Literatura Engleza Anul I, Sem. 2 Final

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  • 8/11/2019 Literatura Engleza Anul I, Sem. 2 Final


    Universitatea Dunrea De Jos din GalaiFacultatea de Litere


    "urs de literatura en#le$%

    Anul I

    Lect& univ& dr& Ga'riela Iuliana oli(c


  • 8/11/2019 Literatura Engleza Anul I, Sem. 2 Final



  • 8/11/2019 Literatura Engleza Anul I, Sem. 2 Final


    !a'le o, ontents

    !A-LE .F .N!EN!S

    Section /0 Si1teent23entur4 En#lis2 5oetr4 4

    1. 1. The Early Sonneteers: Thomas Wyatt. Henry Howard 6 1. 2. Sir Philip Sidney 9 1. 3. Edmund Spenser 12 1. 4. William Shaespeare: The !arrati"e Poems. The Sonnets 16 1. #. Pra$ti$al %ppli$ations. E&amination Tests. 21Section )0 En#lis2 Dra6a in t2e Si1teent2 entur4 24 2. 1. The 'ise o( the Se$ular )rama 24 2. 1. 1. Eli*a+ethan Playhouses and Theatri$al Per(orman$es 24 2. 1. 2. The ,irst -omedies and Traedies 2/ 2. 2. The 0ni"ersity Wits 31 2. 2. 1. Thomas yd. -ase Study: The Spanish Tragedy 31 2. 2. 2. -hristopher arlowe. -ase Study: The Tragicall History ofthe Life and Death of Doctor Faustus


    2. 3. Pra$ti$al %ppli$ations. E&amination Tests. 43Section 70 8illia6 S2a9es(eare or Eli$a'et2an Dra6a at Its -est 4 3. 1. i(e and Wor 4 3. 2. The Shaespearean -ontro"ersy #2 3. 3. -hroni$le Plays. -ase Study: Richard III #3 3. 4. -omedies. -ase Study: The Taming of the Shrew 65 3. #. Traedies. -ase Study: Hamlet 6/ 3. 6. 'oman$es. -ase Study: The Tempest 9

    3. . Pra$ti$al %ppli$ations. E&amination Tests. /9-i'lio#ra(24 93

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    Section /0 Si1teent23entur4 En#lis2 5oetr4

    %s early as the 1#th $entury a (ew Enlish $leri$s and o"ernment o((i$ialshad 7ourneyed to 8taly and had witnessed somethin o( the intelle$tual

    mo"ement (lourishin there. 8nterest in $lassi$al learnin +e$ame mani(estwhen pri"ate donations o( an$ient manus$ripts to the 0ni"ersities o( &(ordand -am+ride made them (amous seats o( humanisti$ learnin. Theintrodu$tion o( ree studies into Enland initiated a permanent enthusiasm(or $lassi$al learnin. William ro$yn; the (irst tea$her o( &(ord; Thomasina$re; who tauht ree to Erasmus and Thomas orus; s S$hool; the (irst Enlish se$ondary s$hool de"oted to the!ew learnin; esta+lished the tea$hin o( ree on sound prin$iples andwrote rammati$al wors and translations.

    The reat humanist o( the ae; )esiderius Erasmus; li"ed in Enland(or a num+er o( years and wrote his (amous wor Moriae Encomium?Praise

    of Folly@ in 1#15 at the ondon home o( Sir Thomas orus to whom the woris dedi$ated. Erasmus and Thomas ore were li(elon (riends and their(riendship is one o( the most tou$hin in the history o( literature. Aesides hisposition as a statesman Thomas orus was the reat leader o( theintelle$tual mo"ement nown as H0%!8S. His literary (ame rests upontopia; the (irst reat humanisti$ wor +y an Enlishman.

    The 16th $entury also witnessed the emeren$e o( portrait paintin as parto( the intelle$tual renewin o( the time. When the monasteries were dissol"eddurin the 'e(ormation; reliious paintin ine"ita+ly disappeared as an anne& o(-atholi$ism. Paintin was $entrali*ed in ondon and in the ser"i$e o( $ourt. HenryB888; an&ious to heihten his prestie +y a +rilliant art $ir$le; too ad"antae o( thepresen$e in Enland o( Hans Hol+ein the Couner; who had (irst arri"ed with are$ommendation to Sir Thomas orus (rom Erasmus; stayin at orus>s house(rom 1#26 to 1#2/; to appoint him o((i$ial $ourt painter in 1#36.

