied research uses psychological theory and method to generate solutions to specific problems in a wide range of settings, including clinical, educational, commercial, forensic and industrial.

Chartered psychologists working primarily as teachers or researchers will have demonstrated professional competence equivalent either to The British Psychological Society’s Diploma in the Applied Psychology of Teaching or to the PhD. There are some applied psychologists who carry out teaching and research alongside their practice and may work as teachers/researchers as well as practitioners.”

(from 3. Look through the text again and answer the following questions:

a. How many main types of psychologists are mentioned in the text? b. What do clinical psychologists do? c. What kind of difficult life events may counselling psychologists help people manage? d. What services may an educational psychologist offer? e. Where do forensic psychologists work? f. What is Health Psychology? g. What is the main aim of the occupational psychologists? h. Who does neuropsychologists help?

4. Read about how the Americans present some of the jobs one can have in the field of psychology. Fill in the grid under the appropriate heading.

Job / Career

Description of work

Degree / education required


Clinical psychologists Have you ever heard the term "stream of consciousness"? We use it to describe words that flow non-stop, following a person's thoughts as they move freely from one topic to the next. The term was created by William James, who is considered one of the fathers of psychology. With gentle guidance from skilled clinical psychologists, people can ride their stream of consciousness to surprising memories and insights. These memories and insights often play a key role in healing.


Clinical psychologists help people with mental or emotional problems adjust to life. Some help people cope with physical illnesses or injuries. Others help people facing crises such as divorce or the loss of a loved one. To become a clinical psychologist in USA you'll need a Ph.D. - Doctor of Clinical Psychology (D.Clin.Psychol.) - which confers eligibility for Chartered status as a professionally qualified clinical psychologist. A Ph.D. means that you’ll spend five to seven years in graduate school after college.

Did You Know? Clinical psychologists use a book called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which lists all officially recognized mental illnesses.

Are You Ready To...? Counsel individuals, families, and groups Specialize in an area such as health psychology Refer clients to psychiatrists for medication Keep records Diagnose clients Keep up with the latest research Attend conferences Mental Health Counselors

A mental health counselor meets with a small group of people with severe mental problems. At first, the counselor is very active. He asks members questions about the history of their illnesses, how they cope, and what it's like to interact with others. Over time, the counselor says less and less, encouraging group members to ask the questions and provide support. After the sessions end, they report that their lives have improved: they have more confidence, more friends, and more fun. Mental health counselors treat people with mental and emotional problems. They help people work through everything from job stress to marriage conflicts to suicidal impulses. To become a counselor, you'll need a master's degree.

Are You Ready To...? Counsel people one-on-one and in groups Diagnose clients (identify their problems) Give psychological tests Keep records Keep up with the latest therapy techniques Work with psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals

Did You Know? According to the National Institute of Mental Health, depression affects up to six million American men and twelve million American women every year.

Marriage and Family Therapists Marriage and family therapists provide counseling to people in couples and families as well as one-on-one. Even when they work with people one-on-one, they focus on the person's relationship to the larger unit of the couple or family.

Did You Know? While many marriage and family therapists have their own practices, many others work for businesses, prisons, and social service agencies.

Are You Ready To...? Provide short-term, goal-oriented counseling Focus on family and couple relationships Help clients with various problems, from teen anorexia to marital conflict Refer clients who need medication to psychiatrists Diagnose clients (identify their problems, such as depression) Keep records Give psychological tests Child, Family, and School Social Workers

Child, family, and school social workers help children and families cope with social and psychological problems that may arise at school, at home, at work, or in the larger community.


Are You Ready To...? Counsel people with various backgrounds and problems Refer people to services and programs Keep records and complete lots of paperwork Work with other professionals Take good care of yourself to avoid burnout (also known as compassion fatigue)

Outlook US government economists expect job growth for clinical, counseling, school psychologists, mental health counselors, health educators and marriage and family therapists to be faster than the average for all careers through 2012. Most jobs require a doctorate, however, and psychologists with only a master's degree face a lot of competition. New thinking about mental health should spur job growth. For example, people realize that it's better to prevent and treat unhealthy habits such as smoking than to pay the high health-care costs that often accompany those habits. Americans are also becoming more comfortable with the idea of getting help from mental health professionals. Also, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are turning to counselors more often because they cost less than psychiatrists and psychologists. Government economists predict faster-than-average job growth for human resources managers between 2002 and 2012. One reason is the rising cost of health care. Experts in employee benefits who can put together good health plans at minimal cost should be in demand. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, clinical, counseling, and school psychologists (studied as a group) earned an average yearly income of $58,640 in 2003 and health educators earned an average salary of $41,430 in 2003. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the average salary of mental health counselors in 2003 was $35,060; the average salary of marriage and family therapists in 2003 was $41,420. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, psychologists employed by elementary, middle, and high schools earned an average income of $57,910 in 2003, educational, vocational, and school counselors earned an average income of $46,850 in 2003 while the average yearly earnings of human resources managers in 2003 were $76,620. According to a 2001 survey of American Psychological Association members, full-time Ph.D. research psychologists earned a median salary of $65,000.”

5. Fill in the gaps in the following text with the words randomly listed below: analysing data, degree, research degree, psychological disorders, doctorate, investigation, bachelor’s level, specialized programs, psychologists, teach, field of psychology, supervision

“How do people become …? The most common route is a long one. Most psychologists have a doctoral graduate …, either in the form of a Ph.D. or (less frequently) a Psy.D. The Ph.D. is a …, requiring a dissertation based on an original … . The Psy.D. is obtained by psychologists who wish to focus on the treatment of …. Both the Ph.D. and the Psy.D. typically take four or five years of work past the … .

Although most psychologists have a doctoral degree, not everyone who works in the … has a doctorate. About one-third have a master’s degree, which is earned following two or three years of graduate work. Master’s-level psychologists may …, conduct research under the … of a doctoral-level psychologist, or work in … dealing with drug abuse or crisis intervention. Some work in universities, government, and business, collecting and … . Still, career opportunities are more limited for those with a master’s degree than for those with a ….”

(Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

6. The words/expressions salary, income, pay, pension, grant, expenses, allowance, pocket money and wage are often confused. First read their definitions as given by the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners and then complete the sentences with the most appropriate word.

Salary – a fixed amount of money that you earn each month or year from your job; monthly pay, especially for professionals, eg teachers, doctors. Income – money that someone gets from working or from investing money. Pay – money that you receive for doing your job Pension – an amount of money that someone who no longer works because of their age or an illness etc is paid regularly, either by a company they once worked for or by the government Grant – an amount of money that the government or an organization gives you for a specific purpose and does not ask you to pay back Expenses – money you spend as part of your job that your employer later gives back to you. Allowance – an amount of money that someone receives regularly, in order to pay for the things they need.


Pocket money – 1. money that parents regularly give to their children; 2. a small amount of money that you earn and spend on things that are not very important. Wage – or wages an amount of money that you earn for working, usually according to how many hours or days you work each week or month; weekly pay, especially

a) When Tom was at university, his parents gave him a monthly … of $300. b) Shop assistants generally earn low … . c) Health educators earned an average … of $41,430 in 2003. d) There will be improvements in … and conditions for all staff. e) When I was a child, my parents used to give me three pounds … every week. f) I don’t know how my mother manages to live on her … . g) Between 2000 and 2004 Romanian people had to declare all their … to the tax authorities. h) The American Psychological Foundation promotes the practice and the science of psychology through

research … and innovative programs in psychology that shed light on some of society's most pressing concerns. i) My husband’s company pays his travel and accommodation … .

7. What do you have to do and enjoy doing as part of your job and why? (If you have never got a job, think of a future/ideal job as a psychologist). Look at the language box to help you answer. He really likes They like You don’t mind

computers. using computers.

I don’t have to travel and I enjoy this. Do you like keeping records?


1. Read the following text and write down the new words.

“Psychologists are interested in every aspect of behaviour and every type of mental process. Some people say that ‘psychology is just common sense’, but it is much more than that; it is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes. Sometimes psychology reinforces what people call ‘common sense’ or intuitions, but it is important to remember that psychology bases its claims on research evidence, not guesses or mere anecdotes. Note, also, that so-called common sense may be neither sensible nor consistent. Common sense proverbs often contradict each other. If ‘many hands make light work’, why also may ‘too many cooks spoil the broth’? If common sense says ‘absence makes the heart grow fonder’, how do we reconcile this with ‘out of sight out of mind’? Common sense isn't so simple after all.

One important goal of psychology is to clarify what is myth and what is reality. In order to do that, to distinguish myth from reality, and to understand human behaviour better, psychology sets out to describe, explain, predict, and (where appropriate) change or control behaviour.

Describing behaviour - The first step to understanding behaviour is to describe it accurately. For example, if we wish to find out whether boys are more physically aggressive than girls, we must first describe exactly what we mean by ‘physical aggression’. Once we have a precise definition, we can begin to observe whether there is any difference in levels of physical aggression between boys and girls.

Explaining behaviour - The next step in understanding behaviour is to explain why it occurs, that is, to understand what causes it. Psychologists often start with a theory (hypothesis) about an observed behaviour and then test to see if there is evidence to support their theory. For example, our hypothesis could be: ‘Boys are more physically aggressive than girls because boys are rewarded more often than girls for physically aggressive behaviour’. To test this, we might carry out an observation study in a school to see if boys do indeed receive more reinforcement than girls for their aggressive acts.

Predicting behaviour - After describing and explaining behaviour, psychologists will often try to predict when that behaviour is likely to occur. For example, we know that lacking a sense of control is associated with so-


called stress symptoms such as migraine and gastric ulcers. We might predict, therefore, that people whose work is monotonous, repetitive and regulated by others will be more likely to have high rates of absenteeism than people whose job allows them some freedom to organize their work.

Changing/controlling behaviour - Under certain circumstances it may be desirable to modify behaviour. Take, for example, the case of someone who suffers from a life-threatening eating disorder, such as anorexia nervosa. Although some treatments for this condition are controversial, there are therapists who work with anorexic people to help them overcome their disorder and adopt healthier eating behaviours.”

(adapted after Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

3. Look through the text and answer the following questions: a. Is psychology common sense? b. What is the first step to understanding behaviour? c. Why is it important to explain behaviour? d. What do psychologists often try to do after describing and explaining behaviour?

4. The paragraphs below define common sense and psychologist. Identify and underline the specific words that are used to define each of them.

‘The common sense is the ability to use good judgement and make sensible decisions.’

‘The psychologist is someone who studies how people’s minds work and how this affects their behaviour.’

5. Find a definition in the text from exercise 1.

6. Choose one of the key words given at the beginning of the first three units. Write its definition without naming the term. Read your definition to a colleague and ask him/her to identify the word that the definition refers to.

7. Read through the following text and then choose from the list A - J the best phrase given below it to fill each of the spaces. Some of the suggested answers do not fit at all. The exercise begins with an example (0).

Learning How to Behave

Most people are unaware they possess a quite remarkable skill, (0) ... because it is exercised daily, and in the most ordinary contexts. But without it, our lives would be unfulfilled and empty. It is the ability to relate to others, to engage them in conversation, to operate as social and sociable individuals and to develop both short-term and long-term relationships (1) ... . We are not born with this ability. There is nothing wired into the human brain (2) ... . To perform effectively in a world (3) ... , encounters and relationships, we have to learn what to do.

Small babies, as any parent will remember, are among the least sociable beings (4) ... . They are totally demanding, utterly selfish and scream with rage if their every whim is not immediately satisfied. Somehow this unlikely raw material is transformed over the years into a being which relies for survival on being able to form reciprocal bonds with others and to follow complex rules (5) ... . The monstrous infant becomes the caring, responsible adult whose life experiences revolve around both the joys and pains, and the giving and receiving, of friendships and other relationships. It is this remarkable transformation which is the central characteristic of being human.

A. that you could imagine B. which come naturally to them C. that relies so heavily on social interaction D. which nobody understands, not even scientists E. that they do without conscious thought F. which lies at the heart of our very existence as human beings G. that takes a lifetime to learn and practise H. that govern every aspect of its social life I. that provides us with set responses to social situations J. which is usually overlooked (0 ) - J

8. The words like and as are often confused. First read about their uses and then complete the sentences with the most appropriate word.

Like function word; it can be used in the following ways: as a preposition (followed by a noun)

e.g. He looks like his father.


as a conjunction (connecting two clauses) e.g. She looked like she was about to cry.

as an adverb e.g. I said, like, you can’t do this to me.

as an adjective, especially in the phrase ‘of like mind’ e.g. I can see that you and I are of like mind on this issue.

As function word; it can be used in the following ways: as a conjunction (connecting two clauses)

e.g. As I was leaving, the phone rang. The results were not as bad as I had expected.

as a preposition (followed by a noun) e.g. He works as a school psychologist.

as an adverb (followed by an adjective, an adverb, or a word such as ‘much’ or ‘many’) e.g. Nylon is cheaper than leather, and it’s just as strong.

a) It was a small animal … a rat. b) Tom smokes … a chimney. c) I don’t smoke as much … I used to. d) An intelligent woman … you shouldn’t have been fooled so easily. e) Sam played with the children … he was one of them. f) I invested the money … you suggested. g) Van Dyck was regarded … the greatest painter of his time. h) I work … a waiter in a big restaurant and I work …a dog! i) … it was getting late, we took the children home. j) Bob’s suggestion was almost exactly the same … mine. k) Her skin was white … snow. l) No one could play the trumpet … he did. m) It’s unfortunate but, …I said, it’s a decision we have to make. n) The results of the exam came … a surprise to me.


1. Read the following text and write down the new words.

“We all know what science is, but what does it really mean to describe something as ‘scientific’, and can psychology really be considered scientific in the same way that the natural sciences are considered scientific?

The Latin root of the word ‘science’ literally means ‘knowledge’. Science can, therefore, be seen as concerned with what we know to be true, rather than what we believe to be true. Hence, we see science as an important way of distinguishing what is true and real from what is not. In the modern use of the term, science is often seen both as a body of knowledge that we accept as trustworthy, and as the method for attaining that knowledge (i.e. the scientific method).

Probably the most fundamental characteristic of science is its reliance on ‘empirical methods’ of observation and investigation, i.e. observation through sensory experience rather than a reliance on thoughts and ideas. All scientific ideas must, at some point, be subjected to empirical investigation through careful observation of perceivable events or phenomena. For science to ‘make sense’, it is necessary to explain the results of empirical observation. That means constructing theories, which in turn can be tested and refined through further empirical observation.

Slife and Williams (1995) identify a number of further attributes that characterize science. Scientific observation is made under objective conditions. In other words, observation is not influenced by

factors such as bias or expectation or the particular cultural values of the scientist. Scientific observation takes place under controlled conditions, often in the context of the experiment. Science involves making predictions about what is expected to happen under specified conditions. In this

way, the scientist is able to validate or falsify whatever theory or hypothesis led to the observations being made. This ability to control and predict behaviour in experimental settings gives us the expectation that we will also be able to control and predict behaviour in real-life settings. It is this expectation that drives psychology towards science as a chosen route to knowledge, and towards the establishment of a technology of behaviour.


Scientific investigations are open to public scrutiny, i.e. the methods and results of scientific investigations are there for all to see and to check. Confidence in result is increased when investigations can be replicated, and the results repeated.

Varieties of science

One way to characterize science is a body of knowledge that explains the nature of the world. Viewed from this perspective, scientific knowledge has two main characteristics: - Scientific explanations reject, and are preferred to, other explanations of naturally occurring phenomena (such as magic or other supernatural explanations). - Scientific explanations are often stated as laws or general principles about the relationship between different events. Because of the regularity of the way in which these events occur together, it then becomes possible to control and predict them.

A second way of characterizing science is to see it as a method of studying phenomena. Scientific investigation involves empirical observation and the development of theories, which, in turn, are constantly tested and refined in the light of further observation.

‘Hard’ sciences, such as physics and chemistry, are those that lend themselves more to reductionist approaches and experiments. People involved in ‘soft’ sciences, such as psychology and sociology, attempt to use the determinist and reductionist approaches of the hard sciences, but, because of the subject matter, cannot conduct research with the same kind of rigour as in the hard sciences.

There are two ways to discover knowledge about the world: empirical testing (‘deduction’) and theory construction (‘induction’). Philosophers of the 19th century and earlier used inductive techniques. They made observations of the world around them and then produced general statements about the world (called ‘natural laws’) on the basis of the observations or facts. Induction is reasoning from the particular to the general. Karl Popper (1959) suggested that this form of gaining knowledge could never be used to demonstrate the truth of knowledge. Knowledge could be verified, but never falsified. Popper’s principle of falsification lead to the process of deductive science.

Natural laws or theories are proposed as an outcome of induction. Such theories produce hypotheses which can be tested through experiments. The outcome of an experiment leads a researcher to retain or reject the null hypothesis and thus accept or refine the theory that generated the hypothesis. This process of gaining knowledge is called deduction, reasoning from the general to the particular.

Arguments for and against psychology as a science

1. Psychologists use scientific methods FOR: AGAINST: Scientific methods are the preferred method of investigation for most psychologists. Indeed, the laboratory experiment has probably become the dominant mode of investigation in psychology, offering the psychologist opportunities for control and prediction that are absent in less ‘scientific’ methods.

Psychologists may use the scientific method but such research has been criticized in terms of a lack of both internal and external validity. As regards internal validity, many findings have been criticized because of ‘demand characteristics’ operating in the study. A demand characteristic is a feature of an experiment that invites predictable responses from participants so that they do not behave as they normally would; they are cued to behave in a particular way by the experimental conditions.

2. Some levels of psychology are scientific FOR: AGAINST: Psychology embraces explanations at different levels ranging from the physical to the sociological. At least some levels of psychology are scientific, such as research into the

There is one main difficulty with this approach. It runs counter to the argument that psychology has a paradigm. Kuhn claimed that the paradigm was the key feature of any science – what characterizes any science is a shared set of assumptions and a shared


neurobiology of dreaming or of mental illness.

methodology. If psychology consists of different levels or kinds of explanation, some of which are more scientific than others, then it cannot claim to have a paradigm. Thus, while some levels of psychology are scientific, psychology as a whole cannot claim to be a science. On the other hand, we might equally point to Rose’s description of five biologists and the frog. His view of biology was one of a number of different paradigms.

Psychology is not a science because:

1. Science is determinist BUT science isn’t necessarily

determinist The basis of the scientific approach is that behaviour is predictable: there are cause-and-effect relationships which can be discovered and these explain human behaviour. However the determinist view raises difficulties for free will and moral responsibility, which might lead us to reject the scientific approach as a way to investigate human behaviour.

There are ways to incorporate the concept of free will within a determinist framework and we know that there is regularity in human behaviour. In addition, the physical sciences no longer subscribe to a purely determinist framework and thus psychology is in step with other sciences.

2. Objectivity is not possible BUT objectivity is not possible in

any science Objectivity is an important characteristic of scientific enquiry. By that we mean that there is an assumption that any subjective influences (such as the values and expectations of the investigator) are excluded from the investigation. There are many difficulties with objectivity in psychology, for example ‘observer bias’ – when a researcher observes behaviour, such observations are inevitably affected by the observer’s expectations. Interviewer bias and experimenter bias lead to changes in participants’ behaviour as a consequence of a researchers’ expectation.

The same problems over objectivity occur even in the physical sciences, not just psychology. True objectivity can only be an ideal for scientific research. The concept of science as being objective is challenged by those who point out that science is as much a social activity as a mechanical application of correct procedures. The work of scientists is influenced by prevailing social attitudes (which influence the shape and structure of knowledge) and day-to-day activities of scientists are affected by everyday human concerns (being liked by colleagues, getting promotion, and so on). This area of study is called the ‘sociology of scientific knowledge’ (SSK).

3. Science is reductionist (resulting in false conclusions)

Forms of reductionism: reductionism in explanations, methodological reductionism,

Problems with the reductionist approach


theoretical reductionism. To carry out a scientific test, we must be able to observe whatever it is we are investigating. This may seem a straightforward requirement, but it is not always so. For example, there are many events (such as motivation or fear) that we cannot observe directly. Instead, we observe something else that we feel represents the thing we are really interested in. for example, we may choose to define or operationalize fear in terms of some physiological change (such as pupil dilation), or motivation in terms of questionnaire responses.

Reductionism leads to erroneous explanations because behaviour is oversimplified. The trouble with operational definitions is that they are not necessarily measurements of the thing we were originally interested in. the consequence of this is that psychologists often explore the relationship between two things (e.g. fear and motivation) without ever being able to measure either of these directly. Instead, as is the case with many investigations in psychology, our observations are always one step removed from the phenomenon (e.g. fear) that we are really interested in studying. The result is that psychologists end up measuring something different from their intended phenomena and reach false conclusions.

(adapted after Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

2. ‘Some psychologists feel that scientific methods are inappropriate to the study of humans because human behaviour is complex and cannot be reduced to simple causal relationships.’

a) Discuss arguments for the claim that psychology is a science, with reference to issues raised in the quotation. b) Describe arguments against the claim the psychology is a science.

4. Fill in the gaps in the following text with the words randomly listed below: a, and, another, as, attempt, behaviour, best, for, from, in, include, with, internally, make, nature, no, of, on, one, psychology, qualitative, range, requires, the, their, this, to, through, whether

Alternative views on the science-psychology relationship

“The issue whether … might be considered to be a science ignores an equally important question as to … it should be scientific. Psychology is concerned … human behaviour in all its richness and complexity, and scientific methods may not be the … route to investigate this area.

Slife and Williams (1995) present three positions … whether a science of human … is possible or even desirable. The need for empirical validation. All theories should be subject … rigorous tests to show that they are …

consistent (i.e. make sense) and that they can explain a wide … of events consistent with the predictions of the theory. It is also important that … claims of a particular theory can be demonstrated … actual, observable behaviour.

The value of qualitative methods. The study … human experience requires the use of different methods … those used in the study of the natural world. Scientists studying humans would place … great deal of importance on the experience of their participants … a way of understanding their behaviour. The use of qualitative methods … research avoids the measurement … quantification of behaviour, allowing participants to describe … own experiences within their own linguistic style. The role of the … researcher would be to question, describe and interpret … experience. Examples of qualitative research … discourse analysis and ethnographic methods.

The need … a variety of research methods. The study of human behaviour and experience … ‘methodological pluralism’. Researchers … to make sense of the world around them, and must … their choice of method based on the … of the problem they are investigating. All methods open the door to knowledge in … way, but close it in …. On the basis of this, … one method might be considered superior to another.”

(adapted after Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

5. Like means ‘to enjoy doing something or to feel that someone or something is pleasant or attractive’. Here are other ways of saying ‘like’:

Love – to like something very much. It is also used for saying that you really care about someone.


Adore – to like and admire someone. It is also used in an informal way for saying that you like something very much.

Enjoy - to like doing a particular activity. Having a liking for - to like something specific such as an activity or a type of food or drink. Be keen on – to be enthusiastic about a particular person, thing, or activity. Be fond of – to like someone or something with a gentle, steady emotion that is not as strong as love. Prefer – to like one thing more than another. Be crazy/mad about (informal) – to like someone or something so much that you spend all your time thinking

about them. Have a weakness for – to particularly like someone or something that you know is not good for you. Have a soft spot for sb – to particularly like someone, even if they do not deserve it.

Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the words/expressions above.

a) When did you realise you … her? b) I … going to the opera when I get the chance. c) I’ve developed … red wine. d) I’ve always been extremely … of Mike, but I’d never marry him. e) I was always pretty … on sport at school. f) I just … their children. g) I’ve got a real … James, even if he is annoying sometimes. h) She’s completely … about basketball. i) He’s got a weakness for anything with chocolate in it. j) Even today, most Americans … coffee to tea.

6. Match the two halves of the sayings. What do they mean? Which sayings do you think are true? Give their Romanian equivalents.

1. Healthy body a) by bread alone.

2. The eyes b) no gain.

3. No pain c) healthy mind.

4. Man does not live d) what you eat.

5. You are e) are the window to the soul.


1. Read the following text and write down the new words.

“People have always been interested in how the mind works and what causes behaviour. The roots of modern psychology go back to the ancient Greek philosophers of the 4th and 5th centuries BC. However, it was only towards the end of the nineteenth century that psychology became established as a branch of knowledge (discipline) in its own right when Wilhelm Wundt (1832 - 1920) began the first experimental psychology laboratory in the University of Leipzig in Germany. Since then, many different approaches (perspectives) have been developed in psychology. Some of the most important are:

Psychodynamic Behaviourism The cognitive approach The physiological (biological) approach Social learning theory The evolutionary approach


“Psychodynamic means ‘active mind’. There is mental struggle – especially in the hidden unconscious mind. In practice, this often simply means applying the Psychoanalytic theories of Freud and, to a greater or lesser extent,


followers and dissenters such as Carl Jung (1875-1961), Alfred Adler (1870-1937), Erich Fromm (1900-1980), Erik Erikson (1902-1994).”

(adapted after Nigel C. Benson – Introducing Psychology)

“The Psychoanalysis approach developed from the work of Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939). The term ‘psychoanalysis’ relates to both the theory that much of our behaviour is motivated by unconscious thoughts, and to the therapy that Freud developed for treating neurotic conditions. In the course of treating psychiatric patients, Freud became convinced that adult problems often have their origins in early experiences, particularly those that occur during the first five years of a person’s life. To help people gain access to the unconscious mind, Freud developed a number of psychoanalytic techniques, including dream interpretation and free association. By these means, he sought to uncover unconscious conflicts, help people understand their causes and come to terms with their problems.”

(adapted after Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

“The psychodynamic metaphor is that the human mind is like an iceberg with the majority of the mind below the surface of conscious activity.

Freud believed that the human mind had both conscious and unconscious areas. The unconscious part of the mind was seen as being dominated by the ‘id’, a primitive part of the personality that pursues only pleasure and gratification. The id is not concerned with social rules but only with self-gratification and is driven by the ‘pleasure principle’. This disregard for the consequences of a behaviour is referred to as ‘primary process thinking’. The second area is the ‘ego’, which dominates the conscious mind. This is the part of our mind that is in contact with the outside world, the part that considers the consequences of an action and thus carries out ‘secondary process thinking’. The ego is driven by the ‘reality principle’.

The third part of the mind is the ‘superego’. This develops as we become more aware of the rules and conventions of society and, specifically, of our parents, around the age of 4. It contains our social conscience, and through the experience of guilt and anxiety when we do something wrong, it guides us towards socially acceptable behaviour. According to Freud, the ego and the superego dwell largely in the conscious mind, while the id is in the unconscious area of our mind.

According to Freud, we have two drives or instincts: sex and aggression. Everything we do is motivated by one of these two drives.

Sex, also called ‘Eros’ or the ‘life force’, represents our drive to live, prosper and produce offspring. Aggression, also called ‘Thanatos’ or the ‘death force’, represents our need to stay alive and stave off threats

to our existence, our power, and our prosperity. Defence mechanisms, used for dealing with anxiety relating to impulses from the id, provide people with

unconscious strategies to reduce anxiety. The most common defence mechanisms are repression, regression, displacement, rationalization, denial, projection, and sublimation.

The theory of psychoanalysis generally lacks empirical support and is not falsifiable (i.e. cannot be demonstrated to be wrong). It is a determinist and reductionist account, and overemphasizes sexual influences. It does acknowledge unconscious motivation, the influence of childhood experiences and both rational and irrational behaviour.

Case studies are one way to assess the validity of a psychoanalytic explanation, using techniques such as free association and dream analysis to access unconscious thoughts. Case studies provide rich data and are more ‘true to life’, but suffer from effects such as interviewer bias. ”

(adapted after Cara Flanagan – Approaches in psychology)

3. Look through the text and answer the following questions: a) What are the most important approaches in psychology? b) What does psychodynamic mean? c) What is the term ‘psychoanalysis’ associated with? d) According to Freud, what forces motivate our behaviour? e) Identify and explain one criticism that can be made of psychodynamic explanations.

