Robert Lucrare Modificata

download Robert Lucrare Modificata

of 54

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Robert Lucrare Modificata

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    Lucrare de disertaie

    Coordonator tiinific:Lector univ. dr. Andrea Peterlicean


    Nechita Robert


  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata





    Lucrare de disertaie

    The Self between the Bible, Theosophies and New Age

    Coordonator tiinific:Lector univ. dr. Andrea Peterlicean


    Nechita Robert


  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    FACULTATEA DE TIINE I LITERE Candidat (a) Nechita Robert

    Specializarea : STUDII ANGLO-AMERICANE. Anul absolvirii : 2013


    Conductorul tiinific : Viza facultii

    Lector univ. dr. Andrea Peterlicean

    a) Tema lucrrii de disertaie:

    The Self between the Bible, Theosophies and New Age

    b) Problemele principale tratate :


    Origin and Historical Evolution

    Biblical view vs. Evolutionism

    Concepts of Language


    The Origin of the Self

    English Literature and the Self

    Mind Issues and Self Perspectives

    The meaning of life

    Mass-Media vs. Economic-Political-Financial Issues

    Music-Lyrics and the Young Generation's Life Values

    Cinematography, Science and Reality vs. the Bible

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata


    c) Bibliografie selectiv :

    Albert Camus, Sisyphus Myth and other essays. New York: Random House, 1955. Print. Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man. London: Cossimo Classics, 2007. Print. Englefield, F.R.H., Language: Its Origin and Its Relation to Thought. NewYork:

    Macmillian, 1977. Print.

    H. P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine. New York: The Theosophical Publishing Company,1988. Print.

    Lieberman, P., Eve Spoke, Human Language and Human Evolution, New York: W.W.Norton, 2001. Print.

    Manlly P. Hall, Secret Teachings of All Ages. Ratfford: Wilder Publication, 2007. Print. Marilyn Ferguson, Aquarius Conspiracy. Boston:Weister Books, 1980. Print. OConnell, Mark and Raje Airey, The Complete Encyclopedia of Signs & Symbols:

    Identification and Analysis of the Visual Vocabulary That Formulates Our Thoughts and

    Dictates Our Reactions to the World Around Us, Hermes House, 2006. Print.

    Rodney St. Michael, Healing and Developing the Mind, Writers Club Press, New York:Lincoln Shanghai, 2002. Print.

    Roy F. Baumeister, Meanings of life, New York: The Guilford Press, New York, 1991.Print.

    The King James Study Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers House, Nashville,1988. Print.

    The Penguin Dictionary of Proverbs, Rosalind Fergusson. London: Market House BooksLTD., 1995. Print.

    Victor Frankl,Men's search for meaning.New York: Random House, 1980. Webster Griffin Tarpley, 9/11 Synthetic Terrorism Made in USA. California: Progressive

    Press, 2009. Print.

    d) Termene obligatorii de consultaii :

    12 Iunie 2012; 5 Noiembrie 2012; 14 Ianuarie 2013; 25 Februarie 2013; 11 Martie 2013; 6 Mai

    2013; 14 Mai 2013; 17 Iunie 2013; 2 Iulie 2013.

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata


    e) Locul i durata practicii :

    Biblioteca Universitii Petru Maior, Trgu-Mure Biblioteca de Limba Englez, Resource Room, a Universitii Petru Maior Biblioteca Judeean, Trgu-Mure

    Primit tema la data de :

    Iunie 2012

    Termen de predare :

    Iulie 2013

    Semntura efului de catedr Semntura conductorului

    Semntura candidatului

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata




    INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................... 2

    CHAPTER I ................................................................................................................................................ 4

    THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE: THE BIBLE AND THE THEOSOPHIES .............................................. 4

    1.1.THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE AS PRESENTED IN THE BIBLE ................................................ 4

    1.2. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE: THE THEOSOPHICAL VIEW ................................................... 6

    1.3. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE: MAIN INTERPRETATIONS GROUPS ..................................... 8

    1.4. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE AND GOD .................................................................................. 10

    CHAPTER II ............................................................................................................................................. 11


    2.1. THE SELF IN LEGENDS, ANCIENT STORIES AND MYTHS .................................................. 11

    2.1.1. The Self in English Literature and Hidden Theosophical Teachings ........................................ 12

    2.1.2. The Self in English Literature: Symbols and Ciphered Codes in Writings............................... 15

    2.1.3. The Self in English Literature and the Biblical Theme of 'Man's Fall' ..................................... 15

    2.1.4. The Self in English Literature and Esoteric Teachings ............................................................. 17

    2.1.5. The Self in English Literature and Private Clubs Societies ..................................................... 19

    2.1.6. The Self in English Literature: Occult Themes ......................................................................... 20

    2.1.7. The Self in English Literature: Mind-Issues Themes................................................................ 21

    2.1.8. The Self in English Literature: Themes about Mob Destiny .................................................... 22

    2.1.9. The Self in English Literature: Absurd-Play's Genre ................................................................ 25

    2.1.10. The Self in English Literature: Religious Issues ..................................................................... 26

    2.2. THE SELF IN THE BIBLE AND ITS ANCIENT TEACHINGS .................................................. 29

    CHAPTER III ........................................................................................................................................... 34

    THE MEANING OF LIFE IN THE BIBLE AND THE NEW AGE MOVEMENT ................................. 34

    3.1. THE MEANING OF LIFE: DEFINITIONS ALONG THE TIME ................................................. 34

    3.2. THE MEANING OF LIFE AND THE NEW AGE CULTURE ..................................................... 35

    3.3 THE MEANING OF LIFE AND THE MASS-MEDIA CULTURE ............................................... 36

    3.4. THE MEANING OF LIFE AND THE CONSPIRACY THEORIES.............................................. 38

    3.5. THE MEANING OF LIFE AND THE MESSAGE OF BIBLE ...................................................... 41

    CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 43

    REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................... 45

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata




    Today, society faces the strangest evolution ever recorded in history whether that is

    connected to language, self or the meaning of life. The first chapter of this dissertation studies

    language origin theories. The dilemma is divided into two main groups: one of evolution

    followers and the second of the Bible believers. Human language was considered from ancient

    times to have been descended from the gods. However, today the most evolved human society of

    all times is considered to be unable to give reasonable arguments or prove to be accepted by the

    majority, but provides mere presuppositions. On the other hand, the only way to accept the true

    origin of the language is to accept its Creator, a way which implies faith and belief, which is

    from God Almighty who established the Heaven and Earth. Therefore, the controversy could not

    have arrived at its bottom because it is considered by the very evolutionist group to be an

    unexpectedly subtle issue, as it can be understood even by a toddler but cannot be explained by

    the adults. Thus, evolutionists develop many complex systems of experiences and propose

    polished arguments. They recognize that all their constructions are false if they do not respect the

    main principle, which is namely that everything develops from the simple to complex, even

    when it seems that the language may be an exception. If language has arrived at a completely

    multilevel and complex system, today evolution proves an oversimplication or an unexpected

    reduction that was expected by scholars to be otherwise.

    The second chapter resumes the study of the issue of language at another level: language

    works as a tool used to develop a certain human self. Literature can contain veiled messages that

    the receptors many times are unaware of- the external appearance of the book. Thus, from the

    time that humanity was bestowed with language, Satan was not content with the deception he

    performed in the Garden of Eden on humankind, but he continued to pervert the relation of Man

    with his creator by any means. Thus, he invented a strange philosophy from the teachings given

    by God in the garden to man, named some ages later- theosophy. This odd spirituality aims to

    alienate the human self from its Creator and is abundantly exemplified by English literature titles

    from all the cultural periods. Here are mentioned titles from the ancient Beowulf ballad,

    Arthurian legends, Elizabethan Age, Restoration Age, Romanticism, Victorian Drama, and

    Postmodernism to the 20th century literature with its various genres.