    The portrait o( Henry B888 +y Hol+ein; the same as the pre"ious ones o(Thomas orus and the roup o( orus and his (amily; re"eals the artist>ssuper+ a+ility o( re$ordin the a$$urate lieness and the stamp o( $hara$terwhi$h only a reat artisti$ enius $an i"e. Hol+ein>s in(luen$e on Enlishpaintin e&erted throuh the indi"idual portrait a+le to +rin a li"in personauthenti$ally +e(ore us $annot +e Duestioned.

    "er the se$ond hal( o( the si&teenth $entury; the prosperity and

    se$urity that the Enlish en7oyed under Fueen Eli*a+eth 8 allowed (or (urther$ultural de"elopments as the Enlish 'enaissan$e rea$hed its $lima&. The'enaissan$e meant literally Gre=+irth>; a return to the man=$entered learnin o($lassi$al antiDuity. With its spirit o( inDuiry and its "ision o( the an$ient (reedomo( ree and 'oman thouht the 'enaissan$e had +een transplanted (rom8taly to +loom a(resh in Enland. The 'enaissan$e attitudes mani(estedthemsel"es in humanism $hara$teri*ed +y interest in man assertin theintrinsi$ worth o( human li(e. Ay pla$in man as an indi"idual at the $entre o(human preo$$upation humanism a"e him a new status in the uni"erse. 8temphasi*ed the study o( man and rearded su$h study as the way to ele"atehuman $ulture and mae li(e on earth more en7oya+le.

    The epo$h=main astronomi$al dis$o"eries o( -operni$us; eplerand alileo su+stituted (or the traditional Ptolemai$ $osmoloy the newimae o( the sun=$entered uni"erse. Aut Eli*a+ethan world pi$ture was stilllarely eo$entri$ with the earth surrounded +y the nine spheres +eyond

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    whi$h the Gcoelum empireum! e&tended. The uni"erse was hierar$hi$allystru$tured; all the thins $onstitutin one "reat #hain of $eingthat rose (romthe parti$les o( matter to the Power that had $reated them. -osmi$ hierar$hyre(le$ted the prin$iple o( order whi$h in the 'enaissan$e $on$eptiono"erned the uni"erse and pre"ented $haos in the so$iety. The reat -haino( Aein would pro"e a perennial $on$ept to liner on in the intelle$tualmentality until late in the 1/th $entury.

    The sini(i$ant wors o( atin; ree and European literatures +e$amea"aila+le to the pu+li$ at lare throuh translation into Enlish. %mon thesemention should +e made o( Plutar$h>s Li%es of the &o'le "recians andRomans; Homer>s Iliad; Beril>s (eneid; Sene$a>s Tragedies; "id>sMetamorphoses +ut also ontaine>s Essays and -er"antes>s Don )ui* o( the $hie( elements in the Enlish $ulture o( the 'enaissan$e was theAi+le whi$h +e$ame the +oo o( +oos (or the no+ility and the middle $lassesalie. 8( at the +einnin o( the 16th $entury there were only two $ompleteEnlish "ersions o( the Ai+le; +oth o( whi$h were made +y (ollowers o(

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    (urther presentation attempts to demonstrate; drawin on the models o(8talian 'enaissan$e "erna$ular poetry in parti$ular on Petrar$h ; imitatinor $riti$i*in them; the most important o( the Enlish 'enaissan$e poets?Thomas Wyatt; Henry Howard; Philip Sidney; Edmund Spenser; WilliamShaespeare@ imposed on themsel"es an e&pli$it mission to reenerateEnlish as a literary lanuae; to +la*on Enlish poetry (orth as worthy o($omparison with the +est o( 8taly and the +est o( ree$e and 'ome; andshaped up their wors a$$ordin to their Protestant $on"i$tions and to theiropinions reardin the position and the (un$tion o( the poet at $ourt.