4. Read again the texts from exercise 1 and say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.

a) Wilhelm Wundt, a Greek philosopher, founded the first experimental psychology laboratory in the University of Leipzig in Germany.

b) Psychodynamic is the most important approach in psychology. c) Sigmund Freud is the father of the psychoanalysis approach. d) S. Freud believed that the first five years of a person’s life are very important. e) ‘Dream interpretation’ is Freud’s solely psychoanalytic technique. f) The id is that part of personality that is in contact with the outside world. g) The unconscious part of the human mind contains the social conscience.


h) Aggression and sex induce people’s actions. i) Repression, regression, displacement, rationalization, denial, projection, and sublimation are unconscious

strategies to reduce anxiety. j) The theory of psychoanalysis understates sexual influences. k) Case studies are the only way to assess the validity of a psychoanalytic explanation. l) Case studies supply researchers with rich data.

5. The words/expressions like, be like, look like, and would like are often confused. First read their definitions as given by the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners and then complete the sentences with the most appropriate word (use the verbs in the correct tense, aspect, and voice).

Like verb [T not usually progressive] 1. to enjoy doing something or to feel that someone or something is pleasant or attractive; 2. to prefer to do something in a particular way or prefer to have something done in a particular way.

be like similar to someone or something else, or in a similar way to someone or something else; what is sb/sth like? Used for asking about the qualities or features of a person or thing.

look like to have a particular appearance would like/’d like used for stating politely what you or someone else wants; would you like…? used for offering

something to someone or inviting them to do something.

a) What … your brother …? b) I think she … me, she didn’t really want to get involved. c) I haven’t met Alan – what … he …? d) I … going out to parties with friends. e) They … you to tell them the truth. f) … you … some cake? g) I think you … your mother; you’ve got her eyes.

6. Fill in the gaps in the following text with the words randomly listed below:

ancestors, behavior, cultures, ego, for example, id, particularly, points, psychoanalysts, successors, collective unconscious, unconscious, as specific

“One … important outgrowth of Freud’s theorizing was the work done by a series of … who were trained in traditional Freudian theory but who later rejected some of its major… . These theorists are known as neo-Freudian ….

The neo-Freudians placed greater emphasis than Freud did on the functions of the …, suggesting that it had more control than the … over day-to-day activities. Carl Jung, …, who initially adhered closely to Freud’s thinking, later rejected the notion of the primary importance of … sexual urges – a key notion of Freudian theory. Instead he looked at the primitive urges of the unconscious more positively, suggesting that people had a …, a set of influences we inherit from our own particular …, the whole human race, and even animal ancestors from the distant past. This collective unconscious is shared by everyone and is displayed by … that is common across diverse … – such as love of mother, belief in a supreme being, and even behavior … as fear of snakes.”

(adapted after Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

7. Translate into English:

“S. Freud (1856-1939) este cel care a dat startul în elaborarea perspectivei psihodinamice, inventând termenul de psihanaliză (1896), prin care îşi descrie teoriile şi tehnicile de descoperire şi vindecare a problemelor mentale ale pacienţilor săi. El nu era însă interesat numai de tulburările mentale: şi-a petrecut întreaga existenţă încercând să emită un set de teorii coerente care să explice întregul comportament uman. Nu şi-a atins însă niciodată scopul, aşa încât este mai simplu să luăm aceste teorii separat. În psihanaliză există cinci teorii extrem de importante:

1. conştientul/preconştientul/subconştientul; 2. libidoul; 3. sinele, eul şi supraeul; 4. fazele dezvoltării psihosexuale; 5. mecanismele de apărare; Freud a vindecat mulţi pacienţi, sau cel puţin i-a ajutat să-şi înţeleagă şi să-şi accepte problemele, metodele lui

fiind în continuare folosite în psihiatria actuală. El a avut un efect fantastic asupra societăţilor moderne, schimbând fundamental felul în care oamenii gândesc

despre ei şi despre ceilalţi.


În psihologie, Freud este încă foarte controversat. Mulţi psihologi consideră metodele lui „neştiinţifice” sau „neverificabile”, cum ar spune Popper. Majoritatea cursurilor de psihanaliză conţin puţine teorii freudiene, asta în cazul în care nu le omit complet! Mulţi psihologi preferă să se rezume la ceea ce este uşor de observat – comportamentul.”

(adapted after Nigel C. Benson – Câte ceva despre Psihologie)



1. Read the following texts about Behaviourism and the Social learning theory and write down the new words.


“Behaviourism dates from 1913 when John Watson (1878 - 1958) stated that psychologists should concentrate on observable behaviour instead of mental processes. However, its roots stretch back to the Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936), famous for his work in conditioning animals.

Behaviourism had a profound effect on psychology for about 50 years and some of its basic ideas remain important in contemporary psychology. For example, one important legacy from the behaviourist approach is the scientific concept of an ‘operational definition’, a precise statement of how a concept (such as aggression) is measured.”

(adapted after Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

“The behavioural metaphor is that a person is like a black box and we should be concerned only with what goes in and comes out (observable behaviours).

Learning theory explains how new behaviours are acquired through classical and operant conditioning, through association and reinforcement respectively.

Classical conditioning describes how we learn through ‘association’; the association of two things (one ‘old’ and one ‘new’) that occur together means that the new stimulus acquires the properties of the old one.

Operant conditioning describes how we learn through reinforcement. The likelihood that a behaviour is repeated is increased or decreased through experience. Again, this change of behaviour is produced without thought or control.

Through reward and punishment, behaviours are learned or unlearned (behaviours are stamped in or out). Skinner (1938) described this as the ABC of behaviour:

Antecedent Behaviour Consequence It is the consequences of any particular behaviour that determine the likelihood that it will be repeated. Rewards are also called ‘reinforcers’. Positive reinforcement occurs when the reward is pleasant. Negative

reinforcement is also pleasant, but as a consequence of escaping from something that was unpleasant! The frequency of rewards affects the success of conditioning. Such ‘schedules of reinforcement’ include partial and continuous schedules each of which is effective in particular circumstances. For example, continuous reinforcement schedules (CRF) induce rapid initial learning and rapid extinction, whereas the opposite is true of partial reinforcement schedules. So, punishment and schedules of reinforcement affect learning.

Shaping explains how complex behaviours are acquired. For example, animal trainers use the principles of operant conditioning to teach complex activities. Skinner was able to demonstrate that he could train pigeons how to operate the guidance system of missiles. He achieved this using the process of ‘shaping’. The animal is initially rewarded for quite simple behaviours, but gradually the rewards are reserved for behaviours that are closer and closer to the target behaviour.

Things that are learned may be generalized to other, similar situations. This applies to both classical conditioning and operant conditioning.”

(adapted after Cara Flanagan – Approaches in psychology)

Social learning theory

“In the 1960s social learning theorists such as Bandura demonstrated that sometimes learning was possible without the need for reinforcement (being rewarded for a behaviour). All that was needed was the chance to observe the behaviour of the others. This observational learning was called imitation or modelling.”

(adapted after Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

“Bandura (1965) recognized that learning theory could only explain a limited amount of what we learn because classical and operant conditioning rely on direct experience. Animals also learn indirectly by observing the behaviours of others and imitating it. Social learning theorists emphasize that for behaviour to be imitated, it must be seen to be rewarding in some way, i.e. it is reinforced, the term ‘vicarious reinforcement’ describes how we


experience reinforcement indirectly. The likelihood of a person imitating another person’s behaviour is determined by:

their previous experiences of that behaviour – both their own and that of others the degree to which their own similar behaviour was successful in the past the current likelihood of whether this behaviour will be rewarded or punished. This means that memory is involved, a concept that was alien to learning theorists who believed that there was no

need to look further than what goes into the machine and what comes out. Social learning theory is sometimes referred to as ‘neo-behaviourism’ because it is a kind of ‘new behaviourism’ – one that includes mental concepts. According to social learning theory, we observe others and store representations of behaviour. If a behaviour is imitated, then it may or may not receive direct reinforcement. This determines the extent to which the behaviour becomes part of an individual’s repertoire.

This account of social learning (learning from other people) is determinist – your current behaviour is a product of past reinforcement experience. Bandura introduced the concept of ‘reciprocal determinism’ to express how individuals do exert some control over their development. As the individual acts, this changes the environment, thus affecting subsequent behaviour. Individuals are also capable of reinforcing themselves. They are capable of making their own choices and this ultimately affects what they imitate.

Bandura (1977) also claimed that a person may influence their reinforcement experiences as a consequence of ‘self-efficacy’ – their sense of their own effectiveness (or efficacy) which influences what they ultimately achieve. If you believe that you cannot jump over a two-metre hurdle, this will affect the way you approach the task and thus what you achieve. Your sense of self-efficacy is an important personality trait. It is derived from both direct and indirect experience. In the case of direct experience, your own successes and failures alter future expectations of success. You may also learn indirectly by watching others’ successes and failures and applying this knowledge to your self-expectations.”

“Learning theory is based on research with non-human animals and is reductionist. Even social learning theory excludes influences such as emotion. Research is conducted in contrived laboratory environments focusing on short-term effects. Learning theory is an example of environmental determinism and largely ignores innate factors. However, learning and social learning theory can explain individual and cultural differences, and they are scientific.”

(adapted after Cara Flanagan – Approaches in psychology)

3. Read the texts about behaviourism from exercise 1 and choose the most appropriate answer (a., b., c., or d.): 1. J. Watson was born in

a. 1913 b. 1878 c. 1958 d. 1849

2. I. Pavlov is famous for a. stating that psychologists should concentrate on observable behaviour. b. his ‘operational definition’. c. his work in conditioning animals. d. his roots.

3. The behavioural approach concentrates on a. the black box. b. observable behaviour. c. what goes in the black box. d. what goes out the black box.

4. Operant conditioning describes a. how we learn through association. b. how we behave. c. how we learn through reinforcement. d. how we learn through association and how we behave.

5. … affect(s) learning. a. Only punishment b. Only rewards c. Only schedules of reinforcement d. Schedules of reinforcement and punishment

6. Reinforcers is another name for a. rewards. b. schedules of reinforcement.


c. positive rewards. d. negative rewards.

7. The process of shaping consists of a. rewards for simple behaviour. b. rewards for the target behaviour. c. rewards for simple behaviour at the beginning and step by step rewards for behaviours that are

closer to the target behaviour. d. rewards for the pigeons that could operate the guidance system of missiles.

4. Read the texts about social learning theory from exercise 1 and choose the most appropriate answer (a., b., c., or d.):

1. In the 1960s Bandura talks about a new concept called a. social learning. b. reinforcement learning. c. behaviour of the others. d. observational learning.

2. Imitation means a. learning by observing the others b. learning by being rewarded for a specific behaviour c. learning by being rewarded for all kinds of behaviour d. learning by being reinforced a specific behaviour

3. The learning theory explains a. what we learn b. just a few things of what we learn c. only what we learn d. a big amount of what we learn

4. Animals learn a. only indirectly. b. only directly. c. through direct and indirect experiences. d. by observing the behaviours of others and imitating it.

5. The concept of memory is a key term in a. the behaviourism approach b. the social learning theory c. all approaches d. no approach

6. Somebody’s behaviour is a. a product of present reinforcement experience. b. a product of future reinforcement experience. c. a product of future and present reinforcement experience. d. a product of past reinforcement experience.

7. Bandura believed that a. if someone was convinced that he/she couldn’t jump over a two-metre hurdle, he/she wouldn’t

succeed. b. someone may influence their reinforcement experiences. c. if someone was convinced that he/she couldn’t jump over a two-metre hurdle, he/she would still

succeed. d. someone may not influence their reinforcement experiences.

8. Bandura states that a. a person learns indirectly by watching others’ successes and failures and applying this

knowledge to his/her self-expectations. b. a person learns through direct experiences. c. a person learns both through indirect and direct experiences. d. a person learns either through indirect or direct experiences.

5. Behaviourists attempt to explain all behaviour in terms of association, reinforcement and punishment. We could reasonably explain how we learn to ride a bicycle in terms of trial and error: we get on a bike and try a range of activities, persisting with those that work and excluding those that don’t. Can we use this type of explanation for a range of other behaviours?

Try and give a behavioural explanation for the following:


a) learning to swim b) solving a mathematical problem c) painting a picture d) chatting up a boyfriend or girlfriend e) becoming hooked on computer games.

6. Translate into English:

Perspectiva behaviorismului

Originiile behaviorismului se află în ideea filozofică a asociaţionismului. Asociaţionismul, în forma lui cea mai simplă, studiază modul în care se leagă ideile, încercând să descopere „legile” care descriu şi explică comportamentul. (Totuşi, el nu a fost niciodată o „şcoală” – doar un principiu.) Asociaţionismul s-a dezvoltat din mişcarea empiristă britanică (Locke, Berkelez şi Hume), deşi originea acesteia se află în teoriile filozofice ale lui Aristotel. Unii psihologi importanţi au folosit legile asociaţiei pentru a explica unul dintre principiile de bază ale psihologiei – învăţarea.

Ce înseamnă „să înveţi”? Învăţarea este o schimbare de comportament relativ permanentă datorată experienţei. „O schimbare relativ

permanentă” exclude schimbările temporare, cum ar fi boala, oboseala, beţia etc. „Experienţa” exclude schimbările datorate zestrei genetice, maturizării, accidentelor cu urmări permanente etc.


1. Read the following texts about Cognitive psychology and write down the new words.

“As its name implies, the cognitive approach deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving. By emphasizing mental processes, it places itself in opposition to behaviorism, which largely ignores mental processes. Yet, in many ways the development of the cognitive approach, in the early decades of the 20th century, is intertwined with the behaviorist approach. For example, Edwin Tolman, whose work on "cognitive maps" in rats made him a cognitive pioneer, called himself a behaviorist. Similarly, the work of David Krech (aka Ivan Krechevsky) on hypotheses in maze learning was based on behaviorist techniques of observation and measurement. Today, the cognitive approach has overtaken behaviorism in terms of popularity, and is one of the dominant approaches in contemporary psychology.”


“Cognitive psychology concentrates on the mental processes that people use to acquire, store, retrieve and use the knowledge they have about the world. This approach arose as a reaction against the narrow view taken by behaviourists, who concentrated solely on observable behaviour and neglected complex activities like perceiving, remembering and planning.”

(adapted after Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

“Cognitive psychologists explain behaviour in terms of how the mind operates, and the working of the mind is seen as being similar to a machine or computer. The approach looks at the inputs (the stimuli) to the machine and the outputs (what it does), as well as the various processes that occur between input and output. It views these processes as mechanistic.

The metaphor used by the cognitive approach has changed with the development of machine technology. The arrival of the microchip made the information-processing models of the 1950s and 60s redundant and cognitive psychologists now model the human mind on the most complex technology available to date – the computer. Increasingly advanced computers have moved from using parallel processing to using interconnected networks. An interesting feature of such networks is that their behaviour cannot be simply predicted from the behaviour of the individual parts and thus such networks can be seen as example of ‘holism’.

Some of the key concepts of the cognitive approach are mental and perceptual set, schema, stereotypes and social representations.

Behaviourists focused on trial-and-error learning as a way to explain problem-solving. However, ‘Gestalt psychologists’ (in the first half of the 20th century) recognized that there was more to problem-solving than this. They


suggested that problem-solving requires ‘structural understanding’, the ability to understand how all the parts of the problem fit together to meet the goal. A key requirement is the reorganization of the different elements of the problem in such a way that the problem can be solved. However, people often get stuck when they try to solve problems because they cannot change their problem-solving or ‘mental set’ (also called ‘functional fixedness’). Once given a clue, most people solve the problem quite quickly because they break free of their usual way of thinking about it.

The concept of ‘perceptual set’ is similar to mental set. According to constructivist theories, successful perception involves combining sensory information with knowledge based on previous experience. This ‘intelligent perception’ applies, for example, to how you learn to see depth as well as how you interpret the words you read (knowing that ‘read’ is an English word). We have expectations about what we are likely to encounter and this sometimes leads us to make mistakes. When shown the symbols TAI3LE, we tend to read this as ‘table’ because the digits are interpreted as letters because of expectations created by the context, a perceptual set.

Bartlett’s theory of reconstructive memory differed from later information-processing models (e.g. the multi-store model) because it incorporated the influence of expectations or ‘schemas’ on memory. Schemas are knowledge packages which are built through experience with the world and which also embody cultural expectations. Bartlett’s (1932) famous ‘War of the Ghosts’ research showed participant’s recall of unfamiliar information is affected by cultural knowledge.

Other research has explored the effects of stereotypes on memory. Stereotypes are ‘mental short cuts’ that help us process information more quickly but which also lead to errors and prejudices. For example, Cohen (1981) showed how people recalled different information about a woman in a video depending on whether they were told beforehand that the woman was a librarian or a waitress. Such labels conjure up expectations about a person and influence what we ‘see’ and later recall. People tend to remember information that is consistent with stereotypes.

Stereotypes are often communicated through the words we use. For example, using the term ‘chairperson’ instead of ‘chairman’ affects the stereotypes we have about a person in that position. It is questionable as to whether language merely shapes our thinking or actually determines it, e.g. whether people who speak in different languages actually think in different ways because of the language they use. Thinking also affects language.

Social cognition refers to the area of social psychology that is concerned with how people think about other people or groups of people. This field shares many similarities with cognitive psychology (e.g. studying stereotyping), but there is an assumption that the way in which we think about other people (i.e. our social world) differs in important ways to the way in which we think about the physical world. One area of interest is the attribution of causality – seeking explanations for our own behaviour and the behaviour of others. Social behaviour can be explained in terms of attribution theory and biases, and social representations, all of which involve cognitive processes.

Social representations are similar to schemas, but operate at a more collective level and can be used, for example, to explain patterns of health and illness.

Cognitive-behavioural therapies suggest that psychological problems arise because individuals have developed maladaptive ways of thinking. The problem only exists in the way that a person thinks about their problem; in other psychological models, the problem is an entity in itself. In order to treat such disorders, therefore, clients need to be challenged about their maladaptive and irrational thoughts. Ellis (1962) called this ‘faulty thinking’ and developed rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) as a way to help people ‘cure’ themselves. Beck (1963) proposed that depression occurred as a consequence of three kinds of negative thoughts: views about oneself, about the world and about the future (the cognitive triad).

Unfortunately, the abstract concepts used by the cognitive approach are reifications (i.e. attempts to make abstract concepts into a thing) and cannot be demonstrated.

This approach is scientific, which is both a strength and a limitation. Cognitive explanations often ignore social and cultural factors. This is not to say that these variables will affect

all research issues in cognitive psychology, but it is not reasonable to assume they will affect none of them. Cognitive explanations are investigated using laboratory experiments, case studies of brain-damaged individuals

and imaging techniques to relate cognitive processing to brain activity.”

(adapted after Cara Flanagan – Approaches in psychology)

3. Read again the texts from exercise 1 and choose the most appropriate answer (a., b., c., or d.): 1. David Krech’s real name was

a. Ivan b. Ivan Krechevsky c. Ivan Krech d. David Krechevsky

2. … the cognitive psychology and the behaviourist approach are in opposition, their development was intertwined for a period of time.


a. Although b. Hence c. Moreover d. If

3. Edwin Tolman is a. a cognitive pioneer b. a behaviourist pioneer c. a cognitive pioneer, as he himself recognizes d. a behaviourist pioneer, as he himself recognizes

4. The cognitive approach concentrates a. only on observable behaviour b. both on observable behaviour and on the mental processes c. either on observable behaviour and on the mental processes d. only on complex activities

5. People … in order to solve a problem a. always change their mental set b. sometimes change their mental set c. never change their mental set d. don’t change their mental set

6. ‘Functional fixedness’ is another way of expressing a. ‘mental set’ b. ‘clues’ c. ‘structural understanding’ d. ‘reorganization’

7. Problem – solving requires ‘structural understanding’, a. the ability to meet the goals b. some abilities c. the ability to understand the problem d. the ability to understand how all the parts of the problem fit together to meet the goal

8. In order to be successful a perception requires a. sensory information b. knowledge based on previous experience c. both sensory information and knowledge based on previous experience d. either sensory information or knowledge based on previous experience

9. Bartlett’s theory … the influence of expectations or ‘schemas’ on memory. a. embodied b. didn’t comprise c. didn’t include d. dissolved

10. … help us process information more rapidly but this also leads to errors and prejudices. a. Ghosts b. Memories c. Stereotypes d. Mental cuts

11. From the cognitive-behavioural point of view maladaptive ways of thinking and irrational thoughts a. have nothing to do with psychological problems. b. are the source of all psychological problems. c. aren’t the source of all psychological problems. d. have something to do with psychological problems.

12. Beck advanced the idea of a. ‘faulty thinking’. b. REBT. c. a cognitive triad. d. maladaptive thinking.

13. Cognitive explanations are investigated using a. laboratory experiments. b. case studies of brain-damaged individuals. c. imaging techniques to relate cognitive processing to brain activity. d. all of the above are correct.


4. Fill in the gaps in the following text with the words randomly listed below: and, appropriate, as, at, of, relevant, than, that, throughout, through, to, in, of

“No theory … cognitive development has had more impact … that of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget (1970) suggested that children … the world proceed … a series of four stages in a fixed order. He maintained that these stages differ not only … the quantity of information acquired … each stage, but in the quality of knowledge … understanding as well. Taking an interactionist point of view, he suggested …movement from one stage … the next occurred when the child reached an … level of maturation and was exposed to … types of experiences. Without such experiences, children were assumed to be incapable … reaching their highest level of cognitive growth.

Piaget’s four stages are known … the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages.”

(Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

5. Translate into English:

“Cogniţia” înseamnă “gândire" - perceperea, memoria, limbajul, rezolvarea problemelor ş.a.m.d. Perspectiva cognitivă este adesea percepută drept contrariul punctului de vedere radical behaviorist.

În termeni strict istorici, „adevărata” mişcare cognitivă nu a început decât la sfârşitul anilor 1950. totuşi, idei despre importanţa procesului mintal şi despre conştiinţă au existat cu mult înainte – în structuralism şi în funcţionalism, şi mai ales în şcoala Gestalt (Wertheimer, Koffka and Kohler).

Nu există o traducere exactă a termenului Gestalt (de aici păstrarea cuvântului german original), ci una mai largă: „formă”, „model”… cu accentul pus pe „întreg”.

Adepţii psihologiei Gestalt cred că mintea este activă şi în permanentă căutare de sensuri. (adapted after Nigel C. Benson – Câte ceva despre Psihologie)


1. Read the following texts about the Physiological approach and write down the new words.

“The main assumption of the physiological approach is that all behaviour can be explained in terms of bodily activity. Physiological explanations belong under the heading of ‘biological explanations’, i.e. explanations based on the study of living organisms.

Physiological psychology explores human behaviour and experience by looking at people as if they are biological machines. The structure and biochemistry of the nervous system are two important aspects of physiological psychology. However, the real issue is how much our biology affects our behaviour and experience and to what extent other factors intervene.

Bodily activity can be described using a variety of key concepts. It may be helpful to divide these into two of the major systems of the body: the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) which controls the release of hormones. Both of these systems explain how we behave. The CNS provides rapid responses; the ANS is slightly slower and governs behaviours that are largely outside conscious control (they are automatic).

The brain is divided into two hemispheres. Because of the way nerves are connected from the brain to the rest of the body the hemispheres control the side of the body opposite to their location. Some research has suggested that the two hemispheres have different characteristics. For example, the left hemisphere, which usually contains the language centres, is generally more verbal, whereas the right hemisphere is more involved with visuo-spatial processing and emotion. Sperry (1985) proposed that the left hemisphere usually processes information in an analytic or logical fashion, whereas the right hemisphere processes information in a synthetic fashion (holistically). Such suggestions have led to the notion that there are right-brained and left-brained people, those who prefer one style of thinking rather than another – intuitive/creative/subjective (right-brained) or rational/deductive/objective (left-brained).

The brain is also divided into lobes, each associated with different activities. For example, the frontal lobe contains the motor cortex (responsible for fine movement) and the pre-frontal cortex (responsible for forward planning and goal-directed behaviour as well as working memory). The cortex is the thin layer of grey matter that covers the surface of the brain. Deeper inside the brain are many important sub-cortical structures such as the limbic system (the centre for emotions) and the hypothalamus (which regulates the autonomic nervous system). Olds and


Milner (1954) identified a specific region in the hypothalamus (the pleasure centre), which may be used to explain reinforcement – when an animal’s behaviour is reinforced this part of the brain is activated producing a sensation of pleasure. The same sensation can be created by directly stimulating this part of the brain. Many aspects of human behaviour can be explained in terms of such localized areas of the brain. When certain regions of the brain are damaged, they lead to characteristic behaviours.

The last 30 years have seen a dramatic growth in our knowledge about the way that chemicals affect our behaviour and experience. The centre of the action is the synapse, the gap between nerve cells that is bridged by the release and uptake of neurotransmitters. It has been found, for example, that morphine and other opium-based drugs attach themselves to specific receptor sites at some synapses. They are able to do this because they resemble one class of neurotransmitters called ‘endorphins’ (Snyder 1984). Opiates and endorphins block pain pathways.

Other important neurotransmitters include serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). There are a relatively small number of neurotransmitters, but they have a wide range of effects because these effects vary depending on the neuron they are acting on. Low levels of serotonin in the brain lead to abnormal behaviours, such as depression, suicide, impulsive aggression, alcoholism, sexual deviance and explosive rage. High levels of serotonin have been associated with obsessive compulsion, fearfulness, lack of self-confidence and shyness. Dopamine affects brain processes that control movement, emotional response and the ability to experience pleasure and pain. It may be that this link with pleasure explains dopamine’s role in addictions to things such as drugs, sex and chocolate. Dopamine may be ‘the master molecule of addiction’ which creates intense feelings from any enjoyable activity (Volkow et al. 1997). High levels of dopamine have also been linked to hallucinations and schizophrenia.

The ANS has two branches: the parasympathetic division – which governs the resting state; the sympathetic division – which is associated with bodily arousal, when heart rate and blood pressure

increase, fats and carbohydrates are mobilized, and activity in the digestive system slows down. This bodily arousal (‘fight or flight’) takes place when adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced by the adrenal medulla which itself is activated by the hypothalamus. Adrenaline and noradrenaline are hormones as well as neurotransmitters.

The ANS produces its effects through direct neural stimulation or by stimulating the release of hormones from endocrine glands (such as the adrenal and pineal glands). Hormones are biochemical substances which are realised into the bloodstream and have a profound effect on target organs and on behaviour. They are present in very small quantities and individual molecules have a very short life, so their effects quickly disappear if not secreted continuously.

There are a large number of other hormones. For example: - melatonin is released by the pineal gland and acts on the brainstem sleep mechanisms to help synchronize the phases of sleep and activity - testosterone is released in the testicles and may influence aggressiveness - oxytocin is released by the pituitary gland and affects milk production and female orgasms.

Some hormones are released as a response to external stimuli, such as the pineal gland responding to reduced daylight. Other hormones follow a circadian rhythm, with one peak and one trough every 24 hours. For example, levels of cortisol rise about an hour before you wake up and contribute to your feelings of awakeness or arousal.

There are substances similar to hormones, called pheromones, which are released by one individual and affect the behaviour of another individual of the same species.

One way to understand complex behaviours is to break them down to smaller units (reductionism), thus allowing us to discover casual relationships. Rose (1997) suggests that there are many different levels of explanation with the physiological level at the opposite end to the sociological (explaining behaviour in terms of social groups). There are advantages in each level of explanation. However, the problem is knowing which kind of explanation to select. Selecting the wrong level may prevent a truer understanding of behaviour. For example, the use of an anti-depressant to treat depression may miss the real causes of a person’s depression (e.g. a family problem). Thus reductionism has both advantages and disadvantages.

One of the main problems with the ‘lower’ levels of explanation is that they suggest that all behaviour can be reduced to physical activity (the body) and deny the existence of separate mental states (the mind). Ryle (1949) described the mind as nothing more than a ‘ghost in the machine’. Others (e.g. ‘dualists’) believe in separate mental states and the possibility that such mental states can control physical states (and vice versa).