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    The third chapter records the New Age spirituality proposed throughout all channels of Mass

    Media using as the main tool of manipulation - language. The meaning of life is decided not only

    by spiritualized pop culture but also by political ideologies and economic reforms advertised to

    the masses. The questions raised as a conclusion are: in all this New Age culture what is useful

    and hurtful, what is the truth and the lies, who wins and who loses in this life?

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata





    O brave new worldThat has such people int!

    William Shakespeare, The Tempest(V, I)


    The history of human words and human language was lost in the past. There is no evidence of

    how the sounds of speech came into being for the first time but many ancient or mythical stories

    recorded such a notable event. Since the 18th

    century, philologists and men of science have tried

    to explain the phenomenon, but they only increased further the blur that already spread over such

    controversial issues.

    There are some sources considered to contain the elements of the first language used and the

    words first uttered. Of course, the unusual interpretations that have been offered until now are

    not generally accepted but they contain strong references to the mentioned issue.

    In this first section, the first thread in our approach to be studied is the Bible. In the Book of

    Genesis a very odd story relates languages have been multiplied and spread into a constellation

    similar to what we know today. Thus, what does not satisfy everyone within this story is that the

    ramifications of languages are shown but not the source. The story introduces only that the

    knowledge was received upon man's creation (Gen. 1:28).

    Deceived by Satan, man rebelled against his own Creator. The Angel of Light led man astray

    many times in the past. He became known later as Lucifer, an angel of darkness and sin, after

    being cast away from the vicinity of Gods throne for falling into arrogance and self-pride. Thistime human beings started to build a tower to defy the Supreme Divinity. For such boldness

    human kind is again punished by God, but this time with confusion not with complete

    destruction as had been in the stories of The flood, Sodom and Gomorrah, and the like. The

    disorder sent is an inner social affection and not societys total condemnation as previously. The

    story indicates that in the period when the construction of Babels tower began there was one

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    language spoken only and one body of people:

    And the LORD said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language;

    and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which

    they have imagined to do (Gen 11:6).

    This Bibles chapter also geographically locates the origin of these people, and where they

    were displaced. What we can see here also is that this first language was about people that

    journeyed from the east. Even the words symbolically record the matter of facts; thus Babel

    has the meaning in the Hebrew language, a descendent of the Aramaic language, confusion=or mixing (Simon 659). An interlinear Hebrew-English Bible gives the following translation

    mix (someone) up= ( ) () :Come, let Us go down and mix up (confuse) there their language so that they

    cannot understand one anothers speech (Jay P. Green 37).

    Also, the first Bible passage mentioned above records a very significant key word,

    specifically imagined. It sends us to the initial seduction of man by the serpent from the

    Garden of Eden and the first disobedience of men vis--vis his creator, the Almighty God,

    creator of Heaven and Earth.

    Because the writers of Scripture by the Spirit of God wrote the divine Word of God,

    transcribed accurately, reliably, and without error in the original manuscripts (2 Tim 3:16), we

    will consider that all stories from the Bible are true, some happened and some are waiting to be


    Further, The Tower of Babelchapter is preceded by the first encounter with the greatest enemy

    of man, Satan in the Garden of Eden. If the construction project of the tower was to exalt the

    devil above the clouds, which is the footstool of the Highest, this deceiver, has used an

    imagination-decoy already in The fall of man.

    All very well know the deception that occurred in the Garden of Eden, but what should be

    figured out was what actually happened there. First, we know very well that men were happy and

    complete in the garden of God. They had all respected the word of God, in fact the

    commandments of God and the first language that men spoke.

    Here, Satan does not just attack the primordial beliefs of men. However, he succeeded later to

    subvert, as we have seen, man's language too. In those times, human beings were entirely in the

    hand of God. Analogically all that pertained to men was of God, in Him and with Him. The only

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    thing that was in the power of humans, as a created being was his free will which in this phase

    his self and sense of life was with God and with God until perverted by Gods rival, the Satan.

    Following this line, the biblical story relates that one day the serpent, the being that had the

    power to be where he wanted when he wanted, with the exception of God's throne, from where

    he was rejected once becoming addicted to self-pride, deceived men provoking them to disobey

    their Creator, the God Almighty.

    But how could Satan tempt the unsullied and happy men to abandon the guidance of God and

    to follow his teachings? First, this great deceiver saw that mans companion, woman was more

    approachable. Satan knew that God first created man and that man's reasoning abilities were

    higher than his affection capabilities. Nevertheless, sentiments and the affects were compensated

    in his companion, the woman, who was in fact endowed too generously with these. The shortage

    of mental abstract analyses, made woman to be inclined more to concrete features, in which man

    had the preeminence.

    Satan thus challenged the weak point of this couple which was built perfectly, they shall be

    one flesh (Gen 2:24), but imperfect in the two halves individually. One day humanitys Liar

    asked the woman if she did not want to enhance her knowledge, to be more than what she was

    built for, to be like her Creator. That day Satan's deceiving scheme was, in fact, the doctrine that

    in time will be named theosophy.

    The core knowledge of this philosophy is the suggestion that man will become a god: ye

    shall be like as gods (Gen. 3:5). Thus, the woman was persuaded by her imagination, an error

    that led her into the trap of her greatest enemy. She also dragged her companion into the curse of

    sin, because disobeying God's words, she gave heed to the words of Gods opponent, provoking

    the fall of humanity.

    1.2. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE: THE THEOSOPHICAL VIEWToday and the future of all humanitys destiny will be a battle between whose advices we will

    take into consideration, whose philosophy would be more agreeable to our needs, a thin choice

    between life and death, between the traps of our own languages, terminology, notions, or

    definitions, as the past has shown us too often.

    From this section starts the second category of the arguments regarding the languages history

    and its origin. Once that Satan could cause the fall of human beings, he could also provoke

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    uncertainty in the mind of doubters using his ultimate tools, science, technology, and false

    philosophies about the most important questions that man wants to know: his origin, what he is,

    why he is here and where he is going after his death. After this first stroke given to the human

    beings integrity to estrange them from their true God, Satan never ceased to devise theories,

    ideologies, doctrines, and nowadays super-technologies to obliterate mans origin, estrange him

    from his true Lord and his true purpose.

    Whatever we said about the Big Bang, or the origins of the universe, or of the cosmic

    constellations regarding the formation of galaxies with all the suns and heavenly bodies, with all

    the planets, whatever we talked about geology, cosmic dust, evolution of the first life forms in

    the Universe, all these are just insignificant questions which deviate the attention from the truth,

    from the proper reference, from God, the creator of all things. In this context, human appearance

    too, and human evolution represent a gap in the animal kingdom from all points of view, no

    matter how we talk about his physiology, his biological or psychological features, visible and

    invisible characteristics. Man is a paradox between the mammals and his so-called ascendency.

    For instance, if we talk about human abilities, intelligence, adaptability, or mans endowments

    for communication, all the studies have arrived at more than dazzling conclusions from

    researchers, scholars and scientists, who wanted to find imperfections or to oversimplify

    something that seemed remarkably rudimentary, but unfolded to become more complex.

    Man's language, for instance, has the same effects on those that tried to find physiological or

    mental explanations of the speaking apparatus. Darwinism and human evolution theory launch

    the same intermission in the sphere of man's emergence. In his book The Descent of Man (1871),

    Darwin's human intellect development theory posed some difficulties even if the origin of the

    moral language is seen as being due to the emergence of advanced moral sensibility. However,

    this theory also has its own pitfalls because Darwins empirical approach to mentality

    necessitated a materialist description of language development. For this, Darwin relied on the

    intellectual authority of the contemporary theorists in linguistic science, like that of Hensleigh

    Wedgwood and philologist Frederic W. Farrar:

    There is no more improbability in the continued use of the mental and vocal

    organs leading to inherited changes in their structure and functions, than in the

    case of the hand-writing, which depends partly on the form of the hand and partly

    on the disposition of the mind; and handwriting is certainly inherited (Darwin

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata




    If someone by chance never in his life encountered the evolution theory pointed out by

    Darwin like a red line in his entire opera, he would be shocked by the insistence with which this

    man of science hammered the coin of the human being emerging from the animal kingdom:

    This faculty (language) has justly been considered as one of the chief distinctions

    between man and lower animals (Darwin 69).