    8n the spirit o( the 'enaissan$e; most o( the new poetry was$ir$ulated; at (irst; in $olle$tions; in manus$ript (orm; to +e pu+lished (or thepu+li$ at lare only at a later date. The (irst sini(i$ant $olle$tion o('enaissan$e "erse is Songes and Sonnets 'y the -right Honoura'le LordHenry Howard Late Earle of Surrey. and /thers ; also nown as Songs andSonnetsor Tottel!s Miscellany; as it was pu+lished +y the printer Henry Tottelin 1##9. 8t was a heteroeneous $olle$tion o( 315 poems; mainly lyri$s; +ut

    also epirams; eleies; satires; pastorals; narrati"es. Hihly popular amonthe poets and the readin pu+li$ ?Shaespeare himsel( is said to ha"e owneda $opy o( the $olle$tion and he does mae re(eren$e to it; more or lesse&pli$itly; in The Merry -i%es of -indsor and e"en in Hamlet@; Tottel!sMiscellanywas pu+lished in at least nine editions until the end o( the $entury.The most remara+le $ontri+utions to the $olle$tion +eloned to the mostin(luential o( the indi"idual poets; the so=$alled pioneers o( this poeti$ ae;namely Sir Thomas Wyatt ?9 poems@ and Henry Howard; Earl o( Surrey;whose name appears on the title pae; pro+a+ly +e$ause o( his hih ranand his $lose ties to the royal (amily ?45 poems@.

    /& /& !2e Earl4 Sonneteers0 !2o6as 84att& Henr4 Hos$ourt; ettin o(ten in"ol"ed in danerous politi$al relationships or lo"ea((airs. Ae(ore he was 2#; he was sent on diplomati$ missions in ,ran$e andespe$ially in 8taly; where he ot a$Duainted with Petrar$h>s and Sera(ino dell>%Duila>s lo"e poetry. He was ranted the ran o( niht; +ut trou+les with thewomen in his li(e his hatred o( his wi(e and hopeless lo"e (or %nn Aoleyn would soon $ost him his (reedom: he was imprisoned under the suspi$ion o(+ein %nn Aoleyn>s lo"er. 'eainin (a"our; he +e$ame an am+assador to

    Spain; +ut he was imprisoned aain under the $hare o( treason. ,inally;appointed $ommander o( the Enlish (leet; he died at the ae o( thirty=nine; o(a (e"er durin one o( his missions; at ,almouth.

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    8or9. He is the (irst to ha"e introdu$ed the 14=line 8talian sonnet into Enlish.He is the (irst Enlish poet sin$e -hau$er to mae use o( 8talian models; inparti$ular Petrar$h>s; $om+inin the humanist and the "erna$ular modes o(e&pression; i.e. on the one hand; the re$o"ery o( $lassi$al literature; history;philosophy and "alue systems toether with the de"elopment o( the linuisti$tools to a$$omplish this re$o"ery; and on the other hand; the (orin o( aliterature in a modern European lanuae that would +e as ri$h and as lon=lastin as that o( ree$e and 'ome. 8t is true that the adoption o( the Petrar$hansonnet; $onsistin o( an o$ta"e; introdu$in the statement; and a sestet;presentin the poet>s intelle$tual or emotional response; mainly dealin with thetheme o( unreDuited lo"e; was in part moti"ated +y the (a$t that 8taly was+e$omin (ashiona+le as a sour$e o( $ourtly manners and a$$omplishments;and it amused the in to introdu$e it to the Enlish $ourt as well. Cet;$onsiderin Wyatt>s personality; s$holars ha"e stated that it was rather theemotional and (ormal stru$ture o( Petrar$han lo"e poetry; its a+ility to e&press$omple& emotional e&perien$e; the (eelins o( the lo"er torn +etween $on(li$tin

    impulses I human lo"e and se&ual rati(i$ation on the one hand; and there7e$tion o( the world (or the di"ine; a $on(li$t produ$in uilt; shame; an&iety;intolera+le tension and un$ertainty I whi$h appealed to the poet anddetermined him to tae up sonnet writin. ?ri((iths; 199/@ ,or Wyatt; Petrar$ho((ered an eroti$ psy$holoy use(ul (or $onstru$tin his own eroti$ persona aspart o( the $ourtly ame; and espe$ially (or transposin in an artisti$ (orm anemotional trauma to whi$h the poeti$ persona lent distan$e. The Petrar$hanthemes o( eroti$ attra$tion to an ideali*ed +ut $ruel; allurin; hard=hearted;(rustratinly $haste mistress; (etishism the male lo"er deals with the +elo"ed+est throuh eroti$ asso$iations with her shoes; $lothin pets; portraits; lo$s o(hair; smells and sounds; thus aestheti$isin her and maso$histi$ally re$ei"ed