Physiological explanations can explain individual differences, such as differences between men and women and differences due to abnormal development. However, physiological explanations can’t explain why people respond differently to the same drugs, nor why they react differently to stress situations. Nor can they explain cultural differences. In fact, much of the research on human physiology has been conducted with male undergraduates and mistakenly generalized to all people.

A wide variety of methods are used to study physiological explanations, such as laboratory and natural experiments and case studies of brain-damaged individuals. Such methods may involve the use of techniques to measure hormone levels or brain activity. Methods used to investigate brain function can be broadly divided into


invasive (e.g. electrical stimulation, chemical stimulation, ablation, lesioning) and non-invasive techniques (e.g. recording electrical activity, scanning and imaging).”

(adapted after Cara Flanagan – Approaches in psychology)

3. Look through the text and answer the following questions: a) What is the main assumption of the physiological approach? b) How does the physiological approach see people? c) What are the important aspects of the physiological psychology? d) Which are the two major systems of the body? e) Briefly outline the organization of the human brain. f) Describe the effects of two neurotransmitters. g) What are hormones? h) Describe the effects of two hormones. i) Does reductionism applied to the physiological approach have only advantages, only disadvantages, or both

advantages and disadvantages? j) What do ‘lower’ levels of explanation of the physiological approach suggest? k) Can physiological explanations explain why people respond differently to the same input? l) What methods may be used to study physiological explanations?

4. Fill in the gaps in the following text with the words randomly listed below: biological, brain, control, functions, particular, procedure, processes, rate, psychologists, skin, voluntary

‘Biofeedback is a … in which a person learns to …, through conscious thought, internal physiological … such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, … temperature, sweating, and constriction of … muscles. It had traditionally been thought that the heart, respiration …, blood pressure, and other bodily … were under the control of parts of the … over which we have no influence. Yet … are finding that these supposedly involuntary … responses are actually susceptible to … control.’

(Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

5. Reread the text from ex.1 and say if the following statement is true or false. ‘Brain hemispheres control the side of the body they are located on. The left hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the right hemisphere controls the right.’

6. Reread the text from ex.1 and chose the correct answer in order to have a true statement. ‘The chemical connection between two neurons occurs at a gap known as a(n) …’

a) axon. b) terminal button. c) synapse. d) amino acid.

7. Discuss with your colleague the following statement: ‘psychologists should leave the study of neurons and synapses and the nervous system to biologists.’

8. Translate into English:

„Biopsihologia (care se mai numeşte şi psihologia biologică, fiziologică sau neuropsihologie) încearcă să descrie şi să explice comportamentul ăn funcţie de reacţiile nervoase şi chimice la nivelul corpului şi mai cu seamă al creierului.

Biopsihologia a existat încă de la începuturile psihologiei, dezvoltându-se din fiziologie. Progresul biopsihologiei este în strânsă legătură cu noile descoperiri tehnologice prin care poate fi observat şi cercetat corpul uman – începând cu primele microscoape optice şi până la cele mai recente sisteme de scanare.

Deşi nu reprezintă o şcoală, biopsihologia are o tendinţă puternică spre o abordare reducţionistă – „reducând” comportamentul la elementele sale neuronice şi biochimice. Pentru majoritatea biopsihologilor, „gândirea”şi „conştientul” sunt simple activităţi ale creierului. Unii psihologi afirmă (Hebb, Pribram) că psihologia este o ştiinţă biologică.

Interesul biopsihologiei a fost să descopere ce fac diferitele părţi ale creierului, aşa-numita localizare a funcţiilor.”

(adapted after Nigel C. Benson – Câte ceva despre Psihologie)



1. Read the following texts about the Evolutionary Approach and write down the new words.

“The evolutionary approach emphasizes the importance of biological factors. Its starting point is Darwin’s theory of evolution: that processes of natural selection have shaped human behaviour and experience. According to evolutionary psychology, individuals should act to maximize their own and their relatives’ chances of reproducing (called ‘inclusive fitness’). While this approach has become popular in recent years, many people criticize it.”

(adapted from Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

“The biological approach includes both physiological and evolutionary explanations, each of which can be considered as an “approach” in its own right as each has a set of core assumptions and a unique approach to investigating the explanations.

The evolutionary metaphor is that we are just slightly more complex animals, and that our behaviour has developed in the same way that our bodies have. The features that have been most ‘fit’ (adaptive to the environment) have been passed on. The evolutionary account views human behaviour in the context of general animal behaviour. It also explains our behaviour as having a biological cause, and suggests we are what we are because that is the way evolution shaped it, i.e. determined it. The evolutionary account also suggests that differences between people are largely due to genetic variation.

According to Darwin’s (1859) account of evolution, natural selection is the way that species change over time and become increasingly more adapted to their environment, i.e. possess characteristics that promote their survival and reproduction in that environment. The key features of this are: Individuals have unique genetic characteristics (including the way we behave). Some individuals survive and breed while others die before they breed. The genetic characteristics of the survivors are retained. The genetic characteristics of those who do not breed are lost. What this means is that the characteristics that enable some individuals to survive and reproduce are likely to be

passed on to the next generation. The species then develops through a process of selective breeding – ‘selection’ occurs through ‘selective pressures’ exerted by the social and physical environment. Characteristics that do not ‘fit’ the environment are not ‘selected’, and so those that do fit are passively selected. Note that it is the characteristics that are selected, not the individuals or the species.

Darwin recognized that the principle of natural selection could not explain all behaviour. In 1871 Darwin proposed that the force of natural selection is complemented by the force of sexual selection: individuals possess features that make them attractive to the opposite sex or that help them compete with members of the same sex for access to mates. These features mean that the possessor breeds successfully, whereas those individuals without the features are less successful. Thus, traits that are solely concerned with increasing reproductive success are naturally selected and are retained.

The issue of altruism also presents a major problem for the theory of natural selection. Any behaviour that is selfless should not be naturally selected because it does not promote the possessor’s survival. Darwin couldn’t explain this, but sociobiologists (who seek to explain the evolution of social behaviours such as altruism in terms of adaptiveness) have provided an answer. Hamilton (1963) argued that natural selection does not operate directly on individuals but upon their genetic make-up. This means that an individual may pass on their genes to future generations not just by means of their own reproductive success, but also by facilitating the reproductive success of genetic relatives, such as caring for the offspring of close relatives, since they share a significant number of one’s genes. The phrase the ‘selfish gene’ (Dawkins 1976) describes the fact that it is genes that are the driving force behind evolution. Hamilton used the phrase ‘inclusive fitness’ to describe an individual’s own fitness plus their effect on the fitness of any relative.

In 1987 Cosmides and Tooby proposed that human behaviour was not directly related to genes, but that underlying psychological mechanisms or ‘mental modules’ are. These genetically determined modules evolved at some time in our ancestral past in response to the selective pressures operating at that time. Mental modules evolved in the same way that complex physical structures (such as the eye) evolved. This ‘ancestral past’ of behavioural evolution is called the ‘environmental of evolutionary adaptation’ (EEA), which, in terms of human evolution, occurred some 35,000 to 3 million years ago. This approach to understanding human behaviour has been called ‘evolutionary psychology’ – the view that the way to understand a particular behaviour is to understand what natural selection designed it to do.


Evolutionary explanations are determinist and reductionist, difficult to falsify and based on research with non-human animals. On the plus side, evolutionary explanations explore ultimate rather than proximate causes, and thus may lead to more valid ways of treating apparently maladaptive behaviours by understanding their adaptive significance. For example, evolutionary psychiatrists propose that the way to treat depression is to understand the ultimate problem (the individual’s yielding behaviour), rather than focus on the proximate problem (the feeling of being depressed).

The basis of any evolutionary argument is that the target behaviour is inherited. The process of natural selection (and sexual selection and kin selection) applies only to behaviours that have a genetic basis. Therefore, one way to investigate such explanations is to demonstrate whether or not the behaviour has a genetic cause. The most common way to demonstrate genetic cause is through the use of kinship studies – to look at twins, adopted children and their biological and non-biological relatives, or simply to study related individuals. For example, the genetic basis of IQ has been investigated by comparing the IQs of identical twins (it should be the same even when reared apart).

‘Gene mapping’ is a different approach to studying genetic causes. Analysis of chromosomes from different individuals allows researchers to discover the genes certain individuals have in common. So, if one looked at the chromosomes from highly intelligent children and compared these with the genes of less intelligent children, one might discover whether certain genes were present in one group rather than another.

There have also been attempts to conduct field experiments to test the predictions of evolutionary theory, though these invariably involve non-human animals.

It is possible to investigate human behaviour using observational methods. For example, one study by Dunbar (1995) investigated the prediction arising from evolutionary theory that women should seek men with resources and advertise their attractiveness, and vice versa for men.

Human behaviour can also be investigated using surveys – asking people about their preferences or behaviours. Buss (1999) conducted a survey of men and women in 37 different cultures, again finding that the predictions arising from evolutionary theory were supported.

Though observational studies and surveys provide rich data, they are subject to bias (e.g. social desirability bias).”

(adapted after Cara Flanagan – Approaches in psychology)

3. Look through the text and answer the following questions: a) Why are the evolutionary explanations considered as an independent approach? b) What is the evolutionary metaphor? c) How does the evolutionary account explain the human behaviour? d) What is ‘natural selection’ according to Darwin’s theory? e) Name at least two key features of the natural selection. f) Does natural selection imply that some individuals or species are better than others and thus only those

individuals or species are selected? g) Can the principle of natural selection explain all behaviour? h) What is the principle of sexual selection? i) Why is the issue of altruism a major problem for the theory of natural selection? j) In what way is a gene “selfish”? k) Explain what the EEA is. l) How are evolutionary explanations? m) Why may evolutionary explanations lead to better therapies? n) What are the key methods used by the evolutionary approach?

4. Try to use the evolutionary approach to explain some aspect of human behaviour. For example, you might have observed that newborn babies have a very strong grip. If they ever get hold of your hair, you certainly know about it. This gripping behaviour might well have had some advantage when mothers carried young animals around. Those who managed to hold on to her body hair were more likely to survive than those who did not manage to.

What about our anxiety/fear responses, or our delight in dancing, or our pleasure in good food? How might the evolutionary approach attempt to explain why older men marry younger women more often than older women marry younger men? Indeed, could the evolutionary approach explain why people are more disapproving of the latter kind of relationships?

5. Fill in the gaps in the following text with the words randomly listed below: background, behaviour, evolution, heredity, field, influence, inheritance, nervous, psychology, researchers, scientists, system,

‘Why should we care about the evolutionary … of the human nervous …? The answer comes from … working in the area of evolutionary …, the branch of psychology that seeks to identify how … is influenced and produced by our


genetic … from our ancestors. They argue that the course of … is reflected in the structure and functioning of the … system, and that evolutionary factors consequently have a significant … on our everyday behaviour. Their work, and that of other …, has led to the development of a new …: behavioural genetics. Behavioural genetics studies the effects of … on behaviour.’

(Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)


1. Read the following texts about research in psychology and write down the new words.

“The scientific method is the approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest. It consists of three main steps: (1) identifying questions of interest, (2) formulating an explanation, and (3) carrying out research designed to lend support to or refute the explanation.

In using the scientific method, psychologists start with asking questions about the nature and causes of behavior. Once a question has been formulated, the next step in the scientific method involves developing theories to explain the phenomenon that has been observed. Theories are broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest. They provide a framework for understanding the relationships among a set of otherwise unorganized facts or principles.

The next step is to devise a way of testing the theory. To do this, the psychologists need to derive a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested. Hypotheses stem from theories; they help to test the underlying validity of theories.

Research, systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge, is a central ingredient of the scientific method in psychology. It provides the key to understanding the degree to which theories and hypotheses are accurate.

Just as we can develop several theories and hypotheses to explain particular phenomena, so we can use a considerable number of alternative means to carry out research. First, though, the hypothesis must be restated in a way that will allow it to be tested, a procedure known as operationalization. Operationalization is the process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed.

Key research methods include archival research, observation, survey research, experiment, case study, and correlation. The last one may be seen as more a form of measurement rather than a method. Within each method, various techniques can be used, e.g. audio and/or video recording, questionnaires, interviews, tests, measurements, etc.

In archival research, existing records, such as census data, birth certificates, or newspaper clippings, are examined to confirm a hypothesis. It is a relatively inexpensive means of testing a hypothesis, but it has several drawbacks: the data may not be in a form that allows the researcher to test a hypothesis fully; the information may be incomplete or totally missing.”

(adapted after Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

“Observations need to be conducted systematically. They can be made in either laboratories or naturalistic settings. A laboratory is a controlled setting from which many of the complex factors of the real world have been removed. Although laboratories often help researchers gain more control over the behavior of the participants, laboratory studies have been criticized as being artificial. In naturalistic observation, behavior is observed outside of a laboratory, in the so-called real world. The important point to remember about naturalistic observation is that the researcher is passive and simply records what occurs. There is an important drawback: the inability to control any of the factors of interest. Furthermore, if people know that they are being watched, they may alter their reactions, resulting in behavior that is not truly representative of the group in question.

A case study is an in-depth look at an individual. It often is used when unique aspects of a person’s life cannot be duplicated, for either practical or ethical reasons. Although case studies provide dramatic, in-depth portrayals of people’s lives, we need to exercise caution when generalizing from this information. The subject of a case study is unique, with a genetic makeup and experiences no one else shares. In addition, case studies involve judgments of unknown reliability, in that usually no check is made to see if other psychologists agree with the observations.

In correlational research, the goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics. Correlational research is useful because, the more strongly two events are correlated (related or


associated), the more effectively we can predict one from the other. For example, if researchers find that low-involved, permissive parenting is correlated with a child’s lack of self-control, it suggests that low-involved, permissive parenting might be one source of the lack of self-control.

A caution is in order, however. Correlation does not equal causation. The correlational finding just mentioned does not mean that permissive parenting necessarily causes low self-control in children. It could mean that, but it also could mean that a child’s lack of self-control caused the parents to simply throw up their arms in despair and give up trying to control the child. It also could mean that other factors, such as heredity or poverty, caused the correlation between permissive parenting and low self-control in children.

The inability of correlational research to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships is a crucial drawback to its use. There is, however, an alternative technique that does establish causality: the experiment.

Experimental research allows researchers to determine the causes of behavior. They accomplish this task by performing an experiment, a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated and all other factors are held constant. If the behavior under study changes when a factor is manipulated, we say the manipulated factor causes the behavior to change. ‘Cause’ is the event being manipulated. ‘Effect’ is the behavior that changes because of the manipulation.

Experiments involve at least one independent variable and one dependent variable. The independent variable is the manipulated, influential, experimental factor. The label ‘independent’ indicates that this variable can be changed independently of any other factors. The dependent variable is the factor that is measured in an experiment. It can change as the independent variable is manipulated. The label ‘dependent’ is used because this variable depends on what happens to the participants in an experiment as the independent variable is manipulated.

In experiments, the independent variable consists of differing experiences that are given to one or more experimental groups and one or more control groups. An experimental group is a group whose experience is manipulated. A control group is a group that is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor.

Another important principle of experimental research is random assignment, which involves assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance. This practice reduces the likelihood that the experiment’s results will be due to any preexisting differences between the groups.

Psychologists require that findings be replicated, or repeated, using other procedures in other settings, with other groups of participants, before full confidence can be placed in the validity of any single experiment.”

(adapted after John W. Santrock - Children )

“There is no more straightforward way of finding out what people think, feel, and do than asking them directly. For this reason, surveys are an important research method. In survey research, people chosen to represent some larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes. Survey methods have become so sophisticated that even with a very small sample researchers are able to infer with great accuracy how a larger group would respond.

Survey research has several potential drawbacks. For one thing, people may give inaccurate information because of memory lapses or because they don’t want to let the researcher know what they really believe about a particular issue. Moreover, people sometimes offer responses they think the researcher wants to hear – or, in just the opposite instance, responses they assume the researcher doesn’t want to hear. In some cases, unscrupulous pollsters ask biased questions deliberately designed to yield a particular result, for either commercial or political purposes.”

(adapted after Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

3. Match the following forms of research to their definition: 1. Archival research 2. Naturalistic observation 3. Survey research 4. Case study

a) Directly asking a sample of people questions about their behaviour. b) Examining existing records to confirm a hypothesis c) Looking at behaviour in its true setting without intervening in the results d) In-depth investigation of a person or small group.

4. Match each of the following research methods with a problem basic to it: 1. Archival research 2. Naturalistic observation 3. Survey research 4. Case study


a) It may not be able to generalize to the population at large. b) People’s behaviour may change if they know they are being watched. c) The data may not exist or may be unusable. d) People may lie in order to present a good image.

5. Fill in the gaps in the text about basic and/or applied research with the words randomly listed below:

acquire, applied, basic, curiosity, develop, discoveries, distinction, purely, foundation, foresee, fundamental, improve, knowledge, perspective, practical application, practical problems, science, somewhat, strictly

“Basic (also known as … or pure) research is driven by a scientist's … or interest in a scientific question. The main motivation is to expand man's …, not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the … that result from basic research.

Most scientists believe that a …, fundamental understanding of all branches of … is needed in order for progress to take place. In other words, basic research lays down the … for the applied science that follows. As Dr. George Smoot says, "People cannot … the future well enough to predict what's going to … from basic research. If we only did … research, we would still be making better spears."

Applied research is designed to solve … of the modern world, rather than to … knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might say that the goal of the applied scientist is to … the human condition.

The … between basic and applied research isn't always clear. It sometimes depends on your … or point of view. According to Dr. Ashok Gadgil, one way to look at it is to ask the following question: "How long will it be before some … results from the research?"

If a practical use is only a few years away, then the work can be defined as … applied research. If a practical use is still 20-50 years away, then the work is … applied and somewhat basic in nature. If a practical use cannot be envisioned in the foreseeable future, then the work can be described as … basic



6. Translate into English:

„Studierea metodelor de cercetare se numeşte ‘metodologie’. Aceasta are două aspecte: 1) consideraţiile practice asupra metodelor de cercetare ce trebuie folosite şi 2) întrebările filozofice despre natura ştiinţei în sine.

În practică, un psiholog are la dispoziţie cinci metode de cercetare: experimentul, observaţia, sondajul, studiul de caz, corelarea. Cea din urmă poate fi socotită mai degrabă un indicator decât o metodă. În cadrul fiecărei metode pot fi folosite diverse tehnici: înregistrări audio şi/sau video, chestionare, interviuri, teste, măsurări etc.”

(adapted after Nigel C. Benson – Câte ceva despre Psihologie)



1. Read the following texts about personality and write down the new words.

“Psychologists who specialize in personality seek to understand the characteristic ways in which people behave. Personality encompasses the relatively enduring characteristics that differentiate people – those behaviors that make each of us unique. It is also personality that leads us to act in a consistent and predictable manner both in different situations and over extended periods of time.

The broadest and most comprehensive theory is Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, stating that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality. The unconscious is a part of the personality of which a person is not aware, and which is a potential determinant of behavior.

To describe the structure of personality, Freud developed a theory, which held that personality consisted of three separate but interacting components: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the unorganised, inborn part of personality whose purpose is to immediately reduce tensions relating to hunger, sex, aggression, and other primitive impulses. The ego restrains instinctual energy in order to maintain the safety of the individual and to help the person to be a member of society. The superego represents the rights and wrongs of society and consists of the conscience and the ego-ideal.

Freud also provided us with a view of how personality develops throughout a series of stages during childhood. What is especially noteworthy about the sequence he proposed is that it explains how experiences and difficulties during a particular childhood stage may predict specific sorts of idiosyncrasies in adult personality. The theory is also unique in focusing each stage on a major biological function, which Freud assumed to be the focus of pleasure in a given period.

Freud’s stages of personality development are: the oral stage (from birth to 12-18 months), the anal stage (from 12-18 months to 3 years), the phallic stage (from 3 to 5-6 years), the latency stage (from 5-6 years to adolescence), and the genital stage (from adolescence to adulthood).

Other major approaches to personality are: the neo-Freudian psychoanalysts (Jung, Adler, Horney), who built and modified the psychoanalytic theory; the trait approaches, placing labels on personality; the learning theories of personality, concentrating on how environmental factors shape personality; the biological and evolutionary approaches, which focus on the degree to which personality characteristics are inherited; the humanistic theories, which view the core of personality as the ability to change, improve, and be creative in a uniquely human fashion. The major dimensions along which personality theories differ include the role of the unconscious versus the conscious, nature (genetic factors) versus nurture (environmental factors), freedom versus determinism, and stability versus modifiability of personality characteristics.

Some personality psychologists have developed a model of personality known as trait theory (a model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality). Traits are enduring dimensions of personality characteristics along which people differ.

Gordon Allport found three basic categories of traits: cardinal, central, and secondary. A cardinal trait is a single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities. Most people, however, do not develop all-encompassing cardinal traits. Instead, they possess a handful of central traits that make up the core of personality. Central traits, such as honesty and sociability, are the major characteristics of an individual; they usually number from five to ten in any one person. Finally, secondary traits are characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than central or cardinal traits.

Most recent attempts to identify primary traits have centered on a statistical technique known as factor analysis. Factor analysis is a method of summarizing the relationships among a large number of variables into fewer, more general patterns.

Using factor analysis, personality psychologist Raymond Cattell (1965) suggested that the characteristics that can be observed in a given situation represent forty-six surface traits, or clusters of related behaviors. However, such surface traits are based on people’s perceptions and representations of personality; they do not necessarily provide the best description of the underlying personality dimensions that are at the root of all behavior. Carrying out further factor analysis, Cattell found that sixteen source traits represented the basic dimensions of personality. Using these source traits, he developed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, or 16 PF, a measure that provides scores for each of the source traits (reserved / outgoing, less intelligent / more intelligent, affected by feelings / emotionally stable, submissive / dominant, serious / happy-go-lucky, expedient / conscientious, timid / venturesome, tough-


minded / sensitive, trusting / suspicious, practical / imaginative, forthright / shrewd, self-assured / apprehensive, conservative / experimenting, group-dependent / self-sufficient, uncontrolled / controlled, relaxed / tense).

Another trait theorist, psychologist Hans Eysenck also used factor analysis to identify patterns of traits, but he came to a very different conclusion about the nature of personality. He found that personality could best be described in terms of just three major dimensions: extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. The extraversion dimension relates to the degree of sociability, while the neurotic dimension encompasses emotional stability. Finally, psychoticism refers to the degree to which reality is distorted. By evaluating people along these three dimensions, Eysenck has been able to predict behavior accurately in a variety of types of situations. The specific traits associated with each of the dimensions are: sociable, lively, active, assertive, sensation-seeking for extraversion, anxious, depressed, guilt feelings, low self-esteem, tense for neuroticism, aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal and impulsive for psychoticism.

Most contemporary trait theorists argue that five broad trait factors lie at the core of personality. The five factors, which have come to be called the “Big Five”, are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism (emotional stability), and openness to experience. Research conducted in countries as diverse as Canada, Finland, Poland, and the Philippines has helped produce a growing consensus that these five factors represent the best description of personality. Still, the evidence is not conclusive, and the specific number and kinds of traits that are considered fundamental remain a source of debate (and investigation) among trait theorists.

The psychoanalytic and trait approaches we’ve discussed concentrate on the ‘inner’ person – the stormy fury of an unobservable but powerful id or a hypothetical but critical set of traits. In contrast, learning approaches to personality focus on the ‘outer’ person. To a strict learning theorist, personality is simply the sum of learned responses to the external environment.

According to the most influential of the learning theorists, B.F. Skinner, personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns (Skinner, 1975). Similarities in responses across different situations are caused by similar patterns of reinforcement that have been received in such situations in the past. If I am sociable both at parties and at meetings, it is because I have been reinforced previously for displaying social behaviors – not because I am fulfilling some unconscious wish based on experiences during my childhood or because I have an internal trait of sociability.

Strict learning theorists such as Skinner are less interested in the consistencies in behavior across situations, however, than in ways of modifying behavior. Their view is that humans are infinitely changeable. If one is able to control and modify the patterns of reinforcers in a situation, behavior that other theorists would view as stable and unyielding can be changed and ultimately improved. Learning theorists are optimistic in their attitudes about the potential for resolving personal and societal problems through treatment strategies based on learning theory.

Do we inherit our personality? That’s the question raised by biological and evolutionary approaches to personality, which suggest that important components of personality are inherited. Building on the work of behavioural genetics, researchers using biological and evolutionary approaches argue that personality is determined at least in part by particular combinations of genes, in much the same way that our height is largely a result of genetic contributions from our ancestors.

The importance of genetic factors in personality has been illustrated by studies of twins. The results of the personality tests indicated that in major respects the twins were quite similar in personality, despite having been raised apart from an early age. Moreover, certain traits were more influenced by hereditary than others. For example, social potency (the degree to which a person assumes mastery and leadership roles in social situations) and traditionalism (the tendency to follow authority) had particularly strong genetic components, whereas achievement and social closeness had relatively weak genetic components.

Furthermore, it is increasingly clear that the roots of adult personality emerge at the earliest periods of life. Infants are born with a particular temperament, a basic, innate disposition. Temperament encompasses several dimensions, including general activity level and mood. For instance, some individuals are quite active, while others are relatively placid. Similarly, some are relatively easygoing, while others are irritable, easily upset, and difficult to soothe. Temperament is quite consistent, with significant stability from infancy well into adolescence.

Although an increasing number of personality theorists are taking biological and evolutionary factors into account, at the present time no comprehensive, unified theory that considers biological and evolutionary factors is widely accepted. Still, it is clear that certain personality traits have substantial genetic components, and heredity and environment interact to determine personality.

According to humanistic theorists, all of the approaches to personality that we have previously discussed share a fundamental misperception in their views of human nature. Instead of seeing people as controlled by unconscious, unseen forces, a set of stable traits, situational reinforcements and punishments, or inherited factors, humanistic approaches emphasize people’s basic goodness and their tendency to grow to higher levels of functioning. It is this conscious, self-motivated ability to change and improve, along with people’s unique creative impulses, that make up the core of personality.


The major proponent of the humanistic point of view is Carl Rogers. He suggests that people have a need for positive regard that reflects a universal requirement to be loved and respected. Because others provide this positive regard, we grow dependent on them.

According to Rogers, one outgrowth of placing importance on the opinions of others is that there may be a conflict between people’s actual experiences and their self-concepts, or self-impressions. If the discrepancies are minor, so are the consequences. But if they are great, they will lead to psychological disturbances in daily functioning, such as the experience of frequent anxiety.

Rogers suggests that one way of overcoming the discrepancy between experience and self-concept is through the receipt of unconditional positive regard from another person – a friend, a spouse, or a therapist. ‘Unconditional positive regard’ refers to an attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does. This acceptance, says Rogers, allows people the opportunity to evolve and grow both cognitively and emotionally and to develop more realistic self-concepts.

Humanistic approaches have been criticized for making the assumption that people are basically ‘good’ – a notion that is unverifiable – and, equally important, for using non-scientific values to build supposedly scientific theories. Still, humanistic theories have been important in highlighting the uniqueness of human beings and in guiding the development of a significant form of therapy designed to alleviate psychological difficulties.”

(adapted after Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

3. Having read the text from ex.1, match each component of the personality (according to Freud) with its description.

1. ego 2. id 3. superego

a. determines right from wrong on the basis of cultural standards b. operates according to the ‘reality principle’; energy is redirected to integrate the person into society c. seeks to reduce tension brought on by primitive drives

4. Having read the text from ex.1, answer this question: which of the following represents the proper order of personality development according to Freud?

a. oral, phallic, latency, anal, genital b. anal, oral, phallic, genital, latency c. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital d. latency, phallic, anal, genital, oral

5. Having read the text from ex.1, decide whether the information given in the statements below is true (T) or false (F). Correct the false statements.

a) Psychologists who specialize in personality want to understand how people behave. b) Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is exhaustive. c) Jung, Adler, Horney are non-Freudian psychoanalysts. d) The most comprehensive theory is the trait approaches. e) Traits are relatively enduring dimensions along which people’s personalities vary. f) Trait theorists have tried to identify the major traits that characterize personality. g) Learning theories of personality concentrate on how environmental factors shape personality. h) Humanistic theories focus on the degree to which personality characteristics are inherited. i) Humanistic theories view the core of personality as the ability to change, improve, and be creative in a

uniquely human fashion.