    The opposite theory is found in theBook ofGenesis where the Bible believers are taught that

    man is made in the image of God (Gen.1:27), even if man is lower than the angels (Psalm 8:5-

    6), their Creator valuing him more than other celestial beings.

    So, we will always face two main antagonistic theories on our Planet until Judgment Day:

    one of logic and reason, coming from an earthly wisdom (James 3:15) , irradiated by all the

    theosophical ideologies and other doctrines promoting man as a god, his own creator, emanated

    by their obscure author and master through any possible channel; and the second which abides

    in heart and soul of every Bible believer, poured out from a heavenly wisdom (James 3:17), that

    man is only a servant of the Celestial Father and His Son, Jesus Christ.

    Thus, there are many other theories, besides the Darwins interpretation, that try to describe a

    convincing interpretation of mans first sign, verbal or communication evolution. All the

    observations and the records on the issue somehow are limited to three main groups: humans

    discovered, received, or invented language (French).

    1.3. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE: MAIN INTERPRETATIONS GROUPSThe group of The Animal Sound Theory like the majority interpretations relates to the

    evolution theory viewing life from this narrow perspective. P. Lieberman explains thus in his

    bookEve Spoke: Human Language and Human Evolution that speech possession is virtually

    equated with being human (Libermann 5).

    An interesting definition, for the language latent incipient, gives Trask R. L. in his bookKey

    Concepts in Language and Linguistics,

    Our language faculty, we now strongly suspect, is built into our genes, and

    learning a first language may not be so different from learning to see: at birth,

    our visual apparatus is not working properly, and it requires some exposure to the

    visible world before normal vision is acquired(Trask 105).

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    Blackmores Meme Theory is based on the abilities of man to imitate and to reproduce a

    unit of information residing in a brain or ideas that are passed on (Blackmore 63) from subject

    to subject arriving to such mutations that cannot be recognized from the initial original pattern.

    The Emergent Human Theory, does not want to recognize directly a creator but they say that

    the building blocks of the DNA shifted randomly as men evolved, gave him the ability to

    communicate. This group recognizes with subtlety that in the man himself is laid the self-

    creation seed, and not received ultimately from an omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent


    Can natural selection, operating on random arrangements of material building

    blocks (i.e., subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, and larger collections and

    structures of matter) produce the genomes of all living things, the human

    language capacity, and all of the worlds 6000 plus natural languages? There are

    two polar views on this question that are widely held by practicing scientists. At

    one extreme there is the neo-Darwinian claim that chance aided by natural

    selection can arrange dynamic information systems as they are now. At the other

    end there is the view that a transcendent Intelligence not limited by matter, space,

    and time is required. Here an argument is presented from logico-mathematical

    proofs developed in theoretical semiotics to show unequivocally that the known

    symbol systems seen in genomes and in human languages cannot be produced by

    chance arrangements of any kind of material building blocks. The argument is

    generally. It applies to all possible symbol systems, though the emphasis here is

    on the genetic system evidently underlying all living organisms and the human

    language capacity, which is manifested in the multitude of natural languages

    (Oller 6).

    The Sign Language Theory, even if it has hilarious characteristics pretends an academic

    approach. (Boeree) This theory known as the bow wow (Englefield 19) theory was proposed by

    Max Miller in 1880, though even he did not consider it very likely (Corbalis 23).

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata




    The group of The creation theory is the most unbelievable, but the most probable. Because

    none of the evolutionist theories have been satisfactorily capable of solving the easiest task they

    assumed to find - namely any animal that was endowed with a transitional form of

    communication, and secondly, no evolutionist could find the origin of any language. Who

    understands the verse Genesis 1:27 will be able to comprehend not only why God gave language

    to people, but also why God uses languages with His people with whom He is separated. Thus,

    this makes sense, because language gives a picture of the nature of God. Language, like God, is

    incredibly complex. Entire lifetimes can be spent studying it, and yet even toddlers can

    understand and begin to use it.

    Now whether we look at Darwins theory about language or his followers, whether we look atthe current literature, doctrines, ideologies, science and technologies which try to give from a

    high level of earthly wisdom a hint about where we originated, what we are, and where we go, it

    is just the terminology, the notions and definitions with whom the great Deceiver and the Liar of

    humanity fights against the heavenly wisdom and of those that search and keep the Word of God,

    written in the Book of Life: The Bible.

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata






    2.1. THE SELF IN LEGENDS, ANCIENT STORIES AND MYTHSIn the world of human beings, for unknown reasons, a great number of myths, ancient stories,

    and ancestral legends hidden in occult meanings and symbols, arrives to present times often

    without a clear correspondent to the real object. These valuations for human beings of the

    spiritual realms inherited and given to all them their so-called status, roles and representations in

    the real world many times were accepted without a deep discernment.

    In these stories, humans mirror themselves in the entire cycle of life, from their arrival to

    their departure from this world. Why men have accepted such elements of culture and spirituality

    as self-shaping sources, all these cultural patterns, as primo principio in their lives was not

    explained entirely or too convincingly for the majority. Why all this primordial elevation of

    sources containing self-contradictory character elements with opposing features had being

    accepted like asine principio that require no logical explanation is still a mystery to all scholars

    and researchers.

    Whether it is about Greek and Roman mythology and philosophy, the Hindus Upanishadsand Mahabharata writings, the Maya and Inca foretellers, the Chaldean, and Egyptian stories,

    the Coran prophecies, and not in the least Tanach- or Torah, Neviim and Ketuviim of the

    Mosaic culture, and today the last part added to it, the New Testament, comprising the Bible, all

    these writings are meeting a paradoxical, central geographical, and inspirational purpose,

    pointing to the inscrutable Orient.

    Therefore, all this writing concerns six disciplines commonly classified as metaphysics,

    logic, ethics, psychology, epistemology and aesthetics. Manly P. Hall, summarizing the situation

    more rigorously, says:

    To satisfy this common urge the unfolding human intellect has explored the

    extremities of imaginable space without and the extremities of imaginable self

    within, seeking to estimate the relationship between the one and the all; the effect

    and the cause; Nature and the groundwork of Nature; the mind and the source of

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    the mind; the spirit and the substance of the spirit; the illusion and the reality

    (Manly 10).

    The vital questions like From where are we? Where are we going? Why are we here? What is

    our lifes purpose? are available even today for a great amount of people that are not content

    with the so-called ready-given answers.

    If someone would know how to figure out from thousands and thousands of stories the

    mainstream, and even more, to sense the first source that produced the narrative piece of a

    certain pattern of stories, no matter that the subject is about (love, war, morality, society, faith,

    destiny or spirituality), such a person will find prevailing two major domains. The first category

    of literature will be that which contains all the stories recorded by men reflecting themselves in a

    continuous struggle for life, for living conditions, and material aspirations beyond any other

    meanings, with some subdued rays of spirituality. The second group of writings contains also the

    experience of humanity but this time is in full accordance with the authority of the divine power

    of the heavenly God, creator of men and their home, the Earth.

    2.1.1. The Self in English Literature and Hidden Theosophical Teachings

    The first collection is that of all literature that spans from the oldest time until today and

    contains some interference between the so-called laic, secular, and ecumenical or ecclesiastical


    For instance, among the Old English literature, early written works, majority anonymous,

    spoke about the ancient effort of men that had to face the threats of nature, and about changing

    traits of destiny. Here in such remote times death is not so frightful than the vicissitudes of life

    that have faced men. Beowulfs ballade identifies the origin of the evil in the life of men in the

    oldest legends, where the biblical Cain seems to be the chief of all. Such a hero, even if he knows

    about the great power of evil seen also in the power of giants, boasts that he overcame it with his

    own courage and self-intrepid capacity, though that there are some gratefulness of a Christianspiritualitys reminiscence in the ballade (Steve H. van Lewleen).

