‍tiin£ƒ i tehnicƒ 1850-1914

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Ştiinţă şi tehnică 1850-1914, clasa a VII-a, istorie

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  • Civilizaia la rscruce de secole,,O nestrmutat credin n puterile raiunii constituie motorul ntregului secol al XIX-lea.JEAN CARPENTIER, FRANOIS LEBRUN- Istoria Europei -

  • tiina i tehnicaMarile invenii i inventatori

  • Inventatorii i protejeaz inventiile obinnd brevete de la autoritile abilitate, prin care ei i dezvluie secretele n schimbul dreptului de a realiza, utiliza sau vinde inveniile. Cei mai cunoscui inventatori din secolul al XIX-lea sunt: Heinrich Hertz: a demonstrat natura luminii, propagarea undelor electromagnetice

    Pe baza inveniilor lui a urmat:

    Alexander Graham Bell care a inventat telefonul, Marile invenii i inventatoriA. Graham Bell (1847-1922)Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894)

  • Wilhelm RntgenA descoperit razele X care au proprietatea de a traversa diferite corpuri

    Pe baza inveniilor lui a urmat:Aplicaiile din medicin ale radiografiilor X i ale aplicaiilor razelor X i a razelor gamma din programele nucleare de azi.

    Care fizicieni francezi, polonezi, italieni i-au urmat?

    Wilhelm Rntgen (1845-1923)An exposure of 500 roentgens in five hours is usually lethal for human beings.The typical exposure to normalbackground radiationfor a human being is about 200 milliroentgens per year, or about 23 microroentgens per hour. Descoperirea i studiulradioactivitii

  • O nou conceie despre Univers- teoria relativitii -Albert Einstein 1879-1955E=mc2Descoperirile din fizic au fost urmate de cele din chimie

  • A inventat:fonograful,becul electric,centrala electric,tramvaiul

    A descoperit modul de producere i conducere a curentului electric.gramofonThomas Halva Edison1847-1931

  • Joseph Nicphore Nipce francez - 17651833inventatorul aparatului de fotografiat 1825 Vedere de la fereastr n Le Gras - 1826mpreun cu Niepce, mai lucra o persoan pe nume Louis Daguerre, care , mai trziu, a mbuntit procedeul inventat de acesta. El a fost un pictor i a realizat fotografii pe plci, cu iodat de argint fotosensibil. Din aceast cauz, primele fotografii au fost denumite dagherotipii.

  • O invenie celebrInventarea fotografiei le-a permis frailor Auguste i Louis Lumire s mearg mai departe i s inventeze filmul cinematografic , fotografia i filmul color: Fraii Auguste i Louis Lumire

  • Algerieni foto: 1917

  • ChimieSintetizarea compuilor organici duce la dezvoltarea industriei chimice: ngrminte, medicamente, fibre sintetice

    Microbiologia:descoperirea vaccinului datorit lui Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)Care este accinul descoperit de el?Ce specialitate avea?Cine i-a urmat?

    Biologien tiinele biologice s-a remarcat englezul Charles Darwin (1809-1882) creatorul teoriei evoluionisteCe lucrare a scris?Ce noi tiine biologice au aprut?Chimie i microbiologie

  • Expoziia universal de la Londra 1851: Crystal PalaceMarile progrese n marile expoziii

  • Expoziia universal de la Londra 1851: Crystal Palace

  • Expoziia universal de la Londra 1851: Crystal Palace

  • Expoziia universal de la Paris 1889

  • Expoziia universal de la Paris 1889: Galeria mainilor

  • Mainismul i mainriileBenz "Velo" model (1894) by German inventor Carl Benz entered into anearly automobile raceas amotocyclemodel ul din 1885

  • Ce aplicaii are?Rudolf Diesel 1858-1913german nscut la ParisA inventatmotorul cu ardere intern n 1893.Motor original creat de Diesel n 1897

  • Recunoatei inveniile i inventatorii?

  • Recunoatei inveniile?Dar inventatorul?

  • Premiul NobelAlfred Nobel 1833-1896chimist, inginer i inventator suedezA deinut 350 de brevete de invenieCea mai celebr invenie: dinamita.In 1888 Alfred's brother Ludvig died while visitingCannesand a French newspaper erroneously published Alfred'sobituaryIt condemned him for his invention of dynamite and is said to have brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his death.The obituary stated,Le marchand de la mort est mort("The merchant of death is dead")and went on to say, "Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday. Alfred was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would be remembered.On 27 November 1895, at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish theNobel Prizes, to be awarded annually without distinction of nationality. After taxes and bequests to individuals, Nobel's will allocated 94% of his total assets, 31,225,000Swedish kronor, to establish the five Nobel Prizes. This converted to GBP 1,687,837 at the time.In 2012, the capital was worth around SEK 3.1 billion (USD 472 million, EUR 337 million), which is almost twice the amount of the initial capital, taking inflation into account.The first three of these prizes are awarded for eminencein physical science,in chemistryandin medical science or physiology; the fourth isfor literary work"in an ideal direction" andthe fifth prizeis to be given to the person or society that renders the greatest service to the cause of internationalfraternity, in the suppression or reduction of standing armies, or in the establishment or furtherance of peace congresses.

  • realizator: prof. dr. Beatrice Budea recunoatei inventatorii?19091906Primul avion cu reacie din lume: 19101903 fraii Wright 1909 Louis Blriot