6. Which trait theorist used surface traits and source traits to explain behaviour on the basis of sixteen personality dimensions? Read the text from exercise 1 again if necessary.

7. Read again the paragraph about H. Eysenck’s theory and answer this question: A person who enjoys such activities as parties and hang gliding might be described by Eysenck as high on what trait?

8. Proponents of which approach to personality would be most likely to agree with the statement ‘Personality can be thought of as learned responses to a person’s environment’?

a) humanistic approaches b) biological and evolutionary approaches c) learning approaches d) trait approaches

9. Which approach to personality emphasizes the innate goodness of people and their desire to grow?


a) humanistic b) psychoanalytic c) learning d) biological and evolutionary

10. The words nervous, bad-tempered, moody, and anxious are often confused. First read their definitions as given by the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners and then complete the sentences with the most appropriate word.

Nervous adj. feeling excited and worried, or slightly afraid + about; + of Bad-tempered adj. someone who is bad-tempered easily becomes annoyed or angry Moody adj. 1. likely to become unhappy or angry for no particular reason 2. creating a feeling of sadness or

mystery Anxious adj. 1. worried because you think something bad might happen; + about 2. wanting something very much, especially when this makes you nervous, excited, or

impatient; +for

a) Parents who are always shouting are … b) You don’t want to miss your train; you feel … c) Before an interview you may feel … d) Your friend is often cheerful or depressed within a very short time. She is … e) He’s always been a little … of change. f) Tom’s boss is usually very … on Monday morning. g) People are naturally … about these tests. h) Jill admits she’s …, but says it’s because she’s an artist. i) We were all … for peace.

11. Translate into English.

„Carl Rogers (1902-1987) a dezvoltat o teorie a actualizării foarte asemănătoare cu cea a lui Maslow. Şi el punea accentul pe dorinţa înnăscută a omului de a-şi depăşi condiţia. Totuşi, există o diferenţă foarte subtilă între teoriile celor doi psihologi: Rogers considera actualizarea un proces – de aici preferinţa pentru termenul ‘self actualizing’ –, în timp ce Maslow o considera statică, folosind termenul ‘self actualization’.

De asemenea, Rogers considera că educaţia din copilărie, în special rolul mamei, este crucial în determinarea personalităţii adultului. O personalitate sănătoasă derivă dintr-o iubire maternă necondiţionată – dintr-o ‘atenţie pozitivă’ – spre deosebire de o ‘atenţie pozitivă condiţionată’ care limitează dezvoltarea sinelui.

Rogers a dezvoltat o formă de psihoterapie numită terapia concentrată asupra persoanei (sau ‘terapia concentrată asupra clientului’). În esenţă, această teorie constă în faptul că persoana (clientul şi nu ‘pacientul’) este direct răspunzătoare de ameliorarea propriei sale existenţe. Aceasta este o schimbare deliberată în raport cu abordarea psihanalitică şi cea behavioristă şi, în general, cu cele ale medicinei convenţionale în care pacienţii sunt ‘diagnosticaţi’ de un ‘doctor’ sau alt ‘expert’ care le prescrie un ‘tratament’. În terapia lui Rogers terapeutul nu este direct răspunzător de evoluţia clientului. Clientul trebuie să distingă în mod conştient şi raţional binele de rău. Terapeutul e mai mult un confident sau un sfătuitor care ascultă şi încurajează.”

(adapted from Nigel C. Benson – Câte ceva despre Psihologie)



1. Read the following texts about abnormality and write down the new words.

“Intelligence represents a focal point for psychologists intent on understanding how people are able to adapt their behavior to the environment in which they live. It also represents a key aspect of how individuals differ from one another in the way in which they learn about and understand the world.

To psychologists, intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges. But this conception of intelligence is not of much help when it comes to distinguishing, with any degree of precision, more intelligent people from less intelligent ones. To overcome this problem, psychologists who study intelligence have focused much of their attention on the development of batteries of tests, known, quite obviously, as intelligence tests, and have relied on such tests to identify a person’s level of intelligence. These tests have proven to be of great benefit in identifying students in need of special attention in school, in diagnosing cognitive difficulties, and in helping people make optimal education and vocational choices. At the same time, their use has proved quite controversial.

The first intelligence tests followed a simple premise: if performance on certain tasks or test items improved with age, then performance could be used to distinguish more intelligent people from less intelligent ones within a particular age group. Using this principle, Alfred Binet, a French psychologist, devised the first formal intelligence test, which was designed to identify the ‘dullest’ students in the Paris school system in order to provide them with remedial aid.

On the basis of the Binet test, children were assigned a score that corresponded to their mental age, the average age of children taking the test who achieved the same score. For example, if a 9-year-old boy received a score of 45 on the test and this was the average score received by 8-year-olds, his mental age would be considered to be 8 years.

Assigning a mental age to students provided an indication of whether or not they were performing at the same level as their peers. However, it did not allow for adequate comparisons among people of different chronological, or physical, ages.

A solution to the problem came in the form of the intelligence quotient, or (IQ), a score that takes into account an individual’s mental and chronological ages. To calculate an IQ score, the following formula is used, in which MA stands for mental age and CA for chronological age:


As a bit of trial and error with the formula will show you, anyone who has a mental age equal to his or her

chronological age will have an IQ equal to 100. Moreover, people with a mental age that is greater than their chronological age will have IQs that exceed 100.

Although the basic principles behind the calculation of an IQ score still hold, IQ scores are figured in a somewhat different manner today and are known as deviation IQ scores. First, the average test score for everyone of the same age who takes the test is determined, and this average score is assigned an IQ of 100. Then, with the aid of sophisticated mathematical techniques that calculate the differences (or ‘deviations’) between each score and the average, IQ values are assigned to all the other test scores for this age group.

Some of the well-known IQ tests are: the Stanford-Binet Test, fourth edition, administered orally; the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, or more commonly, the WAIS-III, and a children’s version, the

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, or WISC-III. Both the WAIS-III and the WISC-III have two major parts: a verbal scale and a performance – or nonverbal – scale. By providing separate scores, the WAIS-III and WISC-III give a more precise picture of a person’s specific abilities.

Because the Stanford-Binet, WAIS-III, and WISC-III all require individualized administration, it is relatively difficult and time-consuming to administer and score them on a wide-scale basis. Consequently, there are now a number of IQ tests that allow for group administration.

IQ tests are not the only kind of tests. Two other kinds of tests, related to intelligence but designed to measure somewhat different phenomena, are achievement tests and aptitude tests. An achievement test is a test meant to ascertain a person’s level of knowledge in a given subject area. Rather than measuring general ability, as an intelligence test does, an achievement test concentrates on the specific material that a person has learned.

An aptitude test is designed to predict a person’s ability in a particular area or line of work. Most Americans take one of the best-known aptitude tests in the process of pursuing admission to college: the Scholastic Assessment Test


(SAT) and American College Test (ACT). The SAT and ACT are meant to predict how well people will do in college, and the scores have proven over the years to correlate moderately well with college grades.

Although in theory the distinction between intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests can be precisely drawn, as a practical matter there is a good deal of overlap among them. For example, the SAT has been roundly criticized for being less an aptitude test than an achievement test. It is difficult to devise tests that predict future performance but do not rely on past achievement. The makers of the SAT acknowledged this problem several years ago by changing the name of the SAT from its previous ‘Scholastic Aptitude Test’ to the current ‘Scholastic Assessment Test’.

When we use a psychological test, we hope it has reliability – that it measures consistently what it is trying to measure. We need to be sure that each time we administer the test, a test-taker will achieve the same results – assuming that nothing about the person has changed relevant to what is being measured.

A test has validity when it actually measures what it is supposed to measure. Knowing that a test is reliable is no guarantee that it is also valid. On the other hand, if a test is unreliable, it

cannot be valid. Assuming that a test is both valid and reliable, one further step is necessary in order to interpret the meaning of a

particular test-taker’s score: the establishment of norms. Norms are standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one person’s score on the test to the scores of others who have taken the same test.

The basic scheme for developing norms is for test designers to calculate the average score achieved by a particular group of people for whom the test is designed. The test designers can then determine the extent to which each person’s score differs from the scores of the others who have taken the test in the past. Test-takers are then able to consider the meaning of their raw scores relative to the scores of others who have taken the test, giving them a qualitative sense of their performance.

Although Binet’s procedure for measuring intelligence, exemplified by the modern Stanford-Binet and WAIS-III intelligence tests, remains one of the most frequently employed, some theorists argue that it lacks an underlying concept of what intelligence is. To Binet and his followers, intelligence was generally conceived of as a direct reflection of a person’s score on his or her test. That was an eminently practical approach, but it depended not on an understanding of the nature of intelligence but primarily on comparing one person’s performance with that of others. Thus, the intelligence tests of Binet and his successors merely measure behaviour assumed to exemplify intelligence.

This is not to say that researchers and theoreticians have ignored the issue of what intelligence really is. One important question they have raised is whether intelligence is a single, unitary factor, or whether it is made up of multiple components. The earliest psychologists interested in intelligence assumed that there was a general factor for mental ability, called ‘g’, or ‘g-factor’ (Spearman, 1972). This factor was thought to underlie performance on every aspect of intelligence, and it was the g-factor that was presumably being measured on tests of intelligence.

More contemporary theoreticians have suggested that there are really two different kinds of intelligence: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence (Cattell, 1967, 1987). Fluid intelligence reflects reasoning, memory, and information-processing capabilities. If we were asked to solve an analogy, group a series of letters according to some criterion, or to remember a set of numbers, we would be using fluid intelligence.

In contrast, crystallized intelligence is the information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations. We would be likely to rely on crystallized intelligence, for instance, if we were asked to participate in a discussion about the cause of homelessness or to deduce the solution to a mystery. Such tasks allow us to draw upon our own past experiences. The differences between fluid and crystallized intelligence become particularly evident in the elderly, who show declines in fluid, but not crystallized intelligence.

Other theoreticians conceive of intelligence as encompassing even more components. For examples, by examining the talents of people who display unusual abilities in certain areas, psychologist Howard Gardner has suggested that we have multiple intelligences, each relatively independent of the others. Specifically, he considers intelligence to include the following seven spheres:

musical intelligence (skills in tasks involving music); bodily kinesthetic intelligence (skills in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of

problems or in the construction of products or displays, exemplified by dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeons); logical-mathematical intelligence (skills in problem-solving and scientific thinking); linguistic intelligence (skills involved in the production and use of language); spatial intelligence (skills involving spatial configurations, such as those used by artists and architects); interpersonal intelligence (skills in interacting with others, such as sensitivity to the moods,

temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others); intrapersonal intelligence (knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself; access to one’s own feelings and

emotions). Although Gardner illustrates his conception of the specific types of intelligence with descriptions of well-known

people; it is important to remember that each of us theoretically harbors the same kinds of intelligence. Moreover,


although the seven are presented individually, Gardner suggests that these separate intelligences do not operate in isolation. Normally, any activity encompasses several kinds of intelligence working together.

Gardner’s model has led to a number of advances in our understanding of the nature of intelligence. For example, one outgrowth of the model is the development of test items in which more than one answer can be correct, providing the opportunity for test-takers to demonstrate creative thinking. According to these approaches, then, different kinds of intelligence may produce different – but equally valid – responses to the same question.

The most recent contribution to understanding intelligence comes from the work of cognitive psychologists. They examine the processes involved in producing intelligent behavior.

Psychologist Robert Sternberg developed what he calls a triarchic theory of intelligence. The triarchic theory of intelligence suggests that there are three major aspects to intelligence: componential, experiential, and contextual. The componential aspect focuses on the mental components involved in analyzing information to solve problems, particularly those processes operating when a person displays rational behavior. In contrast, the experiential aspect focuses on how a person’s prior experiences affect intelligence, and how those experiences are brought to bear on problems. Finally, the contextual aspect of intelligence takes into account how successful people are in facing the demands of their everyday environment.

Recent approaches to intelligence have focused most heavily on Sternberg’s contextual aspect of intelligence. Several new theories emphasize practical intelligence - intelligence related to overall success in living, rather than to intellectual and academic performance.”

(adapted from Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Having read the text from ex.1, decide whether the information given in the statements below is true (T) or false (F). Correct the false statements.

a) Intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges.

b) The measure of intelligence used in tests is the intelligence quotient, or EQ. c) Alfred Binet, a French psychologist, devised the first informal intelligence test. d) The Stanford-Binet requires individualized administration. e) Tests must be reliable, measuring with consistency what they are trying to measure, and valid, measuring

what is supposed to be measured. f) There are a number of alternative formulations of intelligence. g) All contemporary theoreticians believe there are two different kinds of intelligence: fluid intelligence and

crystallized intelligence. h) Gardner suggests that the seven intelligences he talks about operate only in isolation. i) The triarchic theory of intelligence involves four major aspects to intelligence. j) Cognitive psychologists use an information-processing approach to measure intelligence.

4. In each series of three or four words/expressions given below there is one term that does not belong in the series. Underline the ‘odd’ word and justify your decision, as shown in the following example:

e.g. the Stanford-Binet test, WAIS-III, WISC-III, IQ (IQ is not a test, but the measure of intelligence used in some tests)

a) fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, reliability b) reliability, validity, tests c) physical age, mental age, chronological age d) intelligence tests, intelligence quotient, aptitude tests, achievement tests

5. Fill in the gaps in the following text about emotional intelligence with the words randomly listed below: Intelligence, ability, complement, counts, emotional, empathy, job, measured, on, promotion, researchers,

success, to In his book Emotional …, Daniel Goleman, argues that brainpower as … by IQ actually matters less than

qualities of … like understanding one’s own feelings, … – being sensitive to other people’s feelings – and the … to manage your own emotions. EQ is not the opposite of IQ. What … are trying to understand is how they … each other. Among the ingredients for …, researchers now generally agree that IQ … for about twenty per cent: the rest depends … everything from luck, to social class and … intelligence. In the business world, according … personnel executives, IQ gets you a …, but EQ gets you ….


6. There has been criticism of IQ tests, partly because they only seem to test logical thinking and ignore things like emotional intelligence or practical intelligence. What do you think?



1. Read the following texts about abnormality and write down the new words. “The difficulty in distinguishing normal from abnormal behavior has inspired a diversity of approaches for

devising a precise, scientific definition of ‘abnormal behavior’. Over the years, such approaches have varied considerably. For instance, consider the following definitions: Abnormality as deviation from the average. This statistically based approach views abnormality as deviation

from average behavior. To determine abnormality, we simply observe what behaviors are rare or infrequent in a given society or culture and label these deviations from the norm ‘abnormal’.

Although such a definition may be appropriate in some instances, its drawback is that some behaviors that are statistically rare clearly do not lend themselves to classification as abnormal. If most people prefer to have Corn Flakes for breakfast, but you prefer Raisin Bran, this hardly makes your behavior abnormal. Abnormality as deviation from the ideal. It considers behavior abnormal if it deviates enough from some kind

of ideal or cultural standard. Unfortunately, the definition suffers from even more difficulties than the deviation-from-the-average definition, since society has so few standards about which people agree. Moreover, the standards that do arise tend to change over time, making the deviation-from-the-ideal approach inadequate. Abnormality as a sense of subjective discomfort. One of the most useful definitions of abnormal behavior

concentrates on the psychological consequences of the behavior for the individual. In this approach, behavior is considered abnormal if it produces a sense of distress, anxiety, or guilt in an individual – or if it is harmful to others in some way. But even such a definition, that relies on subjective discomfort has its drawbacks, for in some particularly severe forms of mental disturbance, people report feeling euphoric and on top of the world, even though their behavior seems bizarre to others. In this case, then, there is a subjective state of well-being, yet the behavior is within the realm of what most people would consider abnormal. This discrepancy suggests that a definition of abnormality that does not consider people’s ability to function effectively is inadequate. Abnormality as the inability to function effectively. According to this view of abnormality, people who are

unable to function effectively and adapt to the demands of society are considered abnormal. For example, an unemployed, homeless woman living on the street might be considered unable to function effectively. Therefore her behavior would be viewed as abnormal, even if she had made the choice to live in this particular fashion. Her inability to adapt to the requirements of society is what makes her ‘abnormal’, according to this approach. Abnormality as a legal concept. To the judicial system, the distinction between normal and abnormal

behavior rests on the definition of ‘insanity’, which is a legal, but not a psychological, term. The definition of insanity varies from one jurisdiction to another. In some states, insanity simply means that defendants cannot understand the difference between right and wrong at the time they commit a criminal act. Other states consider whether defendants are substantially incapable of understanding the criminality of their behavior or unable to control themselves. And in other jurisdictions pleas of insanity are not allowed at all. Clearly, there is no commonly accepted legal definition of insanity, which creates a confusing judicial situation.

Clearly, none of the previous definitions is broad enough to cover all instances of abnormal behavior. Consequently, the distinction between normal and abnormal behavior often remains ambiguous even to trained professionals. Furthermore, the label ‘abnormal behavior’ is influenced to a large extent by cultural expectations for ‘normal’ behavior in a particular society.

For much of the past, abnormal behavior was linked to superstition and witchcraft. Contemporary approaches take a more enlightened view, and six major perspectives on abnormal behavior predominate: the medical model, the psychoanalytic model, the behavioral model, the cognitive model, the humanistic model, and the sociocultural model. These models suggest not only different causes of abnormal behavior but different treatment approaches as well.

The Medical Model

The medical model of abnormality suggests that when an individual displays symptoms of abnormal behavior, the root cause will be found in a physical examination of the individual, which may reveal a hormonal imbalance, a chemical deficiency, or a brain injury.

The Psychoanalytic Model

The psychoanalytic model of abnormality holds that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression. More than any other approach to abnormal behavior, this model


highlights the fact that people can have a rich, involved inner life and that prior experiences can have a profound effect on current psychological functioning.

The Behavioral Model

The behavioral model of abnormality looks at the behavior itself as the problem. Using the principles of learning, behavioral theorists see both normal and abnormal behaviors as responses to a set of stimuli, responses that have been learned through past experiences and that are guided in the present by stimuli in the individual’s environment. To explain why abnormal behavior occurs, one must analyze how an abnormal behavior has been learned and observe the circumstances in which it is displayed.

The Cognitive Model

Rather than considering only external behavior, as in traditional behavioral approaches, the cognitive approach assumes that cognitions (people’s thoughts and beliefs) are central to a person’s abnormal behavior. A primary goal of treatment using the cognitive model is to explicitly teach new, more adaptive ways of thinking.

The Humanistic Model

Psychologists who subscribe to the humanistic model of abnormality emphasize the control and responsibility that people have for their own behavior, even when such behavior is abnormal. The humanistic model of abnormality concentrates on what is uniquely human, viewing people as basically rational, oriented toward a social world, and motivated to get along with others.

Humanistic approaches focus on the relationship of the individual to society, considering the ways in which people view themselves in relation to others and see their place in the world. People are viewed as having an awareness of life and of themselves that leads them to search for meaning and self-worth. Rather than assuming that a ‘cure’ is required, the humanistic model suggests that individuals can, by and large, set their own limits of what is acceptable behavior. As long as they are not hurting others and do not feel personal distress, people should be free to choose the behaviors they engage in.

The Sociocultural Model

The sociocultural model of abnormality makes the assumption that people’s behavior – both normal and abnormal – is shaped by the kind of family group, society, and culture in which they live. According to this view, the nature of one’s relationships with others may support abnormal behaviors and even cause them to occur. Consequently, the kinds of stresses and conflicts people experiences as part of their daily interactions with others in their environment can promote and maintain abnormal behavior.

Sociocultural explanations provide relatively little in the way of direct guidance for the treatment of individuals showing mental disturbance, since the focus is on broader societal factors.

Classifying Abnormal Behavior

Over the years many different classification systems have been used, varying in terms of their utility and how universally they have been accepted by mental health workers. Today, however, one standard system, devised by the American Psychiatric Association, has emerged; it is employed by most professionals to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior. The classification system is known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV).

Published in 1994, DSM-IV presents comprehensive and relatively precise definitions for more than 200 separate diagnostic categories. By following the criteria presented in the system, diagnosticians can clearly describe the specific problem an individual is experiencing.

DSM-IV evaluates behavior according to five separate dimensions, or axes. The first three axes assess the primary disorders; the nature of any longstanding personality problems in adults or any specific developmental problems in children and adolescents that may be relevant to treatment; and any physical disorders or illnesses that may also be present. The fourth and fifth axes take broader considerations into account. They focus on the severity of stressors present and on the person’s general level of functioning over the past year in social relationships, work, and the use of leisure time.

One noteworthy feature of DSM-IV is that it is designed to be primarily descriptive and devoid of suggestions as to the underlying causes of an individual’s behavior and problems.

Like any classification system, DSM-IV has its drawbacks. For instance, critics charge that it relies too much on the medical model of psychological disorder. Because it was drawn up by psychiatrists – who are physicians – some condemn it for viewing abnormal behaviors primarily in terms of symptoms of some underlying physiological


disorder. Moreover, other critics suggest that DSM-IV pigeonholes people into inflexible categories, and that it would be more reasonable to use systems that classify people in terms of gradations.

Still, despite the drawbacks inherent in any labeling system, DSM-IV has had an important influence on the way in which mental health professionals consider psychological disorders. It has increased both the reliability and validity of diagnostic categorization.”

(adapted from Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Choose the appropriate choice (a., b., c., or d.) in order to complete a statement or answer a question. You may find useful to read again the texts from exercise 1.

1. One problem in defining abnormal behaviour is that a. statistically rare behaviour may not be abnormal. b. not all abnormalities are accompanied by feelings of discomfort. c. cultural standards are too general to use as a measuring tool. d. all of the above are correct.

2. The distinction between normal and abnormal behavior a. is never ambiguous to trained professionals. b. can be discovered very easily by trained professionals. c. often remains ambiguous even to trained professionals. d. doesn’t remain ambiguous to trained professionals.

3. Which of the following is a strong argument against the medical model? a. Physiological abnormalities are almost always impossible to identify. b. There is no conclusive way to link past experience and behaviour. c. The medical model rests too heavily on the effects of nutrition. d. Assigning behaviour to a physical problem takes responsibility away from the individual for

changing his/her behaviour.

4. The medical model of abnormality suggests that a. biological causes are at the root of abnormal behaviour. b. abnormal behaviour stems from childhood conflicts. c. abnormal behaviour is a learned response. d. people’s thoughts and beliefs are central to abnormal behaviour.

5. The psychoanalytic model of abnormality suggests that a. biological causes are at the root of abnormal behaviour. b. abnormal behaviour stems from childhood conflicts. c. abnormal behaviour is a learned response. d. people’s thoughts and beliefs are central to abnormal behaviour.

6. The behavioral model of abnormality suggests that a. biological causes are at the root of abnormal behaviour. b. abnormal behaviour stems from childhood conflicts. c. abnormal behaviour is a learned response. d. people’s thoughts and beliefs are central to abnormal behaviour.

7. Cheryl is painfully shy. According to the behavioural model, the best way to deal with her ‘abnormal’ behaviour is to

a. treat the underlying physical problem. b. use the principles of learning theory to modify her shy behaviour. c. express a great deal of caring. d. uncover her negative past experiences through hypnosis.

8. The humanistic model of abnormality emphasizes a. biological causes of abnormal behaviour. b. the childhood conflicts. c. people’s control and responsibility for their own behaviour. d. people’s thoughts and beliefs.

9. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition has been used


a. for 1994 years. b. since 1994. c. since the beginning of the American Psychiatric Association. d. for more than 200 years.

10. DSM –IV is intended a. both to describe psychological disorders and to suggest their underlying causes. b. to be descriptive only. c. to suggest the underlying causes of the psychological disorders only. d. either to describe psychological disorders or to suggest their underlying causes.

4. Discuss with your colleague the following situation:

‘If abnormality is defined as experiencing subjective discomfort or causing harm to others, which of the following people is most likely to need treatment? a. An executive is afraid to accept a promotion because it would require moving from his ground-floor office to the top floor of a tall office building. b. A woman quits her job and chooses to live on the street. c. A man believes that friendly spacemen visit his house every Thursday. d. A photographer lives with nineteen cats in a small apartment.

5. Discuss with your colleague the following situation: ‘Virginia’s mother thinks that Virginia’s behaviour is clearly abnormal because, despite being offered admission to medical school, she decides to become a waitress. What approach is Virginia’s mother using to define abnormal behaviour?’

6. Imagine that an acquaintance of yours was recently arrested for shoplifting a $ 15 necktie. What sort of explanation for this behaviour would be provided by proponents of each model of abnormality, including the medical model, the psychoanalytic model, the behavioural model, the cognitive model, the humanistic model, and the sociocultural model?

7. Fill in the gaps in the following text about Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) with the words randomly listed below:

above, altered, as, away, be, disorders, distinguishes, from, identities, in, personal, recall, why Dissociative … consist of a cluster of problems that involve changes in a person’s … memory, sense of identity

or consciousness. Individuals suffering … a dissociative disorder may take on a new identity and wander … from their home for a period of time.

The DSM-IV-TR … four major sub-types of dissociative disorders: 1. dissociative amnesia – where individuals are unable to … important personal information; 2. dissociative fugue – a dreamlike, … state of consciousness; 3. Dissociative Identity Disorder – two or more separate … appear to inhabit an individual’s mind; 4. depersonalisation disorder – where a person’s self-perception is altered … a disconcerting way.

All of the …, except depersonalisation disorder, involve important personal events that cannot … recalled or where one’s current identity is lost. This is … Multiple-Personality Disorder is now called Dissociative Identity Disorder in the DSM-IV-TR, … it signals the commonalities with other conditions.

8. Translate into English: “Problemele ca depresia sau anxietatea sunt clasificate drept dereglări psihologice deoarece afectează nefavorabil

funcţionarea normală. Totuşi, în termeni pur statistici, ele nu sunt foarte neobişnuite. Angst (1992), de exemplu, a descoperit că unul dint 20 de americani suferă de depresie severă şi că există o şansă din zece de a avea un episod deprimant serious cel puţin o dată în viaţă. Un studiu pe scară largă întreprins în 48 de state din SUA şi publicat de Kessler et al. (1994) relatează că 48 la sută dintre persoanele cuprinse în studiu au suferit de cel puţin o dereglare psihologică într-un anumit moment din viaţa lor.” (adapted from Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)



1. Read the following texts about social psychology and write down the new words. “Gordon Allport, one of the influential figures in social psychology, provided in 1985 a definition of the field that

captures its essence. He stated that social psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods in ‘an attempt to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others’.

Serge Moscovici, a well-known French social psychologist, has characterized social psychology as a ‘bridge’ between other branches of knowledge. By a bridge, he means that social psychology draws on the insights of sociology, anthropology, political science, economics, and biology to gain a better understanding of how the individual fits into the larger social system.

There actually are two scientific disciplines known as social psychology, one in psychology and the other in sociology. As Edward Jones (1998) points out in the Handbook of Social Psychology, the larger of the two is the psychological branch. Although both disciplines study social behavior, they do so from different perspectives.

The central focus of psychological social psychology tends to be on the individual and how she or he responds to social stimuli. Variations in behavior are believed to be due to people’s interpretation of social stimuli or differences in their personalities and temperament. Even when psychological social psychologists study group dynamics, they tend to explain these processes at the individual level. The definition of social psychology in this text reflects the psychological perspective.

In contrast, sociological social psychology focuses on larger group or social variables, such as people’s socio-economic status, their social roles, and cultural norms (Stryker, 1997). Therefore, sociological social psychologists are more interested in providing explanations for such societal-based problems as poverty, crime, and deviance. Table 1.1 contrasts the two branches of social psychology.

As a scientific discipline, social psychology is only a hundred years old, with most of the growth occurring during the past five decades. By most standards, social psychology is a relatively young science.

The person generally credited with having conducted the first empirical social psychological study was an American psychologist at Indiana University, Norman Triplett. In 1895 Triplett asked the following question: ‘How does a person’s performance of a task change when other people are present?’