    In Chaucers book The Tales of Canterbury, the grotesque and the buffoonery being well

    mixed in romance chivalry develops the same theme of the men of destiny but in comic

    circumstances. LayamonsBrut, written early in the thirteenth century comes with a very similar

    approach, this time implying the destiny of a whole nation, an English one, and from which

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    descends all humanity in a subtle intention of the author. Brutmay interest modern readers arise

    in part due to the fact that much of its material is closely bound to the later English literature.

    However, the main interest centres round the Arthurian section, with its haunting story of a

    wondrous birth, heroic deeds and a mysterious end (Manly 33).

    All the incipient and early English literature through the centuries has the same structure

    where men immersed under a veil of self-generation and self-fudges a view that is identical to

    the theosophical writings. The common point of these two self-generating sources is inducing the

    idea that probably mans appearance in the Universe was a consequence of random

    circumstances where his own further development depends on his own choices.

    The Holy Grail of the Arthurian Legend links to the same branch of mystery and mans

    initiation in the unseen powers and his own inner generation, somehow denied by the literature

    critics that consider that nor is there any reason for assuming that the primitive formas of the

    story had any religious motive (Steve H. van Lewleen).

    These subdued spiritual elements spread through the works of many writers transpire the

    theosophical dogmas. Such writings sustain that man is his own master and his own creation

    even if he has to overcome some enemies and threats of nature; these entire obstacles being only

    there because of inner created blocks in the spiritual realms that reflect in the real world like

    shadows of that man whose fears has not been subdued yet. This kind of philosophy teaches that

    the completion of the great work of social regeneration must be accomplished not in society but

    in man himself. Religion, science, and philosophy are the three parts of essential learning in all

    these texts.

    Religion is the spiritual part of learning, philosophy the mental part, and the

    sciences, including the arts and crafts, the physical part. As the man himself has a

    spiritual, mental, and physical nature, and all of this nature manifest in his daily

    living, he must become equally informed in all the parts of his nature if he is to be

    self-governing. "Unbalanced forces perish in the void,"declared a prophet of old;

    and this is true beyond possibility of dispute (Manly 165).

    Some had studied these works just from an artistic view, of verse and prosodic aspects and so

    on but the spiritual aspects are of no less importance that they imply. At this turning point, enter

    the famous work of Shakespeare, in fact Bacon-Shakespeare controversy (Manly 169).

    Nevertheless, even here the ideas are not as linear as all expects but again unfold in the

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    innocent play of words, of signs, and with an appearance totally unaffected which meets the

    experience of two different characters.

    Now in this direction there is a theory of language's power, of the utterance of spells and

    formulas whispered in the ether but not clear to the profane. Thus, if language is ritualised,

    performed by initiating ones, some like witches, shamans, priests of all sorts and even literature

    writers, plain words become deadly weapons and with sure effect on intended subject, which is

    the innocuous human being.

    This phenomenon used on a large scale in literature under the form of innocent romance

    stories of adventure, war is not only for entertainment or culture, but also for more serious

    purposes of an inoculation of certain self-realizations in humans.

    Today a similar manifestation takes place in the media. Nowadays the visual space that

    surrounds the human mind contains all kinds of messages. Whether within TV shows, movies,

    music, and the advertising industry or the farthest in its intention, the unconventional graffiti on

    the houses walls of the whole city has one purpose: inoculation of a program or a direction. All

    these are designed to strike the self with all subliminal bombardments of language and sign

    valences. About all these more detailed in the third chapter, that will study the connection

    between life and an artificial self-elaboration.

    Other important figures of the Elizabethan era such as Christopher Marlowe with the story of

    Doctor Faustus (1592) or Edmund SpencerThe Faerie Queene (1590) shapes these suspicions.

    The works and life of each of them disseminates more than the activity of an ordinary English

    poet, court affairs and soldiers of culture as is revelled in Four-Fold Vision See:Allegory in the

    Poetry of Edmund Spencer and William Blackby Elisabeth Jane Darnill (Darnill).

    The following English literature periods include all the main elements that feature a clear

    esoteric path even if many times it has been covered under historical, economic or social issues.

    In this list, deserve to be mentioned Ben Johnsons The Alchemist; John MiltonsParadise Lost;

    the Earl of Rochester's Sodom, and BunyansPilgrim's Progress, completed by the metaphysical

    poets of 17th century, John Donne and George Herbert with works transcending subtle torments

    of spiritual conflict and both Christian mysticism and eroticism.

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    2.1.2. The Self in English Literature: Symbols and Ciphered Codes in Writings

    By unknown force the plays and the works of the aforementioned authors are probably either

    a result of life experiences or their own imagination. But why there are often used codes and

    duplicated meaning of the text is not quite clear. The Shakespearean works, for instance, abound

    in such double intention, one of the actions itself and one that does not pertain to the story itself

    but to elevated beliefs that can be traced to the ancient wisdom buried in forgotten times. Indeed,

    the whole canon of Shakespearean plays and poems embody both the philosophy and the degrees

    of initiation of a private club, expressed in various allegories that are akin to and hints at a kind

    of initiated ones (Manly).

    This could be the discourses goal also of The Spectator by Joseph Addison and Richard

    Steele, under all its manner and polite style to bring out a philosophy provided principally in the

    interests of England's emerging middle classmerchants and traders large and small. Why the

    external values of Enlightenment philosophies that transpire from the authors ofThe Spectator

    promoted family, marriage, and courtesy that had to dwell in the selected clubs and private

    assemblies within their internal values (Steve H. van Lewleen)?

    Jonathan Swift is a member of the above inner societies and in all his fabulous stories just

    wants to ferret out their intentions and their narrow minds toward ordinary people? The beautiful

    stories ofGullivers Travels andA Tale of a Tube only showed that Swift's satire was intended to

    provide a genuine service by painting the portrait of conspiracy minded and injudicious writers

    or a more sinister near future for mob rule?

    2.1.3. The Self in English Literature and the Biblical Theme of 'Man's Fall'

    John MiltonsParadise Lostwith its self-determination poetic message can be considered to

    fall in the same category. Here the writer has just ascertained some facts in the light of the curse

    that has fallen on humanity for disobeying Gods commandments in the Garden of Eden or does

    he intend more regarding the certain final destiny of men in his Ptolemaic-system vision (Miltonxxx)?

    Great similarities displays Alexander Popes poem An Essay on Man (1732), developing a

    theory of mans struggle for a place above beasts but underneath the angels in Great Chain of

    Being. (H. David Wenger) Such ideas were considered to be inspired from H. David Wengers

    essayA New look at Theosophy, The great Chain of Being Revisited, that presents an exploration

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    of the evolution and multidimensional nature of the human consciousness (H. David Wenger).

    All these literature patterns find common features in the Book of Enoch. Here mentioned by

    the ancient narrator are the societies founded by the entities called fallen angels that descended

    from watch posts they had and lay with female human beings, who gave birth to giants, through

    unknown and forbidden released spells that breed earthly flesh with heavenly spirits. TheHoly

    Bible also discloses this wickedness and the punishment that these rebels received in the sixth

    chapter of 'Genesis Book'.

    The hidden messages of average literature contain teachings similar if not identical to the

    leaders of these Watchers-sons of Heaven as Enoch names the two hundred rebels that

    abandoned their heavenly abode, mixed with humankind, and taught them the eternal secrets

    that are made in Heaven. (Book of Enoch 9:6 )

    Thus seems that on Earth fights for supremacy two main teachings for the self of humanity:

    one of the fallen angels that wants to lead astray humankind once they have made impure their

    heavenly integrity and the second the sacred knowledge from the Holy Bible written by men

    inspired by the heavenly messengers of God, the Holy Ones of Heaven.

    The chief source of all these mental theories seems to be Puritan author Locke. In Some

    Thoughts Concerning Education we find an outline on how to educate this mob mind, and the

    human spirit together with it:

    Care is to be had of the forming of Childrens Minds, and giving them that

    seasoning early, which shall influence their Lives always after: For when they do

    well or ill, the Praise and Blame will be laid there; and when any Thing is done

    awkwardly, the common saying will pass upon them, that is suitable to their

    Breeding(Locke 21).