In this study, he asked children to quickly wind line on a fishing reel either alone or in the presence of other children performing the same task. As he predicted, the children wound the line faster when in the presence of other children. Published in 1898, this study is credited with introducing the all-important experimental method into the social science.

Although Triplett is given credit for conducting the first social psychological study, he did nothing to establish social psychology as a distinct subfield of psychology. Credit for this achievement goes to the first authors of textbooks bearing that title, namely, English psychologist William McDougall and American sociologist Edward Ross, who each published separate texts in 1908.consistent with the contemporary perspective in psychological social psychology, McDougall considered the individual to be the principal unit of analysis in this new science, while Ross, true to the contemporary sociological social psychology perspective, highlighted groups.

Despite the inauguration of this new subfield within psychology and sociology, social psychology still lacked a distinct identity. In 1924, Floyd H. Allport (older brother of Gordon Allport) published Social Psychology, a book that demonstrated how carefully conducted research could provide valuable insights into a wide range of social behaviors.”

“To understand social behavior, social psychologists use a number of organizing principles. Interactionism studies the combined effects of both the situation and the person on human behavior. Social psychologists have also developed theories to explain how the self functions in the social world. In recent years, the self has become an important research topic, ranking second only to the study of attitudes (Ashmore & Jussim, 1997). As selves, we not only have the ability to communicate with others through the use of symbols, but we also reflect on our thoughts and actions. The way we think of ourselves (our self-concept) influences social behavior (Baumeister, 1998). Self-concept, however, does not developed in a social vacuum – it is based on group membership as well as on more unique personal qualities (Turner, 1985). So, the self is shaped by – and shapes – the social environment.

Recently, researchers have become more attentive to the impact that culture has on social behavior. By culture we understand the total lifestyle of a people, including all the ideas, symbols, preferences, and material objects that they share. This cultural experience will shape their view of reality, and thus, significantly influence their social behavior (Markus et al., 1996).

The values and beliefs of any culture are subsumed under a larger social construction called an ideology. An ideology is a set of beliefs and values held by the members of a social group, which explains its culture both to itself


and to other groups. These beliefs and values produce a psychological reality that promotes a particular way of life within the culture (Giddens, 1981). Put more simply, an ideology is the theory that a social group has about itself. Thus, just as we have a theory about ourselves (self-concept) that guides our behavior, so too does a society (ideology).

Directly related to our understanding of social behavior are the cultural belief systems concerning how the individual relates to her or his group, namely individualism and collectivism (Miller & Prentice, 1994; Tower et al., 1997). Individualism is a philosophy of life stressing the priority of individual needs over group needs, a preference for loosely knit social relationships, and a desire to be relatively autonomous of others’ influence. This belief system asserts that society is a collection of unique individuals who pursue their own goals and interests and strive to be relatively free from the influence of others (Bhargava, 1992). Collectivism is a philosophy of life stressing the priority of group needs over individual needs, a preference for tightly knit social relationships, and a willingness to submit to the influence of one’s group. This belief system asserts that people become human only when they are integrated into a group, not isolated from it. Approximately 70 percent of the world’s population live in cultures with a collectivist orientation (Singelis et al., 1995).

Because the focus of mainstream social psychology involves the relationship between the individual and his or her social group, the cultural variables of individualism and collectivism have been particularly helpful in better understanding cultural differences. Table 1.2 lists some of the differences between these two cultural ideologies. Currently, individualism and collectivism are considered by the majority of cross-cultural researchers to be two ends of a continuum, with the United States, Canada, Australia, and Western European societies located more toward the individualist end, and Asian, African, and Latin and South American nations situated near the collectivist end. Within both individualist and collectivist cultures, individualist tendencies tend to be stronger in urban settings, while collectivist tendencies are more pronounced in rural settings (Ma & Schoeneman, 1997).

In addition, throughout the history of social psychology there has been a running debate concerning whether human behavior is principally influenced by cognition (the ‘cold’ perspective) or affect (the ‘hot’ approach). Followers of the ‘cold’ approach assert that how people think will ultimately determine what they want and how they feel (Lazarus, 1984). The alternative viewpoint is that people are moved to act due to their needs, desires, and emotions. Social psychologists subscribing to this ‘hot’ approach argue that cool, calculated planning of behavior is secondary to heated action that fulfills desires (Zajonc, 1984). Many social psychological theories can be identified as emphasizing one perspective over the other.” Table 1.1

Two Social Psychologies

Psychological Social Psychology

Sociological Social Psychology

The central focus is on the individual.

The central focus is on the group or society.

Researchers attempt to understand social behavior by analyzing immediate stimuli, psychological states, and personality traits.

Researchers attempt to understand social behavior by analyzing societal variables, such as social status, social roles, and social norms.

Experimentation is the primary research method, followed by surveys.

Surveys and participant observation are the primary research methods, followed by experimentation.

The main scientific journal in the field is the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

The main scientific journal in the field is Social Psychology Quarterly.

Table 1.2.

Differences Between Collectivist and Individualist Cultures

Collectivist Individualist Identity is based in the social system and given by one’s

Identity is based in the individual and achieved by one’s


group. own striving. People are socialized to be emotionally dependent on organizations and institutions.

People are socialized to be emotionally independent of organizations and institutions.

Personal and group goals are generally consistent, and when inconsistent, group goals get priority.

Personal and group goals are often inconsistent, and when inconsistent, personal goals get priority.

People explain others’ social behavior as being more determined by social norms and roles than by personal attitudes.

People explain others’ social behavior as being more determined by personal attitudes than by social norms and roles.

Emphasis is on belonging to organizations, and membership is the ideal.

Emphasis is on individual initiative, individual achievement, and leadership is the ideal.

Trust is placed in group decisions.

Trust is placed in individual decisions.

(adapted after Stephen L. Franzoi – Social Psychology)

2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Look through the text and answer the following questions: a) What is social psychology? b) What does Moscovici S. mean by calling social psychology a ‘bridge’ between other branches of

knowledge? c) Is psychological social psychology the same scientific discipline as the sociological social psychology? d) What does psychological social psychology focus on? e) What does sociological social psychology focus on? f) Who is considered to have conducted the first empirical social psychological study? g) Who established social psychology as a distinct subfield of psychology? h) Does the self-concept influence social behavior? i) What is culture? j) Does cultural experience shape an individual’s view of reality? How? k) What does an ideology produce at the level of society? l) Outline the differences between collectivist and individualist cultures.

4. Please rank the following twelve individualist - collectivist values in their order of importance to you, with ‘1’ being the ‘most important’ and ‘12’ being the least important.

Pleasure (Gratification of Desires)

Honor of Parents and Elders (Showing Respect)

Creativity (Uniqueness, Imagination)

Social Order (Stability of Society)

A Varied Life (Filled with Challenge, Novelty and Change)

National Security (Protection of my Nation from Enemies)

Being Daring (Seeking Adventure, Risk)

Self-discipline (Self-restraint, Resistance to Temptation)

Freedom (Freedom of Action and Thought)

Politeness (Courtesy, Good Manners)

Independence (Self-reliance, Choice of own Goals)

Obedience (Fulfilling Duties, Meeting Obligations)


Which of the two cultural belief systems is predominant in your own values hierarchy?

5. Canada is an example of a society with diverse cultures, such as the French-speaking province of Quebec. Think about your own upbringing. Do different cultural ideologies influence your own view of the world?

6. Fill in the gaps in the following text about stereotypes with the words randomly listed below:

activation, and, back, because, each, habits, less, of, on, particular, represented, social, stereotype, stereotyping

“The notion of stereotypes can be traced … to Lippmann (1922), who believed that these ‘pictures in the head’ … an ‘ordered, more or … consistent picture … the world, to which our …, our tastes, our capacities, our comforts, … our hopes have adjusted themselves.’

A … is a mental representation of a … group and its members. Research … stereotypes has helped us to understand how different groups see … other, e.g. the ‘humourless German’ or the ‘mean Scot’. Stereotypes and … are of interest to social psychologists … stereotypes are frequently and easily activated, and this …. influences how we react to group members – in … members of disliked groups.”

(adapted from Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

7. Translate into English:

“Psihologia socială include studiul cu privire la relaţiile interpersonale (perceperea celorlalţi, atracţia), personalităţi (tipurile, părerea de sine, atitudinile) şi comportamentul de grup (conformarea, obedienţa).

Relaţiile interpersonale pot depinde de relaţiile cheie formate în copilărie şi adolescenţă. Perceperea celorlalţi se bazează adesea pe caracteristicile cheie pe care le atribuim celorlalţi. Asch (1946) şi

Kelley (1950) au descoperit că urmărim de fapt „trăsăturile definitorii centrale” (spre deosebire de „trăsăturile periferice”), de exemplu o persoană „caldă”, generoasă, plină de umor, sociabilă; sau opusul ei, o persoană „rece”. Atunci când generalizăm trăsăturile centrale ale unei persoane, se produce un efect de halo. De exemplu, cineva care este perceput a fi „rău” ne va displace indiferent ce ar face!

Atitudinile sunt cele care stau la baza psihologiei sociale. S-au făcut multe studii, mai ales asupra schimbărilor de atittudine pentru deţinerea controlului social (propaganda de război, campaniile politice, sănătatea şi siguranţa), dar şi în cazul reclamelor. O atitudine poate avea trei aspecte: cognitivă – convingerile (de exemplu, „Fumatul este o cauză majoră a cancerului.”), afectivă – sentimentele (de exemplu, „Urăsc mirosul de ţigări.”), comportamentală – felul de a acţiona (de exemplu, „Mănânc doar în restaurantele pentru nefumători.”). Schimbarea atitudinii poate fi obţinută acţionând asupra tuturor celor trei aspecte, mai ales în cazul componentei afective (Janis & Feshbach, 1953).

Comportamentul de grup: există câteva distincţii între conformare (influenţa unui grup) şi obedienţă (directive primite din partea unei persoane). Asch (1951) a descoperit că un grup mic de oameni poate influenţa o persoană să fie de acord cu ceva incorect aproximativ în 1/3 din cazuri fiind întotdeauna de acord şi aproximativ în 3/4 din cazuri fiind cel puţin o dată. Printre motivele invocate: „n-am vrut să creez încurcături...”, „n-am vrut să fiu altfel...”, „n-am vrut să greşesc...”.

(adapted after Nigel C. Benson – Câte ceva despre Psihologie)

Scoring: the individualist and collectivist values are listed in alternating order, with the first (Pleasure) being an individualist value and the second (Honor of Parents and Elders) being a collectivist value. People from individualist cultures tend to have more individualist values than collectivist values in the upper half of their values hierarchy. This order tends to be reversed for those from collectivist cultures.



1. Read the following texts about The British Psychological Society and write down the new words.

“With over 40,000 members, The British Psychological Society (BPS) is the representative body for psychologist and psychology in the UK. It has a central contribution to make to all aspects of public life, in areas such as education, health, the economy, industry and social justice.

By its Royal Charter the Society is charged with national responsibility for the development, promotion and application of psychology for the public good. The BPS’s three major aims are: to encourage the development of psychology as a scientific discipline and an applied profession; to raise standards of training and practice in the application of psychology; to raise public awareness of psychology and increase the influence of psychological practice in society.

History of the British Psychological Society

The Psychological Society was founded on October 24 1901 at University College London. Its aim was 'to

advance scientific psychological research, and to further the co-operation of investigators in the various branches of Psychology.' The ten founders resolved 'that only those who are recognised teachers in some branch of psychology or who have published work of recognisable value be eligible as members'. As the Society's first historian later recalled, the change of name to The British Psychological Society in 1906 'was not due to any sudden uprising of imperial pride, but to the fact that members had discovered another body of persons who were using the former title. To prevent confusion with this unacademic group the change in title was agreed to.' (Edgell, 1947).

Membership increased steadily until the First World War. Upon his return from serving in the Royal Army Medical Corps in November 1918, the then editor of the British Journal of Psychology initiated changes that would have revolutionary consequences for British psychology. An advisor to the Journal since its creation by James Ward and W.H.R. Rivers in 1904, Charles Myers had become its sole editor in 1914, the year in which it was acquired by the British Psychological Society.

Myers suggested that the Society should support sections for specialised aspects of applied psychology, noting that medical, industrial and educational psychology groups were already moving to establish separate organizations. Following the acceptance of his proposal that anyone merely 'interested in psychology' (not just recognised scholars or teachers) should be allowed to join, by the end of 1920 membership had increased to over 600. Myers was duly elected the Society's first President. Although the 1919 reforms brought 'a welcome release from the genteel penury of the past' (Lovie, 2001), they also initiated a long-running debate between the Society's professional and scientific constituencies. As the century continued, opportunities increased for psychologists working in more areas of life, including health, education, work and the law. The Society restructured a number of times, forming various Divisions, Boards, committees and sub-systems to accommodate members' many interests.

A register of professional psychologists was set up in the 1930s. The Society was incorporated in 1941. The Quarterly Bulletin of the British Psychological Society was launched in 1948. Its editor was Frederick Laws, a journalist with the News Chronicle.

Membership of the British Psychological Society stood at 1,897 in 1950, rising only to 2,655 in 1960. By 1982 the Society had a membership of more than 10,000. It now stands at over 43,000.

The Society was granted a Royal Charter in 1965. The British Psychological Society has been authorised by the Crown to set up and run the Register of Chartered Psychologists. On December 18, 1987, at Buckingham Palace, the Queen granted amendments to the Charter, thereby allowing the Society to maintain a Register of Chartered Psychologists.

The title 'Chartered Psychologist' is legally recognised and before admission individuals must: have a recognised first degree in Psychology have recognised postgraduate qualifications, or have undergone approved postgraduate training and supervision have been judged 'fit to practise' independently, and have agreed to follow a strict Code of Conduct and be answerable to a disciplinary system, in which non-

psychologists form the majority.


Copies of the Register and it's sister publication The Directory of Chartered Psychologists, which lists those Chartered Psychologists available to the public, are widely available in main public reference libraries.

Reforms during the last few years have radically altered the organizational structure once again. The Society's main administrative offices had moved to Leicester in the 1970s. With the purchase of additional offices in London in 2000, the British Psychological Society symbolically returned to the city in which it was founded almost a century before.

(adapted after ‘The Short History of the British Psychological Society’ by Dr. Geoff Bunn, BPS Research Fellow at the Science Museum)

Organisation and Governance of the British Psychological Society

The supreme body of the Society is the Annual General Meeting (AGM) of members which is held during the

Society's Annual Conference. The AGM formally receives and ratifies the Society's Annual Report, including the Accounts; it also formally ratifies the election of Honorary Officers and members directly elected to the Society's main Boards.

Under the AGM is the Board of Trustees. This body has both an executive function and ensures that the Society complies and conforms to the terms of its Royal Charter and its status under law as a charitable body. Some members of the Board of Trustees are directly elected by the Society's Representative Council.

The Society has six main Boards with specific delegated responsibility. They are: Membership and Professional Training Board (MPTB) (accredits both undergraduate and postgraduate

professional training courses; oversees the various Society examinations; advises on matters pertaining to membership of the Society, Chartered Psychologist status, the awarding of Fellowships and related matters; is also involved in developing procedures for monitoring the continuing professional development of professional psychologists.) Professional Conduct Board (PCB - formerly known as the Disciplinary Board) Publications and Communications Board (P&CB) (is responsible for the Society's internal and external

communications. Its role is to take a strategic overview and advise Council on specifically Journals, The Psychologist, and the Society's media operation as well as the Society's range of informational booklets.) Psychology of Education Board (PEB) (was set up to deal with issues pertaining to psychology education up

to and including the Graduate Basis for Registration (GBR). The inaugural meeting was held in October 2002 and since then, many issues have been identified for the PEB to work on. The recent developments in Higher Education (HE) policy have highlighted an important role for the PEB. Its sub-committees include the Graduate Qualification Accreditation Committee (GQAC), The BPS/Psychological Society of Ireland Joint Working Group for the Mutual Accreditation of Undergraduate Degrees (MAUD), The Standing Committee for the Teaching of Psychology to other Professional Groups (TOPTOP) and the Joint Association of Heads of Psychology Departments (AHPD) and BPS Working Party for Redrafting of Society Guidelines for External Examiners.) Professional Practice Board (PPB) (aims, in general terms, to promote, develop and enhance professional

practice in applied psychology. The Board reports to and advises Council on applied research, policy, the submission of evidence to public or private bodies and other matters relating to the application of psychological science. It provides a forum for debate and for collaborative work and the cross-fertilisation of ideas. The Professional Practice Board itself meets about five times per year. It also appoints a number of Standing Committees to carry out the day-to-day aspects of its work, such as the Steering Committee on Test Standards, and a number of Working Parties to produce reports or provide advice or guidelines on particular professional issues. The Board also has a vital role in maintaining links with other organisations with similar interests in order to further the objects of the Society and in educating the purchasers of psychological services about the skills and competencies of applied psychologists.) Research Board (RB) The Chair of each of these six Boards is a member of the Board of Trustees. Each Board is empowered to set up sub committees and working parties as required. The Society also has a series of subsystems called: branches (in England: The South West England Branch, The Wessex & Wight Branch, The North West of

England Branch, The North East of England Branch, The West Midlands Branch; in Scotland: The Scottish Branch; in Wales: The Welsh Branch; in Northern Ireland: The Northern Ireland Branch) divisions (1: Division for Teachers and Researchers in Psychology (DTRP) - formed in December 1997; 2:

Division of Clinical Psychology; 3: Division of Counselling Psychology; 4: Division of Forensic Psychology - the Division of Criminological & Legal Psychology, founded in 1977, was renamed the Division of Forensic Psychology in 1999. 5: Division of Educational & Child Psychology (DECP); 6: the Scottish Division of Educational


Psychology; 7: the Division of Health Psychology; 8: Division of Occupational Psychology; 9: the Division of Neuropsychology; 10. the Division of Sport and Exercise Psychology) sections (1: Cognitive Psychology Section; 2: Consciousness and Experiential Psychology Section; 3:

Developmental Psychology Section; 4: Psychology of Education Section; 5: History & Philosophy of Psychology Section; 6: Lesbian and Gay Psychology Section; 7: Mathematical, Statistical & Computing Section; 8: Psychobiology Section; 9: Psychology of Women Section; 10: Psychotherapy Section; 11: Social Psychology Section;12: Transpersonal Psychology Section and Special Groups (1: Special Group of Psychologists and Social Services 2: Special Group in Coaching

Psychology). All of these formally report to one or other of the above six Boards. All the formally constituted bodies within the Society are made up of Society members; the only exception to this

is the Professional Conduct Board, whose members are drawn from other bodies with Royal Charters.”


2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Having read the text from ex.1, decide whether the information given in the statements below is true (T) or false (F). Correct the false statements.

a) The letters BPS stand for the British Psychological Society. b) The letters AGM stand for the Annual General Meeting. c) The only main purpose of the BPS is to encourage the development of psychology as a scientific discipline

and an applied profession. d) The Psychological Society was founded in 1901 by 10 originators. e) Charles Myers advanced the idea of new sections for specialised aspects of applied psychology. f) The Register of Chartered Psychologists is a roll of professional psychologists from UK. g) The Board of Trustees is superior to the AGM. h) The Society’s Representative Council directly elects the members of the Board of Trustees. i) The Society has six principal panels with specific delegated responsibility, plus branches, divisions, sections,

and special groups.

4. Fill in the gaps in the text about funding opportunities with the words randomly listed below: Further, checked, at, by, database, deadline, effort, funding, held, in, information, no, on, run, search, specifically, to, up, which, within

“The Society, and … its Research Board, is keen … provide postgraduates and researchers … psychology with direct access to … to the minute information … funding opportunities.

The database contains … of the various national and international funding schemes listed … deadline date. Some funding agencies … open date schemes under which applications may be submitted … any time. For these

schemes, … deadline date will appear in the … results. … information can be obtained from the relevant … body. A shortened version of the … is also published every

month in The Psychologist. While every … is made to ensure that the information contained … this resource is correct, The Society cannot

be … responsible for any errors … may occur. In particular, … dates may change from time to time and should be … with the relevant funding body.”


5. Underline the words/expressions that do not go with the verbs in bold.

Say about something, nothing, what you like, something, no, lies

Tell someone, the truth, lies, yes, what you like, something

Talk someone, to someone, business, about something, for hours, lies

Speak to someone, business, well/highly of somebody, the truth, lies, for hours

Now complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the words in bold above.

a) Pollution affects the soil, to … nothing of its impact on wildlife.

b) Tom has … so highly of you.

c) The committee … no, so we can’t go ahead.


d) He spoilt the evening by … business all the time.

e) I promise to … the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.

f) I’m not asking you, I’m … you!

6. Are psychological societies important? Why (not)? Should psychologists be members of a psychological society? Why (not)?

7. Translate into English:

Statutul psihologilor O preocupare majoră este faptul că practic oricine poate să-şi spună „psiholog”, indiferent de calificare

sau experienţă. Extrem de îngrijorător este faptul că oamenii se autoproclamă „terapeuţi” sau chiar „psihoterapeuţi” (ceea ce poate să inducă în eroare) şi încearcă să trateze pacienţii.

În Marea Britanie, Societatea Psihologilor a creat un „Registru al experţilor psihologi” al membrilor calificaţi care furnizează servicii, populaţia putându-i verifica. Din ce în ce mai multe persoane cred că este nevoie ca guvernul să pună în vigoare un sistem similar cu cel al medicilor.

(adapted from Nigel C. Benson – Câte ceva despre Psihologie)



1. Read the following texts about the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Foundation and write down the new words.

“Based in Washington, DC, the American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychology in the United States. With 150,000 members, APA is the largest association of psychologists worldwide. Through its divisions in 53 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting health, education and human welfare. Mission Statement

The objects of the American Psychological Association shall be to advance psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health, education, and human welfare by the encouragement of psychology in all its branches in the broadest and most liberal manner the promotion of research in psychology and the improvement of research methods and conditions the improvement of the qualifications and usefulness of psychologists through high standards of ethics,

conduct, education, and achievement the establishment and maintenance of the highest standards of professional ethics and conduct of the

members of the Association the increase and diffusion of psychological knowledge through meetings, professional contacts, reports,

papers, discussions, and publications thereby to advance scientific interests and inquiry, and the application of research findings to the promotion

of health, education, and the public welfare. Definition of "psychologist" APA’s policy on the use of the title "psychologist" is contained in the General Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services, which define the term "Professional Psychologist" as follows: "Psychologists have a doctoral degree in psychology from an organized, sequential program in a regionally accredited university or professional school." APA is not responsible for the specific title or wording of any particular position opening, but it is general pattern to refer to master's-level positions as counselors, specialists, clinicians, and so forth (rather than as "psychologists"). In addition, it is general practice to refer to APA accredited programs as "APA-accredited" rather than "APA approved." The position as described must be in conformity with the statute regulating the use of the title psychologist and the practice of psychology in the state in which the job is available. APA’s President Ronald F. Levant is the 2005 President of the American Psychological Association. He also serves as Professor at the Center for Psychological Studies, Nova Southeastern University, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Levant pioneered the new psychology of men; developed theory and conducted research programs on fathering and masculinity ideology in multicultural perspective. He co-founded and served as the first president of APA Division 51 (Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity). His books include Between Father and Child (1991, Penguin), Masculinity, Reconstructed (1995, Dutton), A New Psychology of Men (1995, Basic Books), Men and Sex: New Psychological Perspectives (1997, John Wiley & Sons), and New Psychotherapies for Men (1998, John Wiley & Sons). He has authored or edited more than 200 publications. APA’s Public Policy Office

APA advocacy is guided by the philosophy that public policy should be based on available scientific knowledge, and that psychological research can contribute to the formulation of sound public policy to address specific social problems and improve human welfare.

The Public Policy Office (PPO) is a major component of this program. PPO, along with APA's Government Relations Office, works to: inform Congress about psychology and its relevance to federal policy;


advocate for increased support for federally-funded psychological research and behavioral and mental health services;

strengthen the voice of psychology at the regulatory level; advance opportunities for the education and training of psychologists; and combine the expertise of psychologists to address the many challenges facing the American nation.

In support of these goals, APA maintains a close liaison with decision-makers on Capitol Hill and in federal agencies by: working with them and their staff as they formulate legislation and regulations of interest to psychologists;

and preparing and disseminating briefing papers, congressional testimony, and responses to proposed federal

agency regulations, and conducting formal congressional briefings.

APA also advises policymakers on a wide range of issues. Recent examples include: response to terrorism; application of human factors research to improve health and safety; welfare reform; behavioral research funding; psychology and education; federal graduate student loans and scholarship programs; and mental health needs of underserved populations, including children, older adults, and people of color.

PPO administers the APA Congressional and Science Policy Fellowship Programs, which offer members the opportunity to spend one year as a special assistant with a member of Congress or congressional committee on Capitol Hill or with a federal agency, such as the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research at the National Institutes of Health. The programs are intended to: provide psychologists with an invaluable public policy learning experience; contribute to the more effective use of psychological knowledge in government; and broaden awareness about the value of psychology-government interaction among psychologists and within

the federal government. Congressional Fellows often engage in conducting legislative or oversight work; assisting in congressional hearings and debates; and preparing briefs and writing speeches. About the Foundation: A Brief History The American Psychological Foundation (APF) was established in 1953 to promote psychology and to help extend its benefits to the public. Today, APF promotes the practice and the science of psychology through scholarships that encourage the best and brightest, through research grants and innovative programs in psychology that shed light on some of society's most pressing concerns, and through awards that inspire continued excellence among practitioners, clinicians, and researchers.

More than fifty years ago, with assets of only $500, Ernest Hilgard, J. McVicker Hunt, and other esteemed colleagues set out to build a foundation that would promote psychology and extend its benefits to the public. These distinguished psychologists understood the importance of advancing a field with unparalleled potential for understanding behavior and benefiting human welfare. Since its founding, the APF has focused on fostering the best and brightest students in psychology, supporting cutting-edge psychological research, and recognizing psychologists whose work lights the way for what can be done to benefit humanity.

Through the years, APF has been supporting crucial research and programs on some of the most pressing issues that our society faces today: the understanding and prevention of violence; serious mental illness; the elimination of prejudice, such as homophobia; the understanding and encouragement of giftedness in children and adolescents; and the relationship between emotions, motivation, and personality.

In 2000, APF launched the first fundraising campaign in its history: the Campaign for a New Era. The campaign seeks to raise $7 million, which will enable APF to deepen and broaden the scope of its programs as well as increase its grant-making capacity.”


2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Read the text again and circle the most appropriate answer (a., b., c. or d.). 1. APA stands for

a. the American Psychiatric Association. b. the American Psychological Association. c. the American Psyche Association. d. the American Psychological Foundation.


2. APA’s main aim is a. to advance psychology only as a science. b. to advance psychology only as a profession. c. to advance psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting only health and human

welfare d. to advance psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health, education, and

human welfare 3. From APA’s point of view a professional psychologist should have:

a. only a master degree. b. doctoral degree in psychology from any university or professional school c. doctoral degree in psychology from an organized, sequential program in a regionally accredited

university or professional school d. only an APA’s accredited programme

4. Ronald F. Levant a. is the 2005th President of the American Psychological Association. b. has been the president of American Psychological Association since 2005. c. has been the president of the American Psychological Association for 2005 years. d. is APA’s first President.

5. Ronald F. Levant was one of the organizers of the a. APA. b. APF. c. Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity. d. Center for Psychological Studies, Nova Southeastern University, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

6. APA believes that … can contribute to the formulation of sound public policy to address specific social problems and improve human welfare.

a. psychology b. psychological research c. research d. all of the above

7. APF has been promoting psychology a. since 1953. b. for 1953 years. c. since today. d. for today.

8. APF gives a. scholarships. b. research grants. c. awards. d. all of the above.

9. Since 1953 APF a. promotes the best and brightest psychologists. b. has been promoting the best and brightest psychologists. c. promoted the best and brightest psychologists. d. is promoting the best and brightest psychologists.

10. APF has been supporting research a. only on the understanding and prevention of violence. b. either on serious mental illness or on the elimination of prejudice, such as homophobia. c. on the understanding and prevention of violence, serious mental illness, the elimination of prejudice, the

understanding and encouragement of giftedness in children and adolescents, and the relationship between emotions, motivation, and personality.

d. on the understanding and prevention of violence, the understanding and encouragement of giftedness in children and adolescents, and the relationship between emotions, motivation, and personality. 11. Ernest Hilgard, J. McVicker Hunt, and other psychologists founded APF because

a. they didn’t get the role of psychology for understanding behavior and benefiting human welfare. b. they ignored the role of psychology for understanding behavior and benefiting human welfare. c. they took in the role of psychology for understanding behavior and benefiting human welfare. d. they weren’t aware of the importance of psychology for understanding behavior and benefiting human



4. Fill in the gaps in the text about the Public Policy Office of the American Psychological Association with the words randomly listed below:

Office, advance, advises, also, between, for, formulate, in, its, liaison, most, on, regulatory, them, to

“The Public Policy … of the American Psychological Association represents the largest and … visible national presence advocating … psychology. APA … congressional decision-makers … a wide range of legislative and … issues. Through … Public Policy Office, APA maintains a close … with decision-makers on Capitol Hill and … the federal agencies, working with … and their staffs as they … legislation and regulations of interest … psychologists. The advocacy program … maintains important connections … APA and other professional societies, organizations and coalitions to … common policy interests.”


5. Underline the words/expressions that go with the verbs in bold and explain their meanings.

See the back of somebody, both sides, before you leap, the light

Look before you leap, the light, somebody in the eye, the other way

Watch your back, the light, somebody in the eye, the clock, yourself

Now complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the words in bold above.

a) You can’t just … the other way if you know that he’s stealing things.

b) Dad has finally … the light and bought a computer.

c) I have to really … myself around my boss.

d) Can you … me in the eye and say that you really love him?

6. Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line has a word which should not be there, just cross out the word.

1. People have it for a long time held the belief that the face is in 2. some way a reflection of personality. There is not nothing magical 3. or mysterious about it: we all have the different physical characteristics 4. and therefore our appearance is unique. How do you feel about yourself 5. also has a direct influence on your facial expression. If, for an example, 6. you have a lot of self-confidence, this will be show in your face. From 7. ancient times, this connection between particular features and aspects 8. of personality was made, and a systematic study of the relationship is 9. developed and became known as the physiognomy. Physiognomy has 10. proved that people’s faces accurately reflect people’s characters. For 11. those who don’t find the idea convincing, let us to take the example 12. of identical twins, who not only look alike but also behave in a similar way.


1. Read the Code of Conduct for Psychologists as the British Psychological Society presents it on its site ( and write down the new words.

“Under the terms of its Royal Charter, the Society is required to ‘maintain a code of conduct’. In 1985 the Society adopted a code of conduct prior to the introduction of the Register of Chartered Psychologists with provision for an Investigatory Committee and Disciplinary Board to consider complaints of professional misconduct against members of the Society. In the light of experience dealing with several dozen allegations of misconduct these committees recommended some amendments to the code. After extensive consultations the following revised Code of Conduct was approved by the Council in February 1993 and adopted forthwith.

Statute 15 (12) states that a Disciplinary Committee shall be ‘guided by the Code of Conduct, but that mention or lack of mention in the Code of Conduct of a particular act or omission shall not be taken as conclusive on any question of professional conduct’. Nevertheless, the Code sets out certain minimum standards for conduct with which psychologists are required to comply. However, the Code is also supplemented by several other guidelines and


statements on matters of ethics and conduct published by the Society and its sub-systems. These frequently set out standards of good practice at which psychologists should aim. Some of these other statements give detailed guidance on matters such as advertising and descriptions, research with human or animal participants and some are relevant to specific fields of professional practice or concern the special provisions of law and practice on such matters as confidentiality and the disclosure of information. Members and contributors of the Society, many of whom will be Chartered Psychologists, must also take account of these further guidelines issued from time to time by the Society and its sub-systems, but especially those relevant to their own specialist fields of practice or research.

1. General In all their work psychologists shall conduct themselves in a manner that does not bring into disrepute the

discipline and the profession of psychology. They shall value integrity, impartiality and respect for persons and evidence and shall seek to establish the highest ethical standards in their work. Because of their concern for valid evidence, they shall ensure that research is carried out in keeping with the highest standards of scientific integrity. Taking account of their obligations under the law, they shall hold the interest and welfare of those in receipt of their services to be paramount at all times and ensure that the interests of participants in research are safeguarded.

2. Competence Psychologists shall endeavour to maintain and develop their professional competence, to recognise and work

within its limits, and to identify and ameliorate factors which restrict it. Specifically they shall: 1. refrain from laying claim, directly or indirectly, to psychological qualifications or affiliations they do not

possess, from claiming competence in any particular area of psychology in which they have not established their competence, and from claiming characteristics or capabilities for themselves or others which they do not possess;

2. recognise the boundaries of their own competence and not attempt to practise any form of psychology for which they do not have an appropriate preparation or, where applicable, specialist qualification;

3. take all reasonable steps to ensure that their qualifications, capabilities or views are not misrepresented by others, and to correct any such misrepresentations;

4. if requested to provide psychological services, and where the services they judge to be appropriate are outside their personal competence, give every reasonable assistance towards obtaining those services from others who are appropriately qualified to provide them;

5. take all reasonable steps to ensure that those working under their direct supervision comply with each of the foregoing, in particular that they recognise the limits of their competence and do not attempt to practise beyond them.

3. Obtaining consent

Psychologists shall normally carry out investigations or interventions only with the valid consent of participants, having taken all reasonable steps to ensure that they have adequately understood the nature of the investigation or intervention and its anticipated consequences.

Specifically they shall: 1. always consult experienced professional colleagues when considering withholding information about an

investigatory procedure, and withhold information only when it is necessary in the interests of the objectivity of the investigatory procedure or of future professional practice;

2. where it is necessary not to give full information in advance to those participating in an investigation, provide such full information retrospectively about the aims, rationale and outcomes of the procedure as far as it is consistent with a concern for the welfare of the participants;

3. refrain from making exaggerated, sensational and unjustifiable claims for the effectiveness of their methods and products, from advertising services or products in a way likely to encourage unrealistic expectations about the effectiveness of the services or products offered, or from misleading those to whom services are offered about the nature and likely consequences of any interventions to be undertaken;

4. normally obtain the consent of those to whom interventions are offered, taking all reasonable steps to ensure that the consent obtained is valid, except when the intervention is made compulsorily in accordance with the provisions and safeguards of the relevant legislation;

5. recognise and uphold the rights of those whose capacity to give valid consent to interventions may be diminished including the young, those with learning disabilities, the elderly, those in the care of an institution or detained under the provisions of the law;

6. where interventions are offered to those in no position to give valid consent, after consulting with experienced professional colleagues, establish who has legal authority to give consent and seek consent from that person or those persons;

7. recognise and uphold the rights of recipients of services to withdraw consent to interventions or other professional procedures after they have commenced and terminate or recommend alternative services when there is evidence that those in receipt of their services are deriving no benefit from them.


4. Confidentiality

Psychologists shall maintain adequate records, but they shall take all reasonable steps to preserve the confidentiality of information acquired through their professional practice or research and to protect the privacy of individuals or organisations about whom information is collected or held. In general, and subject to the requirements of law, they shall take care to prevent the identity of individuals, organisations or participants in research being revealed, deliberately or inadvertently, without their expressed permission.

5. Personal conduct

Psychologists shall conduct themselves in their professional activities in a way that does not damage the interest of the recipients of their services or participants in their research and does not inappropriately undermine public confidence in their ability or that of other psychologists and members of other professions to carry out their professional duties.

Specifically they shall: 1. refrain from improper conduct in their work as psychologists that would be likely to be detrimental to the

interests of recipients of their services or participants in their research; 2. neither attempt to secure or to accept from those receiving their service any significant financial or material

benefit beyond that which has been contractually agreed, nor to secure directly from them any such benefit for services which are already rewarded by salary;

3. not exploit any relationship of influence or trust which exists between colleagues, those under their tuition, or those in receipt of their services to further the gratification of their personal desires;

4. not allow their professional responsibilities or standards of practice to be diminished by considerations of religion, sex, race, age, nationality, party politics, social standing, class, self-interest or other extraneous factors;

5. refrain from practice when their physical or psychological condition, as a result of for example alcohol, drugs, illness or personal stress, is such that abilities or professional judgement are seriously impaired;

6. value and have respect for all relevant evidence and the limits of such evidence when giving psychological advice or expressing a professional opinion;

7. value and have respect for scientific evidence and the limits of such evidence when making public statements that provide psychological information;

8. refrain from claiming credit for the research and intellectual property of others and give due credit to the contributions of others in collaborative work;

9. take steps to maintain adequate standards of safety in the use of all procedures and equipment used in professional practice or research;

10. bring allegations of misconduct by a professional colleague to the attention of those charged with the responsibility to investigate them, doing so without malice and with no breaches of confidentiality other than those necessary to the proper investigatory processes and when the subject of allegations themselves, they shall take all reasonable steps to assist those charged with responsibility to investigate them.”


2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Read again the Code of Conduct for Psychologists and choose the most appropriate answer (a., b., c., or d.):

1. The first the Code of Conduct for Psychologists was approved a. in February 1993 b. in 1985 c. in 1512 d. in 2005

2. The Code sets out standards a. for the Disciplinary Committee b. for psychologists c. for both the Disciplinary Committee and psychologists d. of good practice only for the Disciplinary Committee

3. The Code stipulates that psychologists a. may value integrity, impartiality and respect for persons and evidence b. must value integrity, impartiality and respect for persons and evidence c. might value integrity, impartiality and respect for persons and evidence d. can value integrity, impartiality and respect for persons and evidence


4. Psychologists … claim competence in any particular area of psychology and capabilities they do not possess.

a. may b. mustn’t c. must d. can’t

5. Psychologists shall not attempt to practise … a. any form of psychology b. only a particular area of psychology c. psychology without appropriate preparation and qualification d. psychology having an appropriate preparation or, where applicable, specialist qualification

6. Psychologists shall correct … a. any misrepresentation of their qualifications, capabilities or views. b. the misrepresentations of their services. c. the misrepresentations of their practice. d. the misrepresentations of the boundaries of their own competence.

7. Participants to an investigation or intervention shall … a. not give their consent. b. refuse to give their consent. c. agree with taking part in the investigation or intervention. d. not grant their agreement to participate in the investigation or intervention.

8. Psychologists shall… to those participating in an investigation. a. never give full information b. always give full information in advance c. always give as full information as they can d. never give full information in advance

9. Psychologists shouldn’t … a. advertise their services. b. make any claims for the effectiveness of their methods. c. encourage expectations about the effectiveness of their services or products offered. d. mislead those to whom services are offered about the nature and likely consequences of any

interventions to be undertaken. 10. Psychologists shall acknowledge and sustain the rights of … because their capacity to give valid consent

to interventions may be diminished. a. the youngsters b. those with learning disabilities, and the elderly. c. those in the care of an institution or detained under the provisions of the law d. all of the above

11. The confidentiality of the information got by psychologists about those taking part in investigations or interventions

a. is essential b. is not essential c. is dispensable d. is not necessary

12. Psychologists shall… a. accept from those receiving their service significant financial or material benefit beyond that

which has been contractually agreed b. accept gifts and facilitations for their services even if they are already paid for their services c. take advantage of relationships and trust existing between colleagues or those under their tuition d. turn down any financial or material offers for the services they are already paid.

13. Psychologists shouldn’t be influenced by the participants’… a. religion, sex, age and nationality. b. class and social standing. c. interests, political affiliation, or other trivial factors. d. religion, sex, age, nationality, class, social standing, interests, political affiliation, or other

unessential factors. 14. Psychologists shall … in their professional activities in a way that does not inappropriately undermine

public confidence in their ability or that of other psychologists to carry out their professional duties. a. misbehave


b. behave c. not behave d. misconduct

15. Psychologists should act … in the use of all procedures and equipment used in professional practice or research.

a. in order to preserve inadequate standards of safety b. in order to abandon adequate standards of safety c. in order to deny the standards of safety d. in order to preserve fair standards of safety

4. Fill in the gaps in the text about informed consent with the words randomly listed below:

consent, data, decision, ethical, free, in, information, informed, prior, previously, participants, research, take, who, withdraw

Informed consent is an … requirement that participants should have sufficient … about a research study to enable them to make an … judgement about whether or not to … part. Gaining a participant’s informed … is a very important aspect of any … investigation. Without full disclosure … to obtaining their consent, it becomes impossible for … to make a fully informed … about their willingness to take part. Sometimes, participants … initially give their consent to take part … a study, later wish to … that consent and have their own … destroyed. They must be … to do so, even if they have … accepted payment for their participation.

5. Match each of the words in column A with the correct definition in column B.

A. B.

1. Morals a) are a set of moral principles used by a group of professionals.

2. Ethics b) arise in psychological research when there are conflicts between the rights of participants and the needs of researchers in conducting valid investigations.

3. Ethical issues c) concern what is acceptable or right in terms of human behaviour.

4. Ethical guidelines d) have been developed as one way of dealing with ethical issues.

6. Translate into English:

În mod surprinzător, există de relativ puţină vreme preocupări de etica cercetării care influenţează puternic psihologii. Totul a pornit mai ales de la nişte studii americane (experienţele Milgram) care supuneau în mod deliberat oamenii unui stres enorm.

Condurile de conduită şi Principiile etice au fost publicate de către APA (1953, 1983) şi de către BPS (1978, 1985, 1993), fiind obligatoriu ca ele să fie respectate de psihologi în timpul cercetărilor, practicii medicale sau al predării.


1. Read the first part of the Ethical Principles for conducting research with human participants as the British Psychological Society presents it on its site ( and write down the new words.

Introduction to the revised principles

The Standing Committee on Ethics in Research with Human Participants has now completed its revision of the Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects (British Psychological Society, 1978). The new 'Ethical Principles for Conducting Research with Human Participants' (q.v.) have been approved by the Council.

The Standing Committee wishes to highlight some of the issues that concerned it during the drawing up of the Principles published below. In the forefront of its considerations was the recognition that psychologists owe a debt to those who agree to take part in their studies and that people who are willing to give up their time, even for


remuneration, should be able to expect to be treated with the highest standards of consideration and respect. This is reflected in the change from the term 'subjects' to 'participants'. To psychologists brought up on the jargon of their profession the term 'subject' is not derogatory. However, to someone who has not had that experience of psychological research it is a term which can seem impersonal.

Deception The issue of deception caused the Committee considerable problems. To many outside the psychology

profession, and to some within it, the idea of deceiving the participants in one's research is seen as quite inappropriate. At best, the experience of deception in psychological research can make the recipients cynical about the activities and attitudes of psychologists. However, since there are very many psychological processes that are modifiable by individuals if they are aware that they are being studied, the statement of the research hypothesis in advance of the collection of data would make much psychological research impossible. The Committee noted that there is a distinction between withholding some of the details of the hypothesis under test and deliberately falsely informing the participants of the purpose of the research, especially if the information given implied a more benign topic of study than was in fact the case. While the Committee wishes to urge all psychologists to seek to supply as full information as possible to those taking part in their research, it concluded that the central principle was the reaction of participants when deception was revealed. If this led to discomfort, anger or objections from the participants then the deception was inappropriate. The Committee hopes that such a principle protects the dignity of the participants while allowing valuable psychological research to be conducted.


Following the research, especially where any deception or withholding of information had taken place, the Committee wished to emphasise the importance of appropriate debriefing. In some circumstances, the verbal description of the nature of the investigation would not be sufficient to eliminate all possibility of harmful after-effects. For example, an experiment in which negative mood was induced requires the induction of a happy mood state before the participant leaves the experimental setting.


Another area of concern for the Committee was the protection of participants from undue risk in psychological research. Since this was an area in which the Principles might be looked to during an investigation following a complaint against a researcher, the Committee was concerned to seek a definition that protected the participants in the research without making important research impossible. Risks attend us every moment in life, and to say that research should involve no risks would be inappropriate. However, the important principle seemed to be that when participants entered upon a psychological investigation they should not, in so doing, be increasing the probability that they would come to any form of harm. Thus, the definition of undue risk was based upon the risks that individuals run in their normal lifestyle. This definition makes possible research upon individuals who lead a risk-taking or risk-seeking life (e.g. mountaineers, cave divers), so long as the individuals are not induced to take risks that are greater than those that they would normally encounter in their life outside the research.

Implementation The Council of the Society approved the Principles at its meeting in February 1990. There followed a two-year

period during which the new Principles were provisionally in operation. In spring 1992 the Council reviewed the Principles, in the light of experience of their operation. During this period researchers were unable to identify problems in the working of the Principles. Following minor amendment the Principles were formally adopted in October 1992.

The Council urges all research psychologists to ensure that they abide by these Principles, which supplement the Society's Code of Conduct (q.v.) and thus violation of them could form the basis of disciplinary action. It is essential that all members of the psychological profession abide by the Principles if psychologists are to continue to retain the privilege of testing human participants in their research. Psychologists have legal as well as moral responsibilities for those who help them in their study, and the long-term reputation of the discipline depends largely upon the experience of those who encounter it first-hand during psychological investigations.

The Principles

1. Introduction 1. The principles given below are intended to apply to research with human participants. Principles of conduct

in professional practice are to be found in the Society's Code of Conduct and in the advisory documents prepared by the Divisions, Sections and Special Groups of the Society.

2. Participants in psychological research should have confidence in the investigators. Good psychological research is possible only if there is mutual respect and confidence between investigators and participants.


Psychological investigators are potentially interested in all aspects of human behaviour and conscious experience. However, for ethical reasons, some areas of human experience and behaviour may be beyond the reach of experiment, observation or other form of psychological investigation. Ethical guidelines are necessary to clarify the conditions under which psychological research is acceptable.

3. The principles given below supplement for researchers with human participants the general ethical principles of members of the Society as stated in The British Psychological Society's Code of Conduct (q.v.). Members of The British Psychological Society are expected to abide by both the Code of Conduct and the fuller principles expressed here. Members should also draw the principles to the attention of research colleagues who are not members of the Society. Members should encourage colleagues to adopt them and ensure that they are followed by all researchers whom they supervise (e.g. research assistants, postgraduate, undergraduate, A-Level and GCSE students).

4. In recent years, there has been an increase in legal actions by members of the general public against professionals for alleged misconduct. Researchers must recognise the possibility of such legal action if they infringe the rights and dignity of participants in their research. 2. General

1. In all circumstances, investigators must consider the ethical implications and psychological consequences for the participants in their research. The essential principle is that the investigation should be considered from the standpoint of all participants; foreseeable threats to their psychological well-being, health, values or dignity should be eliminated. Investigators should recognise that, in our multi-cultural and multi-ethnic society and where investigations involve individuals of different ages, gender and social background, the investigators may not have sufficient knowledge of the implications of any investigation for the participants. It should be borne in mind that the best judge of whether an investigation will cause offence may be members of the population from which the participants in the research are to be drawn.

3. Consent 1. Whenever possible, the investigator should inform all participants of the objectives of the investigation. The

investigator should inform the participants of all aspects of the research or intervention that might reasonably be expected to influence willingness to participate. The investigator should, normally, explain all other aspects of the research or intervention about which the participants enquire. Failure to make full disclosure prior to obtaining informed consent requires additional safeguards to protect the welfare and dignity of the participants (see Section 4).

2. Research with children or with participants who have impairments that will limit understanding and/or communication such that they are unable to give their real consent requires special safe-guarding procedures.

3. Where possible, the real consent of children and of adults with impairments in understanding or communication should be obtained. In addition, where research involves any persons under 16 years of age, consent should be obtained from parents or from those in loco parentis. If the nature of the research precludes consent being obtained from parents or permission being obtained from teachers, before proceeding with the research, the investigator must obtain approval from an Ethics Committee.

4. Where real consent cannot be obtained from adults with impairments in understanding or communication, wherever possible the investigator should consult a person well-placed to appreciate the participant's reaction, such as a member of the person's family, and must obtain the disinterested approval of the research from independent advisors.

5. When research is being conducted with detained persons, particular care should be taken over informed consent, paying attention to the special circumstances which may affect the person's ability to give free informed consent.

6. Investigators should realise that they are often in a position of authority or influence over participants who may be their students, employees or clients. This relationship must not be allowed to pressurise the participants to take part in, or remain in, an investigation.

7. The payment of participants must not be used to induce them to risk harm beyond that which they risk without payment in their normal lifestyle.

8. If harm, unusual discomfort, or other negative consequences for the individual's future life might occur, the investigator must obtain the disinterested approval of independent advisors, inform the participants, and obtain informed, real consent from each of them.

9. In longitudinal research, consent may need to be obtained on more than one occasion. (from

2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B


A. B.

1. Debriefing a. a research technique that provides false information to persons participating in a study.

2. Deception b. a procedure at the conclusion of a research session in which participants are given full information about the nature and hypotheses of the study.

3.Informed consent

c. prospective participants are informed that sometimes participants are misinformed about the true purpose of the study and asked to give consent without knowing whether their study will involve deception.

4. Presumptive consent and prior general consent

d. a procedure by which people freely choose to participate in a study only after they are told about the activities they will perform.

4. Read again the first part of the Ethical Principles for conducting research with human participants and choose the most appropriate answer (a., b., c., or d.):

1. The Standing Committee decided to replace the term ‘subjects’ with the term ‘participants’ because a. the term ‘participants’ is derogatory. b. the term ‘participants’ is impersonal. c. the term ‘participants’ reflects the psychologists’ consideration and respect. d. the term ‘participants’ reflects the psychologists’ jargon.

2. Psychologists … the participants to an investigation or intervention. a. shouldn’t care about b. owe a debt to c. should treat irresponsibly d. shouldn’t owe a debt to

3. It’s acceptable for psychologists … the participants about the research. b. not to inform c. not to give certain pieces of information to d. to deliberately not give information to e. to misinform

4. The Standing Committee’s central, guiding principle regarding the issue of the deception of was: a. all psychologists should supply as full information as possible b. the reaction of participants c. to protect the psychologists’ dignity d. to urge psychologists to give the participants full information

5. Appropriate debriefing has to be done a. before research. b. during research. c. after research. d. within research.

6. The Standing Committee’s … regarding the issue of risk was that participants shouldn’t be exposed to risks greater than in their normal life.

a. unimportant principle b. minor principle c. dispensable principle d. essential principle

7. Psychologists have been following the definitive Principles a. since 1990. b. for 1990. c. since 1992. d. for 1992.


8. Psychologists have … for those who help them in their research. a. either legal or moral responsibilities b. both legal and moral responsibilities c. neither legal nor moral responsibilities d. only legal responsibilities

9. Psychologists can get information about the Principles of conduct in professional practice in a. the Society's Code of Conduct. b. the advisory documents prepared by the Divisions and Special Groups of the Society. c. the advisory documents prepared by the Sections of the Society. d. all of the above.

10. The conditions under which psychological research is acceptable … in the Ethical guidelines. a. are made clear b. are indistinct c. are ambiguous d. are equivocal

11. More and more people are suing psychologists for a. misconduct claimed to be true. b. so-called conduct. c. professional conduct. d. legal conduct.

12. … , investigators must consider the ethical implications and psychological consequences for the participants in their research.

a. Under no circumstances b. In exceptional circumstances c. In all circumstances d. In special circumstances

13. If extra paid, participants … of a greater risk than that which they encounter in their ordinary lives. a. should accept situations b. shouldn’t accept situations c. must accept situations d. ought to accept situations

5. Fill in the gaps in the text about socially sensitive research with the words randomly listed below: Not, and, but, by, have, implications, in, offer, orientation, research, sensitive, social, than, that, they, this, which

What is socially sensitive research?

“Siber and Stanley (1988) … the following definition of ‘socially sensitive research’: ‘studies in … there are potential social consequences or …, either directly for the participants … research or the class of individuals represented … the research.’ The essence of … definition is that much of what we study in psychology has a … impact. The potential for … is greater with some investigations … others. The sort of … that would come under the heading of ‘social … research’ includes research into sexual …, racial differences, gender-related abilities … mental illness. … only does this type of research … implications for the people that take part, … also for the wider social group that … represent.” (adapted from Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum - Psychology)

6. Translate into English:

Principalele concepte etice

Participarea voluntară este extrem de importantă, inclusiv dreptul de a se retrage din experiment în orice moment. Consimţământul trebuie obţinut din partea participanţilor, inclusiv permisiunea de a publica rezultatele. Înşelăciunea trebuie evitată sau, în cazul în care este esenţială într-o fază iniţială, participanţii trebuie informaţi

cât de curând posibil. Informarea (şi, dacă este cazul, sfătuirea) trebuie să fie asigurată. Confidenţialitatea trebuie păstrată, anonimatul trebuie să fie respectat în publicaţii pentru a preveni identificarea

participanţilor. Vătămarea fizică sau mentală trebuie evitată, inclusiv jena, umilinţa sau afectarea respectului de sine. Conduita profesională a psihologilor, incluzând aici integritatea, răspunderea, recunoaşterea şi monitorizarea altor




1. Read the first part of the ‘Guidelines for Psychologists Working with Animals’ as the British Psychological Society presents it on its site ( and write down the new words.

“Psychologists work with animals for a variety of reasons. The most obvious use is in research, and it is this that has commanded most attention in the general media. Animals are also sometimes used in practical teaching within psychology degree programmes. However, these do not exhaust the possible ways in which psychologists, in their professional capacity, may work with animals. There is increasing use of animals in various forms of psychological therapy with people, and psychologists may also be asked to advise on therapy for animals whose behaviour is disordered or inconvenient. Psychologists may find themselves involved in the training and use of animals for commercial purposes. New uses are likely to appear from time to time. Many psychological studies are non-invasive and involve only observation of the animals, but some research questions cannot be answered adequately without the manipulation of animals; and all studies of captive animals necessarily involve keeping animals in confinement. Even studies of free-living animals in their natural habitat may involve disruption of the environment, or capture of animals in order to mark them.

The British Psychological Society has set up a Standing Advisory Committee on the Welfare of Animals in Psychology, to advise the Scientific Affairs Board and through it, the Society more generally on the ethical issues involved in working with animals in psychology. This Committee, with the co-operation of the Experimental Psychology Society, has produced the following guidelines for the use of all members who are engaged in psychological activities involving living animals. The majority of animal use in psychology is in research, and this is dealt with by the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. Any scientific procedure that may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm in any vertebrate (and one invertebrate octopus vulgaris) species is governed by this Act (see Section 4 below). These guidelines will provide an outline of the legal responsibilities of members of the BPS or EPS whose research is already governed by the Act; the guidelines should be taken into consideration where any work is not governed by the Act, and may provide additional help or advice. Psychologists working with animals in ways that are not covered by legislation should aim to maintain standards at least as high as those suggested here for research use, and should follow the spirit of these guidelines even where the letter cannot strictly be applied. The guidelines are general in scope, since the diversity of species and techniques used in psychology preclude the inclusion of specific details about appropriate animal care and treatment. Thus members of both Societies are reminded of their general obligation to avoid or at least minimise discomfort to living animals. It should be noted that permission to perform procedures regulated under the 1986 Act will not be granted unless the researcher can justify the costs to the animal in terms of the likely benefits of the research (see Section 4 below). In addition, when permission to perform a regulated procedure is requested, the researcher is also required to demonstrate that consideration has been given to replacing animals with alternatives whenever possible, reducing the number of animals used, and refining procedures to minimise suffering (Russell & Burch, 1959). Psychologists who work with animals should, therefore, keep abreast of new developments in animal welfare, with new ways of reducing the numbers of animals required for the procedures, and with refining the procedures so as to enhance the welfare of the animals concerned (see, for example, the publications of the Joint Working Group on Refinement). Appropriate training courses could be useful in this respect.