    Furthermore, no matter what the literary works bring into the discussion themes like love for

    money, souls sold to enchanted spirits, incest and sodomies, murders and horrible plots, royal

    impostors and necromancy, the core message of the text often is impermeable to neophytes.

    The majority of such literary products coincide with the one philosophy of an ancient occult

    sect. These seem to be an elite group that emanate own prefabricated cultural and life values.

    These entities central interests are for the embodiment of a future horrendous human society.

    This mystic groups only purpose is to construct a false self in the mind of the male audience that

    were influenced to digest the issues given, similar to superior cultural elements.

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    Thus, through this entertainment channel with intellectual, instructional or spiritual allure,

    takes place soul/self-nourishment. This process irradiated by these written texts, theater

    performances and nowadays by media technologies that arrive are the only things worth thought,

    felt, and also at a certain moment to be acted out by so-called 'elevated human beings' from the

    auditorium, that nourished themselves spiritually this way.

    Some would consider that these are just simple coincidences in the direction of a society and

    its culture or literature that consume huge resources to elaborate a human, odd -deviated society.

    But if this trend of culture subsides within all its elements some hundreds of years later, then

    there can be an intended design as can be seen today, on all media channels, and this cannot be

    an erroneous interpretation with so many similarities over the ages. All these institutions and

    teachings have remained the same to this day and have contributed to the stream of mystical,

    generally pantheistic religious teachings and practices that have flowed together to become the

    NewAge movement.

    In this context the twentieth century philosopher, Ernest Cassirer (1874-1945), synthesized

    Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, and Poppers ideas in his writings that man is a

    symbolic animal and the exploration of symbolic forms is the suitable method for giving to

    anthropology his philosophic dimension. Having defined man as an animal symbolicum,

    Cassirer introduces one of the central questions of The Logic of the Cultural Sciences, the

    question that lies at the heart of the world-view of life philosophy:

    Does not this mediation of the symbolic function come at too high a price?

    Does it not bring with it a certain self-alienation and self-loss of human


    Do the symbolic formations not separate and remove us from nature and

    engulf us in a myriad of artificial needs? Must we not rather overcome all

    symbolic formation and return to nature (Ernst Cassirer).

    2.1.4. The Self in English Literature and Esoteric Teachings

    Even in the ensuring centuries, the literature abounds in similar hidden messages toward the

    human receptor that are buried in the encoded texts of the majority of writers. The culture of self-

    deception is met in The Vanity of Human Wishes (1749), a poem by the English author Samuel

    Johnson that continues from this remote tradition.

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    The pre-Romantic, Gothic, and Romantic literature abounds in the elements of immemorial

    occult origins. Robert Blairs The Grave (1743) and Edward Young, whose The Complaint, or

    Night Thoughts (1742-5) on Life, Death and Immortality, are examples of "skulls and coffins,

    epitaphs and worms", in the context of the graveyard. Horatio Walpoles (4th Earl of Oxford

    1764) novel The Castle of Otranto, or Ann Radcliffes The Mysteries of Udolpho (1795) combine

    notable elements of vampire, horror and romance genre reminding us of some heathen esoteric

    ceremonies. There is no mistake to add here Frankenstein orThe Modern Prometheus (1818),

    novels written by Mary Shelley.

    If there are studied the sources that introduce these spirits, vampires, deaths, spells,

    incantations, curses, within the rites and the ceremonies performed, it will be found an

    astonishing resemblance to theBook of Enoch and other esoteric literary works.

    The ancient scribe reveals also what these spirits from above, or fallen angels that forsook

    their abode, taught women and men: war, astrology, portents, the path of the moon, cast spells

    and cut roots, the release of the spells (Book of Enoch 8:1 -4) that is present in every angle of

    this literary genre. Enoch wrote in his book that even if Azazel and his oath comrades revealed

    the eternal secrets that are made in Heaven (Book of Enoch 9:6), their wisdom was worthless

    and will lead only to bad consequences.

    William Blakes All Religions are One (1788), America a Prophecy (1793) a prophetic book

    and Jerusalem, The Emanation of the Giant Albion (18041820) were elaborated by the author

    even with a self-devised technique of "illuminated printing" and confirms undoubtedly

    theosophical allegiance as in the study of Shakespeares Heir: Black Door of Perception in

    Jerusalem andThe Four Zoas by David Withmarsh-Knight (Donald Ault).

    The cult of pantheism is another feature of the obscure teachings reuniting the second wave

    of Romantic poets: Lord Byrons The Corsair (1814), Percy Bysshe Shelley (1811), The

    Necessity of Atheism (1812), and The Devil's Walk, a ballad and well-known John Keats 1819


    The last two, connected through the same deep philosophical values, are, first, Ralph Waldo

    Emerson's Representative Men, and Self-Reliance that enter in this category with archetypes of

    transcendentalism beliefs. Throughout the Self-Reliance essay, Emerson gives a defense for his

    famous catchphrase "trust thyself". This argument follows three major points: the self-contained

    genius, the disapproval of the world, and the value of self-worth. The last one is Henry David

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    Thoreau's Walden, orLife in the Woods, whichhad the self-sufficiency to portray this philosophy.

    H. P. Blavatsky holds the authority in this field. She defines the connection between

    Thought Divine and self or reflective consciousnesses in the first volume of The Secret

    Doctrine that is the mysterious link between Mind and Matter, the animating principle

    electrifying every atom into life. (H. P. Blavatsky 16)

    The most important Victorian author that comprises the values emanated by occult teachings

    is Charles Dickens with the majority of his works: The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club

    also known as The Pickwick Papers, A Christmas Carol(1843), The Haunted Man, and Great


    For instance, Dickens uses the Wheel of Dharma to show in A Christmas Carol that the

    knowledge of your past and present will allow you to predict your most likely future. This

    method of 'divination' where the character Scrooge took the Middle Way after he had been

    warned by the spirits is also of esoteric origin (Rodney St. Michael 187).

    In addition, Charles Dickens can be traced in James Mill's psychology for the utilitarian

    superstructure where his chief philosophical work wasAnalysis of the Phenomena of the Human

    Mind(1829) that laid the foundation of such ideology. Predecessors like Hume and Hartley were

    Mill's lineage and William Wallace Hegel's Philosophy of Mind (1894) proves this affinity

    (Rodney St. Michael 189).

    2.1.5. The Self in English Literature and Private Clubs Societies

    It seems that with the passing of the centuries the core teachings and goals are beginning little

    by little to be revealed to the public but, of course, still not arrived at total transparency, in plain

    sight, but can be seen some graduations and some clear hints that shows a tendency of disclosure.

    Such can be mentioned - the works of H. G. Wells. In The Time Machine (1895) and The War

    of the Worlds (1898). It is obvious that Wells either based his writings on the actual plans of the

    Fabian elitists, or used his knowledge of what they had already done in order to formulate atheory of what they were going to do in the future. Why was it so vital for the Fabian sect to

    influence public opinion especially with authors that were promoters of science themed literature

    and it would be more helpful to find (David Allen Rivera)?

    What direction wanted to drive Fabians using literary figures such as George Bernard Shaw

    and H.G. Wells - ensuring that they would be indeed influential among British intellectuals and

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    government officials? Such connections cannot be considered just an impromptu orientation for

    the whole human society of those years of history (Harold J. Lasky).

    Also, H.G. Wells wrote in 1928 The Open Conspiracy: Blueprints for a World Revolution

    which was an elaboration of ideas from his 1926 book The World of William Clissold, which

    gave a seven-point program for the development of the "new human community" (David Allen


    These ideas had been fleshed out in his 1897 short storyA Story of the Days to Come, and his

    1901 book, Anticipations of the Reaction to Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human

    Life and Thought. Why is there so much concern for the life and mind of the human beings, and

    all society's levels from an obscure elitist group to lead this in a certain direction? It would be a

    fair question that waits fair answers (David Allen Rivera).

    A peculiar opinion Albert Pike is regarding the action and reaction between leaders of

    humanity and the mob in his book about Morals and Dogma. Thus in the second chapter,

    Fellow-Craft Pike relates the following:

    To give a nation the franchise of the intellect is the only sure mode of perpetuating

    freedom. This will compel exertion and generous care for the people from those

    on the higher seats, and honorable and intelligent allegiance from those below

    (Albert Pike 23).

    2.1.6. The Self in English Literature: Occult Themes

    Arthur Conan Doyle's detective stories that have as the central character Sherlock Holmes is

    already famous for the mystery and the shadows that intrigue the readers until their last breath.

    The plot revolves around murders that are apparently connected with occult rituals. The Ordo ab

    Chao an esoteric motto is the center of all these cases and issues compressed in Doyle stories

    (Trevor Worf).

    In Lewis Carrolls booksAlice In Wonderland (1865), Through The Looking-Glass, and WhatAlice Found There (1871) deal with the issues surrounding reality versus the dreamworld

    (Bernard Jordan). Theosophical studies also deal with many of these same issues of reality versus

    dreams (Cisco Weeler and Fritz Springmeier).

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    2.1.7. The Self in English Literature: Mind-Issues Themes

    The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) has characters conceived and written by

    Robert Louis Stevenson and present the story of Dr. Henry Jekyll, a man with something within

    him that is his dark side as he tries to separate his two sides. He instead finds a way to switch

    back and forth between himself and his darker side - Mr. Edward Hyde (Robert Luise


    The work is commonly associated with the rare mental condition often spuriously called

    split personality, wherein within the same person there are at least two distinct personalities. In

    this case, the two personalities in Dr Jekyll are apparently good and evil, with opposite levels of

    morality. The novellas impact is such that it has become a part of the language, with the phrase

    Jekyll and Hyde coming to mean a person who is vastly different in moral character from one

    situation to the next (Robert Luise Stevenson).

    Famous psychiatrist Sigmund Freud has a theory that states there are three levels of self: the

    id, ego, and superego. According to, the definition of the id is as follows, the id

    is the great reservoir of the libido, from which the ego seeks to distinguish itself through various

    mechanisms of repression (Vic Aviles). Because of that repression, the id seeks alternative

    expression for those impulses that we consider evil or excessively sexual, impulses that we often

    felt as perfectly natural at an earlier or archaic stage and have since repressed (Bendis, Brian

    Michael 39). The id is governed by the pleasure principle and is oriented towards one's internal

    instincts and passions. Freud also argues on occasion that the id represents the inheritance of the

    species, which is passed on to us at birth; and yet for Freud the id is, at the same time, the dark,

    inaccessible part of our personality(Robert Luise Stevenson).

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder (MPD) is

    an issue studied since ancient times under the forms of spiritualism,parapsychology, and hypnosis

    that continued throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, running in parallel withJohn Locke's

    views that there was anassociation of ideasrequiring the coexistence of feelings with awareness of

    the feelings (Walker H. 9).
  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    2.1.8. The Self in English Literature: Themes about Mob Destiny

    W.H. Auden, modernist poet, launches in his Musee des Beaux Arts, apoem influenced byPieter Brueghels, The Fall of Icarus picture, a hidden message. The poem first discusses a

    'miraculous birth' and at the end, the tragedy' of a death. The theme of the poem is about human

    suffering brought from mythological times. If these things are added together, there might even

    get some hints at religion, mainly at Christianity, but under old Masters 'knowledge' that knew

    'about the suffering' and 'human position', most probably of the mob, of course (W. H. Auden).

    Rudyard Kipling, in The Man Who Would Be King (1888), has the weirdest links between

    spirituality, myths, old legends, religions, magic initiations and superstitions that converge in the

    story with the following common points that can be found incidentally in Book of Enoch also:

    'the signing of a contract before departure; the fallen beings given something that would make

    humans tremble; the teaching of weapons and war; the taking of wives; a sub-commander who's

    taken out to a desert and cast into a pit; cast into a pit 20,000 miles deep (bottomless pit, abyss);

    a leader who gets burned' (Bruce Fury) .

    Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) published his famous dystopiaBrave New Worldin 1932, which

    remains one of the most important books of the twentieth century. The phrase brave new world

    is rooted deeply in the human beings society culture. Huxley book's literary spheres are so

    ranging that it would need an entire library to compress it, from the entomology, economic

    innovations, development of genetics, information sciences, medical technologies or social

    sciences to the oldest bookshelves where one can find spiritism, Esoterism and magicism. But

    some of the critics even wondered 'if Huxley puts any original ideas into his book' (Thody quot.

    in Firchow).Huxleys ideas (Greg Levzchi) allegedly come from the works of J.B.S. Haldane and

    Bertrand Russell in terms of science and technology and Matthew Arnold, Eugene Zamiatin,

    H.G. Wells, Dostoevsky, Shakespeare, and Einstein when it comes to literary form and his

    perception of metaphysics in the form of a new religious consciousness (Greg Levzchi).

    Huxley novel even records an evolution of thought in the following manner: 'from

    dystopian passive vision of state-control society; to ideas of pure pessimism and mix of

    pessimism and optimism; from the satire of the drug-happy culture as the gateway to the ultimate

    reality; to the rejection of the possibility of change (individual, spiritual self-perfection and a

    somewhat pantheistic world-view); from harnessing science and technology to establish and

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    determine the fate of humanity through a reflection on the destructive powers of technology; to

    the superiority of the quality of human life over some aspects of technological progress (Greg


    The conclusion of this piece of literature is that the price for technological progress is the

    loss of individuality and human freedom (Hott Reinhart). The triumph of reason over passion

    and science over art leads to distortions of human nature (Hott Reinhart).Twenty-first centuries repeat the same themes and motifs in literature, theater, film, and

    everything that is prepared for the human audience that has to be guided like the previous

    generations before them without full awareness of the spiritual values culture humankind absorbs

    mentally (Phillip D. Collins).

    Like H. G. Wells and Aldous Huxley, George Orwell wrote a century later the similar ideas

    about the human mind tested to horrendous experiences and a shocking societal order. Orwell's

    satire of totalitarianism, 1984, was published in 1949. The significance in the title of Orwell's

    book is in fact that 1984 is the centenary year of the 'Fabian Society'. Like other writers

    mentioned before pertaining to occult societies, the author is considered disillusioned within the

    society and the novel was written not as a fiction but an expose of the knowledge of the 'Fabian

    agenda' (Liam-Michael Roberts).

    Paul Girard, a remnant guest columnist, notes on the Catholic site the

    following observations about books, movies, music, and the subjects that contain such occult

    culture of our times:

    We live in treacherous times, where more and more things are not at all (or

    simply not only) what they appear to be. Much is hidden, concealed and kept

    secret in about every sphere of modern life, from politics to culture, and when it

    comes out, it is usually in the form of a scandal. Do not judge a book by its

    cover is a word to the wise that could realistically be reinterpreted as blow its

    cover first and things will appear in an entirely different light(Paul Girard).

    Diane Andrews Henningfeld reads three different allegories into William GoldingsLord of

    the Flies (1954), a political, a Freudian and a Christian. Yet such Christianity can feel justified

    doubts coming from an author whose main themes include rebellion, witches and magic and

    whose title Lord of the Flies is another name forBeelzebub (Bel=Baal=lord + zebub=flies)

    whose bloody statue is all covered with flies (Diane Andrews Henningfeld). Likewise, the

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    French writer Nicolas Bonnal considers Johnathan Swift, who wrote his Gullivers Travels in

    such a way as to allow more than one reading of the same narrative (satire, allegory, esoteric

    initiation) as was seen above (Nicolas Bonnal 238).

    To the same above category pertains Anthony Burgess who is especially remembered for his

    dystopian novel A Clockwork Orange (1962), set in the not-too-distant future. A Clockwork

    Orange points out that the title is supposed to symbolize the Sun, the Eye of Horus and by

    association the Eye of Providence (Philippe Bretton 128). This book shadows, as in the earlier

    stories about mind, another theory of mental development. The Tabula rasa (Latin: blank slate)

    refers to the epistemological thesis that individuals are born without built-in mental content and

    that their knowledge comes from experience and perception. Generally, proponents of the Tabula

    rasa thesis favor the "nurture" side of the nature versus nurture debate, when it comes to aspects

    of one's personality, social and emotional behavior and intelligence. Thus, the character of

    Anthony Burgess; Alex his main character records such trajectory.