These guidelines will be used by the Editors of the Journals of both Societies in assessing the acceptability of submitted manuscripts. Submitted manuscripts may be rejected by an Editor if the content violates either the letter or the spirit of the guidelines. Members of The British Psychological Society using animals should consider the guidelines before embarking on a procedure, since any breach may be considered professional misconduct.

1. Legislation

Members of the Societies working in the UK must familiarise themselves with the laws regarding animal welfare,

and with threatened and endangered species that are relevant to their work, and conform with the spirit and letter of the relevant legislation. Wherever their work is done, Members of the Societies, or those whose work is published by the Societies, should conform to the ethical standards underlying UK legislation. A summary of the British laws designed to ensure the welfare of animals is given by Crofts (1989): detailed guidance on the operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 is provided by the Home Office (HMSO 1990, 1999), the Annual Reports of the Animal Procedures Committee (HMSO-APC) and an updated summary is given every year in the annual


statistics (HMSO-Stats). Lists of threatened species and laws aiming to protect them can be obtained from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Species Conservation Monitoring Unit (219C Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK). Before publication of primary reports of research involving animals in the Societies’ journals, authors must confirm in their cover letter that they have adhered to the legal requirements of the country in which the study was conducted, as well as to these guidelines.

2. Choice of species

Psychologists should choose a species that is well suited for the intended use. Choosing an appropriate subject

species usually requires knowledge of that species’ natural history and some judgement of its level of sentience. Knowledge of an individual animal’s previous experience, such as whether or not it was bred in captivity, is also important. When the use involves regulated procedures, and when a variety of species can be used, the psychologist should employ the species which, in the opinion of the psychologist and other qualified colleagues, is least likely to suffer, and must justify their choice in any Project Licence application. Alternatives such as video records from previous work or computer simulations can sometimes be used, especially in teaching contexts but also for some research purposes. Advice on computer simulations for teaching can be obtained from the CTI Psychology Centre at the University of York.

3. Number of animals

Researchers working under the 1986 Act are legally required to use the smallest number of animals necessary and

sufficient to accomplish the research goals, and this principle should be generally applied. The aim of minimising the number of animals used in an experiment can be achieved by appropriate pilot studies, reliable measures of behaviour, good experimental design and the use of statistical tests (see ECVAM, 1998), Hunt (1980), Still (1982) and McConway (1992) discuss ways of reducing the number of animals used in experiments through alternative designs. In 1996, the American Psychological Association’s Task Force on Statistical Inference reported, giving guidance on the importance of taking statistical power into account when designing experiments. Copies of the report are available from the APA.

4. Procedures

The following section details procedures that are specifically covered by the Animal (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. Any scientific procedure that may have the effect of causing an animal pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm is regarded as a regulated procedure under the Act. These terms include death, disease, injury, physiological or psychological stress, significant discomfort, or any disturbance to normal health, whether immediately or in the long term. The investigator should consider experimental designs that avoid the use of regulated procedures by, for example removing the deleterious condition (e.g. enhancing rather than impoverishing the environment as the experimental treatment) or employing situations in which naturally occurring instances of deleterious conditions are observed. Permission to perform regulated procedures requires the possession of a Project Licence, which specifies the species, numbers of animals and types of procedures that may be used. Such a licence is only granted on condition that the Project Licence Holder makes an assessment that justifies the costs to the animal against the likely benefits of the proposed programme of work. He or she is responsible for ensuring that the project is conducted legally under the terms of the Act, and in accordance with the conditions of the Project Licence. The actual performance of a regulated procedure requires the granting of a Personal Licence, which is given only to those who are competent to perform the procedures, if necessary under supervision. Personal Licence holders are also required to seek to minimise any pain, suffering or distress that might arise, given the requirements of the experimental design. Whatever procedure is in use, any adverse effects on animals must be recognised and assessed, and immediate action taken whenever necessary. According to the Animal (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 the Personal Licence holder has the primary responsibility in this regard; a Named Animal Care and Welfare Officer with responsibility for day-to-day care of the animal and a Named Veterinary Surgeon will also be available to give advice on animal health and welfare. When applying for legal permission to perform regulated procedures, investigators are also required to discuss with colleagues and others, through a Local Ethical Review process, the justification for the use of animals and the balance between costs and benefits. These Local Ethical Reviews must include not only academics but also a veterinary surgeon and a lay person, and must approve project and personal licence applications before they are passed to the Home Office. There are several models for evaluating animal research which can be of use when making ethical decisions (Orlans 1987; Shapiro and Field 1988; Porter 1992; Smith and Boyd 1991; and Morton 1998). Furthermore, when reporting research in scientific journals or otherwise, researchers must always be prepared to identify any costs to the animals involved and justify them in terms of the scientific benefit of the work.


2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Look through the text from ex.1 and answer the following questions: a) Why do psychologists work with animals? b) Why has the British Psychological Society set up a Standing Advisory Committee on the Welfare of

Animals in Psychology? c) When will permission to perform procedures regulated under the 1986 Act be granted to a psychologist? d) What should Psychologists who work with animals keep up with? e) When may manuscripts be rejected by Editors of the Journals of BPS or EPS? f) What should members of the Societies working in the UK must familiarise themselves with? g) What are the criteria according to which a psychologist should employ a certain species for certain

research? h) How many animals are psychologists legally required to use in research? i) What is a Project Licence?

4. Fill in the gaps in the text about using animals in research with the words randomly listed below:

Moreover, about, animals, average, example, focus, human, in, much, information, psychological, research, similar, studies, than, that, using

Why should … be used for research in the first place? How can we dare to infer … behaviour from the results of … employing rats, gerbils, and pigeons? The answer is that the 7 or 8 percent of … research that does employ animals has a different … and is designed to answer different questions … research that uses humans. For …, the shorter life span of animals (rats live an … of two years) allows researchers to learn … the effects of aging in a … more rapid time frame than if they studied aging … human participants. …, the very complexity of human beings may obscure… about fundamental phenomena that can be more plainly identified … animals. Finally, some … require large numbers of subjects who share … backgrounds or who have been exposed to particular environments – conditions … could not practically be met with human beings.

5. Translate into English: Motivele pentru care se fac cercetări pe animale:

Există suficiente asemănări pentru a se putea face comparaţii cu oamenii. Cercetări similare pe oameni nu ar fi posibile sau etice.

Această metodă poate crea „paradoxul cercetării pe animale”: dacă animalele sunt suficient de asemănătoare pentru a fi comparate cu oamenii, înseamnă că şi ele suferă în măsură egală!

În Marea Britanie există diverse coduri profesionale, cum ar fi Actul de proceduri ştiinţifice asupra animalelor (1986) sau Îndrumări pentru folosirea animalelor în cercetare (1985). „Actul” din 1986 presupune aprobări speciale pentru fiecare proiect în parte, cu nişte reglementări extrem de severe.

gerbil – a small animal like a mouse with long back legs, that children often keep as a pet



1. Read the ‘guidelines on advertising services offered by psychologists’ by the British Psychological Society and write down the new words.

“The Society is frequently asked for advice on acceptable ways of advertising the services offered by psychologists. Conversely the Society has to adjudicate on complaints when it is alleged that a Member is responsible for an advertisement which is in some way not entirely legal, decent, honest or truthful. The Professional Affairs Board prepared the following guidelines in an attempt to make explicit the principles involved. They are approved and adopted by the Council as a Society position statement.

A definition

In the following guidelines an advertisement is defined as a communication addressed directly to the public or a section of it, the purpose of which is to influence the behaviour or opinions of those to whom it is addressed. An advertisement therefore includes any announcement of the professional services of an individual psychologist or group of psychologists whether working in private practice or for a corporate employer, appearing, for example, in the press, television, radio, in the Yellow Pages of the telephone directory or in a brochure distributed directly through a potential client’s letterbox. Different principles would apply to a letter of introduction which a psychologist might send to a third party (e.g. a solicitor or medical practitioner) introducing the psychological services offered to clients who subsequently may be referred at the discretion of the third party receiving the letter.

The role of the Society

The Society adopts a neutral position on the quasi-political issue of the desirability or otherwise of Members working in private practice and thus charging clients directly for the psychological services provided. The responsibility of the Society is to ensure that however Members earn their livelihood, when they advertise psychological services they do so with due regard for acceptable standards. Announcements through agencies should conform to the same standards.

General concepts

All psychologists should recognise the need to encourage and preserve a relationship with those to whom their services are offered which is dignified and based on confidence. They will therefore refrain from making exaggerated and unjustified claims for the effectiveness of their methods, from advertising services in a way likely to encourage unrealistic expectations about the effectiveness of the services offered, or from misleading those to whom services are offered about the nature and likely consequences of any interventions to be undertaken.

What to include in an advertisement

In the past the Society has advised any psychologist advertising personal services of a therapeutic nature to individual members of the public (e.g. clinical psychology, educational psychology) to include only ‘visiting card’ particulars in the advertisement, that is, information giving name, qualifications, status, address, telephone number and consultation hours of the psychologist. However, experience has now shown that to limit the content of an advertisement to only this information is not always in the public interest. Not all members of the public will know what services, for example, a clinical psychologist can offer. ‘Visiting card’ particulars do not permit a psychologist who wishes to specialise in the treatment of particular presenting problems within a general field such as clinical psychology to make it clear from the outset in which areas the psychologist specialises. It is, for example, clearly in the interest of a client with a drinking problem to be able to discover from an advertisement which clinical psychologists offer help with this problem, thereby avoiding unnecessary approaches to other clinical psychologists who are offering treatment only for different problems (e.g. phobias). Therefore, the Society is now of the view that, in addition to ‘visiting card’ particulars, it is appropriate to include in advertisements for personal therapeutic services factual information about the specialist nature of the services provided and the methods employed.

When making reference to the specialist services offered, great care should be taken to avoid playing on the fears of a client and then offering to provide a cure. One way of meeting this requirement is to avoid reference to the kinds of client problems for which treatment is offered. However, it is not normally possible to refer to specialist areas of psychology other than by making reference to the problems for which the client is seeking help (e.g. stress-related disorders, marital problems, smoking). Therefore, when phrasing an advertisement discretion and judgement have to be used, the criteria being that no reasonable person would find the advertisement distasteful. Thus, by way of example, it would be reasonable to assume that a psychologist offering ‘help to those with marital difficulties’ or


‘help with slimming’ would be acceptable, but an advertisement stressing the health dangers of obesity and then offering help would not.

Some prohibitions or what not to include in an advertisement

(i) Avoid any comparative denigration of the services of other psychologists or practitioners from other professions. Avoid claims that the services offered are of superlative quality or that the psychologist offering the service is likely to give better advice than others. (Psychologists may, of course, mention their formal qualifications). Psychologists will not, however, advertise their availability to give second opinions or reassessments. (ii) When advertising personal services directly to individual members of the public avoid playing on clients’ fears regarding their state of health and avoid stimulating in clients any feeling of dissatisfaction with their present life situation. For example, a psychologist offering occupational guidance when reporting this fact should do nothing to encourage a client to question his or her current level of job satisfaction. (iii) Avoid the use of testimonials in advertisements for psychological services. (iv) Never claim or imply the certainty of cure for any conditions to be treated nor the certainty of success with the resolution of a client’s problems. (v) Avoid any offer to refund money to dissatisfied users of psychological services.

The competence of those claiming expertise in specialist areas of psychology

Attention is also drawn to the Society’s Code of Conduct (q.v.) in which psychologists are required to ‘refrain …

from claiming competence in any particular area of psychology in which they have not established their competence, and from claiming characteristics or capabilities for themselves which they do not possess’. Therefore, where psychologists make claims to offer specialist services or specific treatments (e.g. hypnotherapy) potentially the psychologists concerned should be able to substantiate their claims, e.g. by demonstrating that they have received relevant training in the area.

Care should also be taken to avoid offering treatment or advice ‘as a psychologist’ in areas that do not form part of the discipline and profession of psychology and in which training is not normally given to psychologists. For example, if a clinical psychologist advertised an acupuncture service, his or her qualifications ‘as a psychologist’ would not allow him or her to claim expertise in this field as it is not accepted as a field of psychology. No other clinical psychologists receive training in acupuncture and no clinical psychologists are employed as acupuncturists. If psychologists have skills in other areas, those not related to psychology should be referred to in separate advertisements.

Fees for Psychological Services

It should be noted that, by law, the Society may not give advice on specific fees which should and can be charged by its members as this is a prohibited, restrictive practice. This position has been confirmed by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission.

The Investigatory Committee has had to deal with a number of complaints from members of the public, that they have been overcharged or charged for reports that they did not need. The Chair of the Disciplinary Board (a lay member) has endorsed the view of the Investigatory Committee that it is not the role of the Society to adjudicate on charges. However, we are all concerned with the good name of psychology. Having considered the issue, the Professional Affairs Board has agreed to promulgate the directive that all psychologists in private practice should, as a matter of routine, make it clear to all clients before any interventions are begun what their fees are likely to be and for what they will be paying. Adoption of this practice is only common sense, but it is essential to give clients explicit guidance on charges if future misunderstandings and complaints are to be avoided.

2. Read the key words listed at the beginning of the unit and check that you are familiar with each of them. Give their Romanian equivalents (if necessary, use a dictionary).

3. Look through the text about the guidelines on advertising services offered by psychologists and answer the following questions:

a) What does the Society have to do when an advertisement is in some way not entirely legal, decent, honest or truthful?

b) Who approved and adopted the guidelines on advertising services offered by psychologists in order to make explicit the principles involved?

c) What is an advertisement according to the guidelines on advertising services offered by psychologists? d) Where can an advertisement appear? e) How should psychologists advertise their services according to the guidelines? f) What did the Society use to recommend psychologists to include in an advertisement?


g) What does the Society believe it is appropriate to include in advertisements nowadays? h) What shouldn’t be included in advertisements nowadays? i) What advice does the Society give the psychologists related to the fees required for their services?

4. Fill in the gaps in the text about the knowledge, skills and experience required for satisfactory job performance as an admissions assistant with the words randomly listed below:

Associate, assimilate, academic, apply, computerized, criteria, customer, effective, good, methodical, own, pressure, prioritise, services, skills, supervise, team-working.

Knowledge, skills and experience required

good … standard with an education to at least GCSE ‘A’ level standard with … literacy and numeracy experience of … databases and word processing in a membership/customer … environment an in-depth understanding of the … for membership (for UK and Overseas applications), Chartered Status, …

Fellowship and Fellowship and ability to … them; meticulous attention to detail and a … approach ability to work on … initiative to accomplish projects ability to work under … to meet deadlines and … work good oral/written communication … an ability to … complex information quickly a commitment to … service; commitment to … ability to … and motivate a junior member of staff an ability to maintain … relations with staff and members/applicants in a membership/customer service

organisation (preferably in the Charity/HE sector)

5. Job priorities. Which of these are important to you? Number them from 1-11 (1 is the most important) and compare your list with your desk mate.

Travel; Fringe benefits (company car, pension, etc.); Responsibility; Opportunities for promotion; High salary; Long holidays; Job satisfaction; Counsel individuals, families, and groups; Keep records; Diagnose clients; Attend conferences;

6. Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line has a word which should not be there, just cross out the wrong word.

My ideal job

1. One thing I know it is that I wouldn’t like to have an occupation 2. that has anything to do with physics, chemistry or maths; I am not 3. the scientific type at all. In the fact, at school I was a complete failure 4. in many these subjects. Neither am I very good at dealing with people, 5. nor am I ambitious, so jobs in a business, administration and 6. management don’t really interest me either. Moreover, I find it 7. irritating to be surrounded by a lot of people; I would much rather have 8. a job involving creative of work or artistic skills of some sort. I’d like 9. to had have the chance to work outdoors occasionally and perhaps do a 10. bit of travelling too. I am not particularly in concerned about becoming 11. rich but I would like to have a reasonable income – enough to live comfortably.

7. Look at these two job advertisements. Then write one for your own (future) job.



CHIEF EXAMINER Qualification in Counselling Psychology

Location: any Stipendiary: point 27 on the Senior Lecturer Grade Closing date:

15 December 2005

Job description:

The generic terms of reference for Boards of Examiners describe the Chief Examiner as being required to: be responsible for the efficient running of the examination

process chair and manage the Panel of Examiners arbitrate in disputes arising from the examination process support and advise the examiners monitor the process and content of the examination

process report to the Board on the result of the examinations consult with the Board, or any of its members, on any of

the above matters as appropriate Person Specification

To qualify for the position the successful candidate must be a Chartered Counselling Psychologist. The successful candidate will also have: knowledge and understanding of the processes of

examinations experience of examining at a postgraduate level in

counselling psychology good communication skills good decision making skills facilitation skills

plus experience of: Board or committee functioning committee work involving establishing and maintaining

standards on behalf of an organisation assessing people including being part of Boards of

Examiners, or similar process in any other context and the following personal qualities: consultative leadership style ability to withstand pressure

CV + Form A Statement of Interest Form and a curriculum vitae should

be received by 15th December 2005. The appointment will be fixed term, covering a period of three years. The successful candidate will be invited to join the Board of Examiners in Counselling Psychology immediately and will remain a member of the Board of Examiners for the duration of their term of office. For further information and a Statement of Interest Form please contact John Duggan on 0116 252 9512 or [email protected] and return the completed form + CV to him.

Interview date:



£ 16,500 - £ 19,000 *

You will assess applications from the UK and overseas for membership of the Society and admission to the Register of Chartered Psychologists, referring non-standard applications to our

TBA abbrev to be announced: used for saying that you will be told something at a later time because it has not yet been decided




expert committees, and writing to applicants for further information as required. Conveying the outcome of assessments to applicants and advising them on next steps, you will also deal with queries and requests for advice from applicants and enquirers. Previous experience of academic or professional admissions processes is desirable.

Please send a CV to Personnel, PO Box 7355, Leicester LE3 6XB or E-mail: [email protected]

Closing date 29 November 2005



According to countability, nouns can be: I. Countable, when they can be counted (they have a singular and a plural form) and can be used with the indefinite article (a, an) with the singular form or with many, few, several with the plural form. Singular countable nouns cannot be used alone.

e.g. The bird is nice. (not: Bird is nice.) II. Uncountable, when they cannot be used in the plural or with the indefinite article, but can be used with much, little. Uncountable nouns can be used alone.

e.g. The pollution is dreadful today. Pollution is awful.

Some nouns can be countable in one meaning and uncountable in another. e.g. paper (hârtie/ziar)

Paper is expensive nowadays. / I've got an evening paper.

COUNTABLE NOUNS [C] Countable nouns have two forms, singular and plural. The plural of countable nouns: most nouns add "-s" to the singular form:

a boy - two boys 1z1 a map - two maps /s/

Spelling rules: 1. if the singular form of the noun ends in "-ss, - s, -se, -ch, -sh, -x, -z" we add "-es" /izl to that form:

a glass - two glasses a rose - two roses a dish - two dishes a box - two boxes

2. some nouns ending in "-o" add "-es", others add "-s": a potato - two potatoes a hero - two heroes a Negro - two Negroes BUT a photo - two photos a radio - two radios

3. some nouns ending in "-f, -fe" substitute "-ves" for "-f, -fe": a calf - two calves; a loaf - two loaves a half – two halves; a wife – two wives a life – two lives; a leaf – two leaves



a roof – two roofs a dwarf – two dwarfs a chief – two chiefs a proof – two proofs

4. nouns ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i" and add"-es": a party - two parties; a story - two stories

some countable nouns have irregular plurals: a man - two men a woman - two women a child - two children an ox - two oxen a foot - two feet a goose - two geese a tooth two teeth a mouse - two mice a louse - two lice a deer - two deer a sheep - two sheep a spacecraft - two spacecraft a species - two species a fish - two fish ! fishes = different species of fish a fruit - two fruit ! fruits = different varieties of fruit

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS [U] Uncountable nouns have only one form. They often refer to:

- substances: coal, coffee, flour, ice, sand, sugar, water - human qualities: courage, cruelty, honesty, patience - feelings: anger, happiness, hope, joy, pride - activities: help, sleep, work - abstract ideas: freedom, fun, luck

1. singular invariable nouns, which take a verb in the singular, are: concrete uncountable nouns: bread, meat, luggage, baggage, furniture, money, equipment

e.g. The money is on the table. (Banii sunt pe masa.) abstract uncountable nouns: advice, happiness, homework, housework, information, knowledge, music, nonsense,

progress, peace e.g. Her advice is always good.. (Sfaturile ei sunt întotdeauna bune.)

proper nouns: Mary, The Netherlands, The Danube e.g. The Danube flows into the Black Sea.

nouns ending in "-s": news, measles, mumps, athletics, cybernetics, economics, ethics, gymnastics, informatics, optics, mathematics, physics, cards, billiards, darts

e.g. This news is good. (Aceste veşti sunt bune.)

To express quantity of uncountable nouns, we can use: much, little, piece, item, bar, loaf, slice, gramme, pound, kilogram, etc.:

a piece of news - o veste/ştire an item of information = o informaţie a bar of soap = un săpun a loaf of bread = o pâine a slice of bread = o felie de pâine a gramme of sugar a kilogram of flour

2. plural invariable nouns, which take a verb in the plural: - these nouns refer to single items that have two linked parts:

nouns referring to clothes or other things people wear: (sun)glasses, jeans, pants, pyjamas, trousers, tights, shorts, slacks, knickers;

nouns referring to tools or other things that people use: binoculars, compasses(the drawing instrument), nutcrackers, pincers, scissors, scales, tongs:

- proper nouns: The Alps, The Carpathians, The Highlands


- other "pluralia tantum": barracks, clothes, customs, contents, manners, means, wages, stairs, savings, surroundings - substantivized adjectives: the rich, the poor, goods - unmarked plurals: cattle, infantry, people, police

e.g. The police are here.

When we want to refer to one article of dress or instrument, we can use the word pair: a pair of trousers / scissors ...


- refer to a group of people or things.

e.g. army, audience, committee, community, company, council, crew, enemy, family, flock, gang, government, group, herd, jury, press, public, staff, team...

With collective nouns we can use either a singular verb or a plural verb. We choose the singular form of the verb if we think of the group as a single unit, when they are used generically. We choose a plural form of a verb if we think of the group as a number of individuals, when reference is made to the component elements.

e.g. Her family is large. (Familia ei este mare) / Her family are at home. (Ai ei / membri familiei ei sunt acasa.)


1. the analytical genitive with the preposition “of” is used with neuter nouns or with long noun phrases. e.g. the leg of the table; the wife of the man you have met 2. The synthetical genitive with "’s” added to the singular form of the noun or to irregular plurals, and " ' " added to regular plurals or to proper nouns ending in "-s". e.g. the boy's car; the man's results; the children's performance; the students' answers; Dickens' works

The synthetical genitive is used with: - nouns denoting persons or other beings:

e.g. Mary's car; the dog's tail - nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value:

e.g. a two months' holiday; yesterday's newspaper; a life's work; a mile's drive; a pound's weight; five dollars' worth. - geographical names or places:

e.g. England's weather - collective nouns:

e.g. the firm's investment - some phrases connected with nature (nouns that can be personified):

e.g. the ocean's roar; the day's heat - some words followed by "sake":

e.g. for peace's sake; for order's sake


There are four categories of gender in English: 1. masculine: man, brother 2. feminine: woman, sister 3. neuter: book, table 4. common: cousin, friend, patient Gender contrasts are expressed with the help of: - different words: husband - wife; boy - girl... - compounds: schoolboy - schoolgirl, he-bear - she bear, tom-cat - pussy-cat, - suffixes: host - hostess, hero - heroine




The English definite article is “the”. It is pronounced /ðə/ in front of the words that start with a

consonant and /ði/ in front of the words that start with a vowel. “The” is used with nouns already mentioned or known to the listener/reader:

e.g. There is an English student in our University. She met the English student. ( The student we have previously talked about)

with nouns followed by a prepositional phrase, a relative clause, or an apposition. e.g. The parcel from Sibiu arrived yesterday.

This is the student who handed your papers in. Mr Smith, the doctor, is a Welshman. with nouns considered unique:

e.g. You can join the International Conservation Scouts. The sun rises in the east. with singular nouns, talking about the class in general

e.g. The cow is a useful animal. before an adjective in the superlative degree

e.g. That is the oldest tree in town. with nouns converted from adjectives, denoting a class, nationality or an abstraction

e.g. We should help the poor. The English are nice people. The good is usually forgotten. with proper nouns in the plural, denoting a family

e.g. The Smiths are here. with proper nouns denoting countries (if they represent a union, or if they are in the plural)

e.g. I would like to visit the United States. with proper nouns denoting groups of islands, chains of mountains, deserts, oceans, seas, rivers

e.g. I have never been to the Black Sea. We saw the Thames and the English Channel last year. with proper nouns denoting hotels, shops, institutions

e.g. We'll stay at the Hilton (hotel). with proper nouns denoting ships, trains, planes

e.g. Have you ever seen the Queen Mary sailing? with proper nouns denoting newspapers and magazines

e.g. He reads the Observer. in phrases

e.g. to tell the time, by the way, to play the fool, on the whole


The English indefinite article is “a/an”. It is written “a” and pronounced /ə/ in front of the words that start with a consonant and “an” /ən/ in front of the words that start with a vowel. The indefinite article is used:

with a singular countable noun which is indefinite. Either we don’t know which one, or it doesn’t matter which one. e.g. Can I have a banana?

with professions. e.g. Tom Cruise is an actor. She’s a research psychologist.

to mean “each/every” in phrases. e.g. once a day/week/hour ten kilometres an hour



It has no written or spoken form. The zero article is used:

with proper nouns denoting persons, continents, countries, regions, towns, mountains, lakes, capes, buildings, streets, bridges, months, festivals, days of the week, magazines and periodicals. e.g. Tom visited Oxford Street and Waterloo Bridge last year.

with uncountable nouns or plural nouns used in a general sense: e.g. Oil is lighter than water.

Chopsticks are used a lot in Japan. with nouns like bed, church, college, hospital, prison, school, university, work:

e.g. What time do you go to university? Tom is at work. with nouns denoting meals and seasons:

e.g. He has breakfast at seven. Winter is coming. with nouns denoting languages:

e.g. Tom speaks German. in phrases: day by day, in bed, at home, by sea, by car/bus/plane/etc., on foot, at sunset, to be in trouble, by

mistake, in silence, watch television/TV, (be) on television/TV


1. These quantifiers are used with singular nouns: another, each, either/neither, every. e.g. Please give me another apple. 2. These quantifiers are usually used before plural or uncountable nouns: all (the), any, both, enough, more,

most, no, plenty of, some, a lot of, several, thousands of. 3. Any can be used with a singular noun with positive sentences to suggest ‘it doesn’t matter which’. e.g. Any guidebook will give you the information you need. 4. Much/many are usually used in negatives/questions. e.g. I haven’t got much time.

Were there many research psychologists? 5. A few or few can only be used with plural nouns. A little or little can be used before uncountable nouns. Few

and little are for a negative idea. A few and a little are positive. e.g. Fortunately I have a few very good friends.

Few psychologists come to such a remote place. We still have a little coffee left from the party. There is (very) little hope of finding any more survivors.

6. Some quantifiers can be combined. e.g. a little more/less salt

every few hours



English tenses have two elements of meaning : time and aspect. Time refers to when, and aspect refers to how

the speaker sees the event. Time : Present / Past / Future Aspect : Simple / Continuous / Perfect The simple aspect describes an event which is permanent, complete, habitual, or a simple fact. The continuous aspect describes an event which is temporary, incomplete, or in progress. The perfect aspect describes an event which relates to two different times. The event is completed at an indefinite time before another time. English has two voices: an active voice and a passive one.



affirmative: S + V ; S (IIIrd person singular) + V-s e.g. I eat (grapes in fall). He eats plums in the morning.

You eat apples every morning.

Spelling rules: 1. if the verb ends in "-ss, - s, -ch, -sh, -x, -z" we add "-es" /izl to that form at the third person singular: e.g. to wash he washes to watch he watches 2. verbs ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i" and add"-es" at the third person singular: e.g. to try she tries to spy he spies

interrogative: Do + S + V? Does + S (IIIrd person singular) + V?

e.g. Do you understand? Does your mother work in a hospital?

negative: S + do + not + V S (IIIrd person singular) + does + not + V

e.g. I do not know what to say. She does not like reading.