    Lee Kounstantinou in 'Los Angeles Review of Books'site onA Clockwork Orange makes the

    following remark: 'one cannot help but wonder if Burgess is in sympathy not with God but with

    the devil' (Lee Kounstantinou).

    Likewise, by the same author, The Wanting Seed gives the reader three or four dystopian

    future worlds for the price of one. This process of radical social transformation, from one

    dystopian world to another and then another, exposes the very essence of Burgesss vision of

    history. In the future historiography of The Wanting Seed, history is understood to be cyclical,

    moving in great repeating spirals through three distinct stages: the Pelephase, the Interphase, and

    the Gusphase. These phases represent, by Tristram Foxs description, the main character ofThe

    Wanting Seed , a 'subsumption of the two main opposing political ideologies under essentially

    theological-mythical concepts' (Lee Kounstantinou).

    A Clockwork Orange and The Wanting Seedare minor masterpieces of the dystopian subgenre

    and are unusually clear in their anxieties, with its emphasis on plot, its obsession with world

    building, its suggestion that everything always changes not just innerly but also outwardly.

    Another aspect of these last books concerns is mind control issues. Whether it is about

    brainwashing, coercive persuasion, mind abuse, thought control or thought reform all refers to a

    process in which a group or individual 'systematically uses unethically manipulative methods to

    persuade others to conform to the wishes of the manipulator(s), often to the detriment of the

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    person being manipulated'

    (Jacobo della Quercia).

    Like in the Ludovico technique, key words are used that belong to this mental manipulation

    arsenal. Such key terms have been applied to any tactic, psychological or otherwise, which can

    be seen as subverting an individuals sense of control over humans own thinking, behavior,

    emotions or decision-making. For instance, in the novel A Clockwork Orange by Anthony

    Burgess, the protagonist undergoes a scientific re-education process called the Ludovico

    technique in an attempt to remove his violent tendencies. Likewise, in George Orwells novel

    1984 the fictional totalitarian government of Oceania uses brainwashing-style techniques to erase

    nonconformist thought and rebellious personalities (Lee Kounstantinou).

    Gothic fantasy Mervyn Peake (191168) published his highly successful Gormenghast

    trilogy between 1946 and 1959. His work was influenced by and adopted the style of the

    scientific romances and fantasies of 19th century by Charles Dickens, Arthur Conan Doyle, Mary

    Shelley, Bram Stoker, H.G. Wells and others, some already mentioned in this essay.

    Mervyn Peake, like his predecessors, shapes in very influential ways, in terms of setting

    as character and the idea that a place can create certain fatalism in the people who live there.

    Like a conclusion to all the issues developed to this point, the author of Gomenghast trilogy

    confirms in his literature that the theory of human beings mental configuration or self-

    constitution is not only defined but determined by the culture, place, time and all that surrounds

    them. He conveys that people are shaped, molded, and even overwhelmed by the location they

    have chosen in.

    2.1.9. The Self in English Literature: Absurd-Play's Genre

    In the 1950s, the absurd genre was represented by the play Waiting for Godot (1955)

    (originallyEn attendant Godot, 1952), by the French resident Irishman Samuel Beckett. As the

    artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992), the writer Samuel Beckett (1906-1989) transmits in his work asense of prophetical and dim ritualistic spaces. Such a play identifies many similarities between

    the spaces, activities which Beckett evokes, and the initiatory practices of fraternal orders and

    secret societies. Waiting for Godotabsurd play is in fact a message of spiritual fulfilling in a so -

    called waited 'god' divinity.

    In the same way, Tom Stoppard in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead(1966) is an

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    absurd, existentialist and a tragicomedy play. Here the existential philosophy creates for the

    individuals, like two main characters Rosencrants and Guildenstern, meaning and essence in

    their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. Walter Kaufmann described

    existentialism as 'The refusal to belong to any school of thought, the repudiation of the adequacy

    of any body of beliefs whatever, and especially of systems, and a marked dissatisfaction with

    traditional philosophy as superficial, academic, and remote from life' (Walter Kaufmann).

    Thus the playRosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead imply existential themes such as

    'dread, boredom, alienation, the absurd, freedom, and nothingness'. These ideas similarly in the

    ultimate order of metaphysical principles direct human brains to the conviction that human

    existence has nothing at the core of the existence itself. The philosophers, critics, theologians and

    cultural movements that used these conceptions in literature, cinematography and theatre

    promoted this vacuum of self-alienation in the following order. First emphasis was in existence

    and materialism. Then it was considered that existence precedes consciousness. The third phase

    was defined as that existence preceded essence. Reason was considered due these conceptions a

    defense against anxiety. From here, the next step was the absurd concept that gave birth to

    dystopian visions with a Nietzschen perspective of an obsolete God.

    CriticMartin Esslinin his bookTheatre of the Absurdpointed out how many contemporary

    playwrights such asSamuel Beckett,Eugene Ionesco, Tom Stoppard, andArthur Adamovwove into

    their plays the existential belief that man is an absurd creature loose in a universe empty of real

    meaning. Esslin noted that many of these playwrights demonstrated the philosophy better than

    did the plays by Sartre and Camus (Martin Esslin).

    Being in-itself, being-for itself, non-positional consciousness, positional consciousness,

    and identity constructed from an explicit awareness of consciousness and the like vocabulary

    terminology was well coined for this late state of mind evolution. Thus the plays and certain

    texts above mentioned in this essay exposed to the public various cultural products that

    shadowed the under conceptions in absurd and non-logical dialogs or monologues hard to be

    read by non-initiated.

    2.1.10. The Self in English Literature: Religious Issues

    Salman Rushdies The Satanic Verses (1988) is the last literature piece representative for

    the essay that cumulates in the inner composition all the connections with the esoteric and
  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    theosophical writings. The work belongs to the magic realism genre.

    Esoteric schools of thought are schools, currents or movements that have anoccultsystem

    of thought based onesoteric knowledge. They aid to prepare the individual forspiritual evolution. It

    almost always deals with some system ofesoteric cosmologyand contain some common themes as

    rebirth,occulthistory of human evolution,planes of existence, andinitiationinto those same planes or

    inner worlds that all the literature above contain in less or high degree.

    The same happens in the most controversial Indian novel ever produced in this decade.

    Thus, for instance, in the Salman Rushdie novel characters are evolving around these cycles

    upward and downward. The Satanic Verses contain karma, Gnosticism, reincarnation,

    obscurantism, hermeticism, mysticism to archeosophy, clairvoyance and spiritual evolution

    teachings. Many modern Esoteric movements admitreincarnationamong their beliefs, as well as a

    complex energetic structure of the human being (such as theetheric body,astral body, mental body

    andcausal body).

    The critics considered that it is a subtle allusion regarding the Muslim's religious

    truthfulness in the novel of Salman Rushdie. The Prophet Muhammad before the revelation of

    verses to Quraysh that represents the base of monotheistism in Quran writings religion had to

    distinguish between the voice of God and of Satan. Karen Armstrong wrote in Muhammad: A

    biography of the Prophet, that Islam was accepted within a foot of disaster. However, on the

    other side apocrypha records the entire story about the satanic verses of the 'exalted birds' that

    were considered by Muslims inventions of infidels or disbelievers (Karen Armstrong).

    The literature works of remote and contemporary times about the final battle are not only

    on the absolutist systems of beliefs, such as the Christianism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism

    disavowed but they are also preparing humanity to enter the new era of the Aquarius which is, in

    fact forecast by the New Age Movement. Events that appear to be very exploited by prophetical

    literary sources and the like that launch the following pattern of messages: One Self or Mental

    for all humans, One Language for all people, One Religion for all nations, One Government for

    the entire Planet, One Army, One Monetary system and, of course, One Leader that seems not to

    be a Human or from this dimension.

    Like a confirmation esoteric Christians today also incorporate New Age and traditional

    "magical" practices in their beliefs, such as Qabalah, theurgy, goetia, alchemy, astrology, and

    hermetism. They have nothing to do with the biblical teachings that forbid clearly such dark rituals
  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    (Deut. 18:9-14). Such borrowings also seem to be a trend in all the system beliefs around the


    Interpretations and the reinterpretations of literary sources give headaches to all those

    who try to find a connection through all the text from the beginning of the world and human

    civilization and until those arrived of our time. For these reasons, the vision on interpretation and

    reinterpretation of Ernest Cassirer in The Logic of the Cultural Sciences (1942) would bring

    some well-received justifications:

    The Logic of the Cultural Sciences [Cassirer 1942] presents Cassirer's most

    developed and systematic articulation of how it is possible to achieve objective

    and universal validity in both the domain of the natural and mathematical

    sciences and the domain of practical, cultural, moral, and aesthetic phenomenon.

    Thus, whereas the natural sciences take their evidential base from the sphere of

    thing perception, the cultural sciences take theirs from the sphere of expressive

    perception, and, more specifically, from the fundamental experience of other

    human beings as fellow selves sharing a common intersubjective world of

    cultural meanings. In the second place, moreover, whereas intersubjective or

    objective validity in the natural sciences rests ultimately on universal laws of

    nature ranging over all (physical) places and times, an analogous type of

    intersubjective or objective validity arises in the cultural sciences quite

    independent of such universal laws. In particular, although every cultural

    object (a text, a work of art, a monument, and so on) has its own individual

    place in (historical) time and (geographical-cultural) space, it nevertheless has a

    trans-historical and trans-local cultural meaning that emerges precisely as it is

    continually and successively interpreted and reinterpreted at other such times and

    places. The truly universal cultural meaning of such an object only emerges

    asymptotically, as it were, as the never to be fully completed limit of such a

    sequence. In the end, it is only such a never to be fully completed process of

    historical-philosophical interpretation of symbolic meanings that confers

    objectivity on both the Naturwissenschaften and the Geisteswissenschaften and

    thereby reunites the two distinct sides of Kant's original synthesis (Cassirer).

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    2.2. THE SELF IN THE BIBLE AND ITS ANCIENT TEACHINGSThe second collection brought into study is that literature written under the inspiration of

    the Holy Spirit and containing only ecumenical sources. These literary sources are contained

    only in one book, the Bible that contains a whole literature that spans least 1600 years from

    approximately A. D. 40 to A. D. 90 (Henry H. Halley 87). It was written by over 40 different

    authors from all walks of life: shepherds, farmers, tent-makers, physicians, fishermen, priests,

    philosophers and kings. Despite these differences in occupation and the span of years, it took to

    write it, the Bible is an extremely cohesive and unified book.

    The Bible also covers a variety of subjects. These include the existence and nature of

    God, the creation of the universe, the meaning of human existence, the purpose of human beings,

    and the final destiny of humankind and the planet earth. In fact, the Bible contains an entire

    library and has survived all tests of time, having a unique continuity, a unique circulation aroundthe world, being unique in its translation,- over 1400 languages, and being unique in

    withstanding all attacks.

    Thus, the Bible even if it was fifteen hundred undreamed years in the making, written by

    many authors with many occupations, written in different literary forms, upon three continents,

    composed in different circumstances, where three different languages were employed in Holy

    Scriptures, most authors did not know one another, some would expect chaos to result from these

    diverse circumstances but there is only one unfolding story in the Bible that a human mind could

    not project and preserve such mega heavenly designs. Therefore God is the source of the Holy

    Scriptures with one clear message 'that men follow all the words of this law' (Deut. 29:29) and

    the Holy Spirit is the Divine author of Scripture (2 Pet. 1:20, 21).

    From this point can be seen that also this literature, like the previous one, has a spiritual

    message but direct and revealed to all human beings that allow to enter into their hearts the Word

    of Salvation. Likewise, the elevation of human beings into a higher spiritual entity ask like in the

    esoteric literature a dedication of apostle-ship and deep understanding of the precepts of the Holy


    There is an old story, lost in the shelves of many books, or worse often premeditatedly

    distorted that will make clearer the difference between the two kinds of literature mentioned

    above, and the characteristic features that make one to be opposed to the other.

    To understand the elements that construct the inner part of humanity, of each individual

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    that assumes such and such values influenced by one of the two cultural emulators mentioned

    above, it is a necessity to know that the main authors form today through these cultural tools the

    self of humankind.

    The story begins in immemorial times when God made the first generation of angels, his

    first contingent of servants, beings used to govern the universe. First, here might need some

    answers to the following questions: Why were the angels created?, How were angels

    created?, and When were they created?

    The only reliable sources regarding this domain are the Bible; other fountains are both

    inverted being, unsure and with language not quite accessible to everyone, often open only to

    initiated or private literature clubs novices like Theosophical Society writings or other similar

    occult branches, documents that mystified the truth for personal interests by their trustful

    disciples than to expose the original version.

    Thus, question one receives the answer that angels are the agents through whom the Most

    High keeps the balance of evil and good in the Universe. Second question refers to methodology

    of production of such celestial beings. In all the Bible references about angels, God created them

    through the power of language. He spoke, He commanded, He ordered and they come into being,

    all His heavenly creatures (Psa. 148:2-5).

    The time when all this happened, it would be quite clear to consider that they were

    already present at the creation of man and Earth (Job 38:4-7). As in all things on earth and

    heaven, the angels also have a hierarchy. Some of them are only angels, others archangels and

    there was even the mightiest of them all, the chief of all angels, who could sit near Gods throne

    and receive from His creator the commandments for the entire celestial beings (Ezekiel 28:12-


    This last privileged angel mentioned also in the previous chapter, was the one who

    changed the state of man in the Garden of Eden, and he was known under the name Angel of

    Light. Today, this fallen angel is known as Lucifer who became the most ferocious enemy of

    man. There is no one else so dedicated to the deprivation and to the total destruction of man than

    this ruthless foe of humanity in the entire Universe. Such an angel provoked, in the story of the

    Babel tower, by intending to put his own throne above the clouds with the help of humans, which

    in fact is the abode of God (Isa. 14:12-15) - the confusion of mans language.

    All this happened, already recorded, in the first chapter of the essay, to the detriment of

  • 7/29/2019 Robert Lucrare Modificata



    the most beloved creation of God - Man. Man did not lose only his place from the presence of

    God, his Heavenly Father, but also his self and integrity. Later instigated by Satan, man lost even

    his own heavenly language, the last reminiscent of what he was once. When the men had to part

    from his cradle, which was the Garden of Eden, he lost not only the communion he had with God

    but also his rights he had in the garden of God.

    Man here was sovereign over all things and he had in the Garden; the only condition was

    to obey this precept and commandments that he received there. All this had been given for

    maintaining harmony with all the things that had been created for man: The Tree of Life, The

    Tree of Good and Evil and so forth. Once man had been led into error, he was doomed and

    separated from his initial self that was within His heavenly Father. Man lost thus his state of total

    harmony he had in God. The infringement of heavenly precepts divided him from his state of

    being One with his Creator- to a mere mortal being.

    Today men have through Christ a mediator toward their Creator. If sin entered into the

    world through one man, Adam, then the plan of God was to propitiate humanitys sin through

    One Man, His only Son, Christ (Rom.5:1-21). But like in the past, today Antichrist is trying by

    any means to cause to fail this Heavenly plan.

    Now because the enemy of men was present at the creation of man, the devil knew that

    God made him from two fundamental elements, one from Earth, perishable, the flesh body,

    named also in biblical terminology 'tent' or 'vessel' (2Cor 5:1, 1Thess.4:4) , and the second from

    Heaven, named 'soul' or 'the spirit from God' (Gen.2:7). Thus there was a weak part and a strong

    one. For this can be seen everywhere very convincingly in modern human culture of the external

    things: 1) lust of the flesh, with adjacent checkpoint cloths snobbish as seen in exacerbating

    fashion trend