Basic form: affirmative: S + to be + V-ing

e.g. I am writing now. You are dreaming now. He is watching TV now.

Spelling rules: 1. final mute “e” is normally dropped before the “–ing” inflection.

e.g. to behave behaving to shave shaving

2. final base consonants are doubled before “–ing” when the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with a single letter.

S = subject (remember that a sentence should have a subject) V = verb, the infinitive form of the verb


e.g. to admit admitting to prefer preferring

3. in bases ending in “ie”, the ending turns into “y” before “-ing”. e.g. to die dying to lie lying to tie tying

interrogative: To be + S + V-ing? e.g. Are you drinking water? Is your daughter teaching English this year?

negative: S + to be + V-ing e.g. He is not sleeping now.


Present Tense Simple generally refers to:

•Facts that are always true: e.g. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

•Habits: e.g. British people drink a lot of tea.

•States: e.g. I don’t like gangster films.

Other uses of present simple: Making declarations (we usually use state verbs):

e.g. I hope you’ll come to my party. I bet you don’t know the answer!

Headlines. These are written in a ‘telegram’ style, and references to the past are usually simplified to present simple:

e.g. Ship sinks in midnight collision. Instructions and itineraries:

e.g. First you mix the ingredients. On day three we visit Bucharest.

Summaries of events (plots of stories, films etc, and summaries of historical events): e.g. May 1945: The war in Europe comes to an end.

Historic present in narrative and ‘funny stories’. In informal speech, it is possible to use the ‘historic present’ to describe past events, especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic.

e.g. She goes up to this man and looks straight into his eyes.

Present Tense Continuous generally refers to actions which are actually in progress at the moment of speaking.

e.g. The teacher is talking to us. actions which can be generally in progress but not actually happening at the moment of speaking.

e.g. I’m learning to drive. temporary actions

e.g. I’m staying in a hotel until I find a flat. Complaints about bad habits

e.g. They’re constantly having parties until the early hours of the morning. Other possible adverbs are: always, continually, and forever.

With verbs describing change and development e.g. More and more people are giving up smoking.

There are a number of verbs which cannot be used in the continuous aspect. These verbs usually refer to: Mental states: believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, imagine, know, realise, recognise, regret, remember,

suppose, think (that), understand Likes and dislikes: admire, dislike, hate, like, love, want, wish Possession: belong to, contain, have, include, own, possess Appearance: appear, look like, resemble, seem


Being: be, consist of, depend, exist Perception: hear, see, smell, taste

Some verbs have a stative meaning and a different active meaning. Verbs describing opinions and feelings tend to be state verbs. e.g. •Jack is noisy. • Jill is being noisy. • Tom has a Porsche. •We are having an interesting

conversation! • This fish tastes awful! • I am just tasting the soup. • This bag weighs a ton! • We are weighing the baby. • It depends what you mean. • I am depending on you. • I think you’re right. • Be quiet! I’m thinking.


Basic form:

affirmative: S + V-ed/V2 e.g. The Psychoanalysis approach developed from the work of Sigmund Freud. Behaviourism had a profound effect on psychology for about 50 years.

Spelling rules: 1. verbs ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i" and then add"-ed": e.g. to try I tried to spy he spied 2. final mute “e” is dropped before the “–ed” inflection. e.g. to behave behaved to shave shaved 3. final base consonants are doubled before “–ed” when the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with a single

letter. e.g. to admit admitted to prefer preferred

interrogative: Did + S + V ? e.g. Did you notice any weakness in the way that Hofling designed and carried out his study?

negative: S + did + not + V e.g. Bandura did not introduce the concept of ‘primary process thinking’. The short form of did not is didn’t.


Basic form: affirmative: S + was/were + V-ing

e.g. I was writing at this time yesterday. You were dreaming at 6.30 a.m. yesterday. He was watching TV when his friend called him.

see the ‘Spelling rules’ under the affirmative form from Present Tense Continuous.

interrogative: Was/were + S + V-ing? e.g. Were you drinking water when I phoned you? Was your daughter teaching English in September?

negative: S + was/were + V-ing e.g. He was not sleeping while the teacher was explaining. Mary wasn’t working in a restaurant when I was living in London.



Past simple generally refers to: Completed actions

e.g. She arrived at Kennedy Airport at 2 o’clock yesterday morning. Habits

e.g. Every morning Tom went to the park. States

e.g. In those days, Daria didn’t like reading.

Past continuous generally refers to: •Actions in progress (often interrupted by events)

e.g. She was drinking her tea at this time yesterday. While I was learning about Cognitive psychology, the phone rang.

•Background description in narrative •Changing states

e.g. The engine was making more and more funny noises. •Repeated actions – criticism

e.g. When David was at kindergarten, he was always crying after his mother.


Basic form: affirmative: S + to have + V-ed/V3

e.g. Science has made many major advances this century.

interrogative: to have + S + V-ed/V3? e.g. Have you failed the test?

negative: S + to have + not + V-ed/V3 e.g. I haven’t done my homework yet.


Basic form: affirmative: S + to have + been + V-ing

e.g. She’s been living in the US for over a year now.

interrogative: to have + S + been + V-ing? e.g. How long have you been waiting for me?

negative: S + to have + not + been + V-ing e.g. I haven’t been doing my homework since 3.20 am.


We use both the present perfect continuous and the present perfect simple to talk about something that started in the past and which affects the situation that exists now. The difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the activity or event which may or may not be finished. The present perfect simple, however, focuses on the effect of the activity or event, or the fact that something has been achieved. e.g. She’s been driving for 3 years now. We have driven all the way here without a break. Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis. e.g. I’ve been following their discussions with great interest. (emphasizes the activity; that is, my following their discussions) I’ve followed their discussions with great interest. (emphasizes the result; I may now react to what was said or decided)


PRESENT PERFECT / PAST SIMPLE: BASIC CONTRASTS •We use it to talk about something that happened in the past, but we don’t specify precisely when it happened. e.g. A French yachtsman has broken the record for sailing round the world single-handed.

•We use it when we want to indicate that something happened at a specific time in the past. e.g. She arrived at Kennedy Airport at 2 o’clock this morning.

•It suggests some kind of connection between what happened in the past, and the present time. Often we are interested in the way that something that happened in the past affects the situation that exists now. e.g. I’ve washed my hands so that I can help you with the cooking.

•We use it for situations that existed for a period of time in the past, but not now. e.g. When I was younger I played football for my local team. The Pharaohs ruled Egypt for thousands of years.

If we are interested in when a present situation began rather than how long it has been going on for, we use the past simple. Compare: e.g. I started to get the pains three weeks ago.

I’ve had the pains for three weeks now. However, we also use the past simple to talk about how long something went on for if the action or event is no longer going on. e.g. I stayed with my grandparents for six months. (= I am no longer staying there)

We can use either present perfect or the past simple to talk about repeated actions or events. If we use the present perfect, we often suggest that the action or event might happen again. Sometimes we emphasize this with phrases such as so far and up to now. If we use the past simple, it suggests that it is finished and won’t happen again. Compare: e.g. Jimson has made 13 films and I think her latest is the best. Jimson made 13 films before she was tragically killed in a car accident. • In news reports, you will often read or hear events introduced with the present perfect, and then the past simple is used to give the details. e.g. ‘The film star Jim Cooper has died of cancer. He was 68 and lived in Texas …’ • We can use both the present perfect and the past simple to talk about states. We use the present perfect to talk about a state that existed in the past and still exists now, and we use the past simple if the state no longer exists. e.g. I have known him most of my working life.(I’m still working) I knew him when we were both working in Rome.


Basic form: affirmative: S + had + V-ed/V3

e.g. Jill discovered that Tom had lied to her.

interrogative: had + S + V-ed/V3? e.g. Had you wanted to visit the gallery before you left Florence? negative: S + had + not + V-ed/V3

e.g. Bill hadn’t wanted to retire at 57, but they persuaded him to leave.



Basic form: affirmative: S + had + been + V-ing

e.g. She had been wearing high-heeled shoes, and her feet hurt.

interrogative: had + S + been + V-ing? e.g. Had they been riding when you met?

negative: S + had + not + been +V-ing e.g. Bill was arrested, even though he hadn’t been doing anything illegal.


Past perfect tenses in general refer to an event in the past which happens before another event in the past, where there is no time expression to make this clear. e.g. By the time I got to the station, the train had left.

The contrasts between past simple and past continuous can be made in past perfect tenses for events further back in the past. e.g. While I had been talking on the phone, Jill had entered the room.

The whole place was deserted, but it was obvious that someone had been living there. They’d been cooking in the kitchen for a start, and they hadn’t bothered to wash the dishes.


This often contrasts with the present. The contrast may be stated or understood. e.g. I used to go swimming a lot (but I don’t now). affirmative:

e.g. She used to write to relatives in China, but she doesn’t anymore.

interrogative: e.g. Did girls use to go to school?

negative: e.g. I didn’t use to play football when I was 10.


This is used to describe repeated actions, not states. It describes a habitual activity which was typical of a

person. e.g. Every week he’d buy his mother a bunch of flowers. Used to would also be possible here.

Compare: I used to like cowboy films. / I would like cowboy films.

Would is not possible here. Other situations:

- past situations e.g. Life in China used to be hard, particularly for women. Not ‘would be’ Also: live

- past states e.g. Mary used to be very beautiful. Also: have, know, like, see, think etc.



These describe events intended to take place, but which did not happen.

S + TO BE + GOING TO + V e.g. I was going to phone you, but I forgot. S + TO BE ABOUT TO + V e.g. I was about to do it, but I started doing something else. The contrasting past event is often understood. e.g. How are you? I was going to phone you… (but I didn’t)


Basic form: affirmative: S + will + V

e.g. The children will enjoy seeing you again.

interrogative: Will + S + V? e.g. Will you come back this evening?

negative: S + will + not + V e.g. The meeting won’t start at 10.00 am.


Basic form: affirmative: S + will + be + V-ing

e.g. Next Friday, the President will be celebrating five years in power. Tom will be taking up his place at university in July.

interrogative: Will + S + be + V-ing? e.g. Will you be coming to the concert?

negative: S + will + not + be + V-ing e.g. After the operation you won’t be doing any sport for a while. It describes an event which will be happening at a future point. e.g. Come round in the morning. I’ll be painting the kitchen.


When we use the fututre continuous, we are often referring simply to some future event or action that has been

previously arranged. However, we use the future simple, not the fututre continuous, to talk about such things as decisions that people have made, willingness to do things, inviting, promising, etc. e.g. Ann will help us organise the party. (= she is willing to help) Ann will be helping us to organise the party. (= a previous arrangement) Will you come to the concert? (= an invitation) Will you be coming to the concert? (= asking about a previous arrangement)

In some contexts the fututre continuous also sounds more polite than the future simple. e. g. Will you be going to the shops later? If you go, could you get me some potatoes?

The future simple is also used to express an immediate decision. e.g. I’ll take this one.


Basic form:


affirmative: S + will + have + V-ed/V3 e.g. By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom.

interrogative: Will + S + have + V-ed/V3? e.g. Will you have finished reading by 10.00 pm?

negative: S + will + not + have + V-ed/V3 e.g. The meeting won’t have started by 10.00 am.

We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended, completed, or achieved by a particular point in the future. It can also be used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker. e.g. You won’t have heard the news, of course.


Basic form: affirmative: S + will + have + been + V-ing e.g. On Saturday, we will have been living in this house for a year.

interrogative: Will + S + have + been + V-ing? e.g. Will you have been working in this company for 20 years next week?

negative: S + will + not + have + been + V-ing e.g. Next year I won’t have been working here for 10 years, but for 11.

We can use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long something has been going on by a particular point in the future.


1. Present Tense Continuous We use the present continuous:

to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged. e.g. She’s making a speech at the conference next week.

To emphasise that we are talking about a definite arrangement, we prefer the present continuous. e.g. We’re having a party on Sunday, 12th November. Can you come? to talk about personal plans or predictions.

e.g. I’m really exhausted. I’m just staying in to watch TV tonight.

2. Going to We use S + to be + going to + V:

to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged. e.g. We’re going to do some climbing in the Pyrenees.

When we talk about an intention to do something in the future, although no definite arrangement has been made, we prefer going to rather than the present continuous. e.g. Before I go to China next year, I’m going to learn some Cantonese. to talk about permanent future situations.

e.g. People are going to live longer in the future. to make or report predictions about activities or events over which we have no control, whose cause is present

or evident. e.g. I think it’s going to rain soon. e.g. Look at that tree! It’s going to fall

3. Present Tense Simple We use the present simple to talk about future events that are part of some official arrangement such as a

timetable or programme. e.g. Their plane arrives at 5.00 am. The next meeting of the committee is on November 5th.

4. Be to


S + to be to + V is used to talk about formal or official arrangements, formal instructions, and to give orders. It is particularly common in news reports to talk about future events. We only use S + to be to + V to talk about things that can be controlled by people. e.g. Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum. The European Parliament is to introduce a new law on safety at work. If humans are to survive as a species, we must address environmental issues now.

5. Be about to, be on the point of S + to be about to + V and S + to be on the point of + V-ing refer to the next moment. e.g. I think the play is about to start now. Mary is on the point of resigning.

6. Be due to S + to be due to + V refers to scheduled times.

e.g. The play is due to start in five minutes.


Verbs which take an object (called transitive verbs) can have a passive form.

e.g. The news surprised me. – active voice I was surprised by the news. – passive voice

Verbs which do not take an object (called intransitive verbs) do not have passive forms. e.g. I slept for almost eleven hours last night. – active voice; no passive voice possible.

Some verbs can be used at different times with and without objects – that is, they can be both transitive and intransitive. e.g. Are they meeting him at the station? - active voice Is he being met at the station? - passive voice When shall we meet? - active voice; no passive voice possible.

PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + to be + V-ed/V3

e.g. Problems such as depression or anxiety are classified as psychological disorders.

PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Basic form: affirmative: S + to be + being + V-ed/V3

e.g. Introducing Psychology is being read now.


affirmative: S + was/were + V-ed/V3 e.g. A sound was made when food was given, and the amount of salivation was measured.

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS Basic form: Affirmative: S + was/were + being + V-ed/V3

e.g. Pavlov’s famous experiment was being read at this time yesterday.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + to have + been + V-ed/V3

e.g. Freud’s methods have been adapted by subsequent analysts, therapists and psychiatrists.

S = subject (remember that a sentence should have a subject)


PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + had + been + V-ed/V3

e.g. I had already been told that you were leaving.

FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + will + be + V-ed/V3

e.g. John will be told that you are leaving.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE Basic form: affirmative: S + will + have + been + V-ed/V3

e.g. Although people are now angry about what he did, I’m sure that his behaviour will soon have been forgotten.

MODALS Present: Basic form: affirmative: S + modal + be + V-ed/V3

e.g. The roots of behaviourism can be found in the philosophical idea of associationism.

Past: Basic form: affirmative: S + modal + have + been + V-ed/V3

e.g. These pyramids must have been built 5,000 years ago.

Notice that not all the passive tenses are included. They are not normally used, and we avoid them by using the active.

Verbs that can be followed by either object + object or object + prepositional object in active clauses can have two corresponding passive forms. The passive form you choose depends on which is more appropriate in a particular context. Some of the verbs which take object + object or object + prepositional object are: give, hand, lend, offer, promise, sell, teach, tell, throw. e.g. She handed me the paper. – active voice I was handed the paper. – passive voice She handed the paper to me. – active voice The paper was handed to me. – passive voice

Verbs that can’t be followed by object + object in the active voice have only one passive form. Some of these verbs are: describe, demonstrate, explain, introduce, mention, report, suggest. e.g. Tom described me the situation. – Incorrect I was described the situation. – Incorrect Tom described the situation to me. – active voice The situation was described to me. – passive voice


Here are some situations where we typically choose a passive rather than an active. When the agent is not known, is ‘people in general’, is unimportant, or is obvious, we prefer passives.

e.g. My office was broken into when I was on holiday. An order form can be found on page 6. These boxes should be handled with care.

In factual writing, particularly in describing procedures or processes. e.g. The test was conducted in the school library to minimise noise. The children were taken out of their normal lessons and tested in groups of four. All the tests were carried out in January 2003.

In English old information is usually preferred to be put at the beginning of a sentence and new information at the end.

e.g. The three machines tested for the report contained different types of safety valve. The machines were manufactured by the Boron Group.

It is often more natural to put agents (subjects) which consist of long expressions at the end of a sentence. e.g. I was surprised by Ann’s decision to give up her job and move to London.



Adjectives describe nouns, go before nouns and have the same form in the singular and plural.

e.g. a huge tree/ huge trees Adjectives can also be used alone after the verbs be, look, smell, sound, feel, taste, seem, appear,

become, get, stay, etc. e.g. He is handsome. It smells good.

There are two kinds of adjectives: o opinion adjectives (interesting, fantastic)which show what a person thinks of somebody or something,

and o fact adjectives (old, fat, short) which give us factual information about size, age, colour, origin,

material, etc. There are simple and compound adjectives. Compound adjectives may be formed with:

present participles: long-lasting journey past participles: broken-down car cardinal numbers + nouns: a three-day trip

NOT: a three days trip well, badly + past participle: well-informed people


Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives. e.g. a beautiful Italian girl

When there are two or more fact adjectives in a sentence, they usually go in the following order: (determiner) – opinion – size – age – shape – colour – origin – material – used for/be about – (noun) e.g. (a) small, old, square, Chinese wooden (table)

We do not usually have a long list of adjectives before a single noun. A noun is usually described by one, two or three adjectives at the most.



AS / LIKE We use like:

• with nouns/pronouns/-ing form to express similarity. She treats him like a servant. (He isn't a servant.)

• with feel, look, smell, taste. She looks like her sister. We use as to say what somebody or something really is. e.g. He works as a waiter.


Adjectives have the following degrees of comparison: 1. Positive

e.g. tall, interesting, good 2. Comparative - of superiority

e.g. taller (see A.), more interesting (see B.), better (see C.) - of equality

e.g. as tall as, as interesting as, as good as - of inferiority

e.g. not so tall as, not so good as, not so interesting as/less interesting than 3. Superlative -absolute

e.g. very / extremely etc. tall, very / extremely etc. good, very / extremely etc. interesting - relative

e.g. the tallest (see A.), the most interesting (see B.), the best (see C.) A. The synthetical comparison is used for mono/disyllabic adjectives

comparative of superiority: short adj. + -er relative superlative: the + short adj. + -est e.g. close - closer – closest fine - finer - the finest dry - drier - the driest big - bigger - the biggest

• with two-syllable adjectives ending in -ly, -y, -w, we also add -er / -est. e.g. narrow-narrower-narrowest

• with adverbs that have the same form as their adjectives, we add -er/-est. e.g. hard - harder - hardest

B. The analytical comparison is used for plurisyllabic adjectives comparative of superiority; more + long adj. relative superlative: the most + long adj. e. g. rapid - more rapid - the most rapid intelligent - more intelligent - most intelligent

• two-syllable or compound adverbs take more/most. e.g. slowly - more slowly - most slowly

clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, pleasant, polite, shallow, simple, stupid, quiet can form their comparatives and superlatives either with -er/-est or with more/most

Spelling rules: 1. for one syllable adjectives ending in a short stressed vowel + a consonant, we double the consonant.

e.g. big-bigger-biggest 2. for adjectives ending in a consonant + y, we change the -y into an -i.

e.g. tiny-tinier-tiniest 3. final mute “e” is dropped before –er, -est.

e.g. nice – nicer – nicest We use the comparative to compare one person or thing with another. We use the superlative to compare one person or thing with more than one person or thing of the same group. We often use than after a comparative and the before a superlative.


e.g. He is older than me. He's the oldest person in the room. C. The irregular comparison


Comparative of superiority

Superlative Relative Good


The best Bad/ill


The worst Old

Older - Elder*

the oldest - the eldest*


farther - further*

the farthest - the furthest


less - lesser*

the least – the last

Much /Many


The most



- the foremost* - the first*


- later - latter*

- the latest* - the last*



- the nearest* - the next*

* elder and the eldest are used only attributively, in family relationships e.g. my elder sister

* further = additional, more e.g. further information

*lesser = smaller, not so important e.g. the writer's lesser works

*former = of an earlier period, the first of two e.g. in former times

*the foremost = chief e.g. the foremost poet of his period

*the first = initial e.g. the first woman to come

*latter = the second of two e.g. He has met Tom and Bob: the former is a teacher, and the latter is a lawyer. *the latest = the most recent e.g. the latest fashion

*the last = final e.g. Eminescu's last poem

*the nearest is used for distance e.g. Could you tell me the way to the nearest hotel?

*the next refers to order e.g. the next bus is at six.

Types of comparisons:


• as + adjective + as (to show that two people or things are similar in some way. In negative sentences we use not as/so ... as.

e.g. This book is as expensive as that one. • less + adjective + than (expresses the difference between two people or things) The opposite is more ... than.

e.g. Ann is less rich than her sister. • the least + adjective + of/in (compares one person or thing to two or more people or things in the same group)

The opposite is the most... of/in. e.g. She is the least hard working person in the company.

• much/a lot/far/a little/a bit/slightly + comparative (expresses the degree of difference between two people or things)

e.g. Tony is slightly younger than Bob. • comparative and comparative (to show that something is increasing or decreasing)

e.g. It’s getting colder and colder. • the + comparative ..., the + comparative (shows that two things change together, or that one thing depends on

another thing). e.g. The more you talk, the less they listen.

• by far + the + superlative (emphasises the difference between one person or thing and two or more people or things in the same group).

e.g. Last summer was by far the best summer I ever had. • the + comparative when two things or persons are compared; in Romanian we use the superlative.

e.g. Lola is the prettier of the two sisters. = Lola este cea mai drăguţă dintre cele două surori.


Relative clauses are introduced with either a relative pronoun or a relative adverb.


We use:

who(m)/that to refer to people; which/that to refer to things; whose with people, animals and objects to show possession (instead of a possessive adjective).

o Who, which, and that can be omitted when they are the object of the relative clause.

e.g. That is the book (that) I was telling you about. o Whom can be used instead of who when it is the object of the relative clause. Whom is always used

instead of who or that after a preposition. e.g. She’s someone with whom I used to work.

o Who, which, or that is not omitted when it is the subject of a relative clause. e.g. The play which won the Tony Award was a musical.

o Whose is never omitted. e.g. This is Bruce Weber whose photographs you must have seen.


We use:

When/ that to refer to a time (and can be omitted). e.g. That was the year (when/that) my son was born.

Where to refer to a place. e.g. The flat where I live is on the top floor.

Why to give a reason, usually after the word reason (why can be omitted). e.g. The reason (why)she quit her job is only to be guessed.



A defining relative clause gives necessary information essential to the meaning of the main sentence. It is not put between commas and is introduced with who, with, that, whose, where, when, or the reason (why). e.g. Any student who is caught cheating will be expelled.


A non-defining relative clause gives extra information and is not essential to the meaning of the main sentence. It is put between commas and is introduced with who, whom, which, whose, where, or when. e.g. A student, who was caught cheating, was expelled.


If-clause Main clause Type 0 If/when + S + present simple

S + present simple

Type 1 If + S + present simple

S + future simple / imperative / modal + V/ present tense

Type 2 If + S + past simple/past continuous

S + would/could/might + V

Type 3 If + S + past perfect/ past perfect continuous

S + would/could/might + have + V-ed/V3

Type 0 is used to express a general truth or a scientific fact. In this type of conditional, we can use when instead of if. e.g. If/When you mix white and black paint, you get grey.

Type 1 is used to express a real or very probable situation in the present or future. e.g. If I have enough time, I’ll read Social Psychology by Franzoi.

Type 2 (unreal present) is used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the present and, therefore, are unlikely to happen in the present or future. We can use the structure ‘if I were you…’ to give advice. e.g. If I had enough time, I would read Social Psychology by Franzoi. If I were travelling around Europe, I would travel by train.

Type 3 (unreal past) is used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the past. They are also used to express regrets or criticism. e.g. If I had had enough time, I would have read Social Psychology by Franzoi. If he had told me about his problem, I would have helped him.


We can form mixed conditionals, if the context permits it, by combining an if-clause from one type with a main clause from another.

If-clause Main clause

Type 2 If the plane landed late last night,

Type 1 he won’t be on time for work today.

Type 2 If you were less impulsive,

Type 3 you wouldn’t have spoken to your supervisor like that.

Type 3 If I hadn’t drunk the bad milk,

Type 2 I would be fine now.



We can use wish/if only to express a wish. We use ‘S + wish + S + past simple/past continuous’ or ‘if only + S + past simple/past continuous’ to say that we

would like something to be different about a present situation e.g. I wish I were 10 years old. (but I’m not) If only I were travelling with you and not alone! (but I’m not)

We use ‘S + wish + S + past perfect’ or ‘if only + S + past perfect’ to express regret about something which happened or didn’t happen in the past. e.g. I wish I had saved more money during my twenties. (but I didn’t) If only I hadn’t been so harsh to her! We could still be friends. (but I was)

We use ‘S + wish + S + would + bare infinitive’ or ‘if only + S + would + bare infinitive’ to express a polite imperative.

e.g. I wish you would stop spreading rumours. a desire for a situation or person’s behaviour to change.

e.g. If only it would be sunny on my birthday!

‘If only’ is used in exactly the same way as wish but it is more emphatic or more dramatic. After the subject pronouns I and we, we can use could instead of would. e.g. I wish I could study art history.


Clauses of purpose are used to explain why somebody does something. They are introduced with the

following words/ expressions: • to + V (called ‘to-infinitive’)

e.g. Colin went to the supermarket to buy some food. • in order to/so as to + V (formal)

e.g. The manager requested that everyone work overtime in order to finish the project on time. • so that + can/will (present/future reference)

e.g. Take my number so that you can call me if you need any help. • so that + could/would (past reference)

e.g. He left at 3 o'clock so that he would be at the station in plenty of time. • in case + present tense (present or future reference)

e.g. Take an umbrella in case it rains. • in case + past tense (past reference)

e.g. She had packed some warm clothes in case it was cold there. Note: in case is never used with will or would.

• for + noun (expresses the purpose of an action) e.g. They went to Mario's for a snack.

• for + V-ing (expresses the purpose of something or its function) e.g. Scissors are used for cutting paper.

• with a view to + V-ing e.g. The Browns rented the old cottage with a view to spending their holidays there. We can express negative purpose using:

• in order not to/so as not to + V e.g. He made a list of the guests so as not to forget anyone.

• prevent + noun/pronoun (+from) + V-ing e.g. Bad weather prevented the ship from departing.


III. Informatii despre colocviu

Colocviul la Limba engleza II este oral si se sustine in presesiune, adica in ultimele doua saptamani de cursuri/seminarii. Fiecare student extrage un bilet. Pe fiecare bilet se afla doua intrebari care verifica capacitatea de intelegere in limba engleza a unui text de specialitate, precum si exprimarea corecta si fluenta in limba engleza pe o tema de specialitate.


Subiectul 0

Read the text and answer the following questions:

1. How do cognitive psychologists explain behavior? 2. Name some of the key concepts of the cognitive approach.

Cognitive psychologists explain behaviour in terms of how the mind operates, and the working of the mind is seen as being similar to a machine or computer. The approach looks at the inputs (the stimuli) to the machine and the outputs (what it does), as well as the various processes that occur between input and output. It views these processes as mechanistic.

The metaphor used by the cognitive approach has changed with the development of machine technology. The arrival of the microchip made the information-processing models of the 1950s and 60s redundant and cognitive psychologists now model the human mind on the most complex technology available to date – the computer. Increasingly advanced computers have moved from using parallel processing to using interconnected networks. An interesting feature of such networks is that their behaviour cannot be simply predicted from the behaviour of the individual parts and thus such networks can be seen as example of ‘holism’.

Some of the key concepts of the cognitive approach are mental and perceptual set, schema, stereotypes and social representations.