    re7e$tion = the lo"er +urns; he (ree*es; he en7oys the pain o( denial and waitin;and the possi+ility that a(ter pain will $ome pleasure and rati(i$ation are allpreser"ed in some o( Wyatt>s +est sonnets; in (a$t; translationsJ adaptations(rom 8talian; e.. The Lo%er #ompareth His State to a Ship in Impetuous StormTossed on the Sea ?Petrar$h>s Sonnet 1#6@; Description of the #ontrariousPassions in a Lo%er ?Petrar$h>s Sonnet 154@; The Lo%er for ShamefastnessHideth His Desire -ithin His Faithful Heart?Petrar$h>s Sonnet 159@.

    ie Petrar$h in(atuated with aura; +ut (rom a +leaer and morepessimisti$ point o( "iew; Wyatt was trapped +y an eroti$ $ompulsion(rom whi$h he $ould +rea not himsel( (ree. What is interestin is howWyatt; whose attitude to his G+elo"ed> was predominantly aner and

    s$orn; does not simply imitate or $opy Petrar$h +ut $reati"ely trans(ormshis model in a way that re(le$ts his di((erent per$eption o( the +elo"edand; as )ay emphasises; $on"eys a sense o( Tudor politi$al realitiesand the reDuirements and e"asions o( sur"i"al at $ourt. ?ri((iths; 199/@

    Petrar$han ideali*ation o( the +elo"ed is thus o(ten repla$ed with de+asedalternati"es: imaes o( sprin (reshness are repla$ed with sordid antithesesand o+s$ene allusionsK while aura>s $hastity meant that she +eloned tood; in the $ase o( Wyatt>s mistress an em+lem o( stead(astness and$hastity is transmuted into one o( $upidityK et$.

    %ll in all; Wyatt>s poetry; and espe$ially his oriinal lyri$s ?sons orsonnets@; pro"ide an e&$ellent illustration o( the way in whi$h 'enaissan$eand humanist "alues ena+led poets to e&press a heihtened o( su+7e$ti"ityand indi"iduality; in"ertin the Petrar$han style; with its sophisti$ated

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  • 8/11/2019 Literatura Engleza Anul I, Sem. 2 Final


    Section /0 Si1teent23entur4 En#lis2 5oetr4

    /& )& Sir 52ili( Sidne4 "/;;:3/;+=%

    %(ter Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard; the literary interest in 8taly and its$ourt poetry went in hi+ernation until the 1#65s; and e"en when it was

    re"i"ed; Enlish poets remained mainly imitators o( the Petrar$han sonnet.Thus; the "erse produ$tions under Edward B8; his sister Aloody ary andthe youth(ul Eli*a+eth 8; were o( rather poor Duality. nly Geor#e Gascoi#ne"/;:)3/;>>%miht +e worth mentionin. He was (or a short while the mostimportant man o( letters in Enland. His $ontri+ution to the de"elopment o('enaissan$e literature miht +e summarised as (ollows:- 'emara+le translations (rom 8talian drama ?%[email protected] The (irst Enlish no"el; The (d%entures of Master F1 21?1#[email protected] The earliest treatise on Enlish prosody; #ertayne &otes of

    Instruction #oncerning the Ma3ing of ,erse or Rhyme in English; in$ludedin his $olle$tion o( writins The Poesies of "eorge "ascoigne.

    - The (irst Enlish satire in +lan "erse; The Steele "lass ?1#6@;e&posin the moral dissolution in e"ery wal o( so$iety.8t was only in the 1#/5s and 1#95s; at a time when Eli*a+eth had manaedto $onsolidate her position on the throne; that o( %nli$anismJ Protestantismin the indom and that o( her indom amon the European powers;espe$ially +y the reat "i$tory o"er the Spanish %rmada in

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    modi(ied the assumptions o( ea$h model to mae them $onsistent withthe Protestant sense o( human nature and spiritual responsi+ilityK theystruled with the Enlish lanuae to mae it o( literary worth in an aewhen the less restri$ti"e and less insular traditions suested writin inatinK and they did this in a manner whi$h souht to ser"e the needs o(Fueen and $ourtL Thus; +oth Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenserappear as leadin e&amples o( those who wished +oth to parti$ipate inthe "alue systems represented +y 8talian and $lassi$al literature at thesame as they endorsed Protestant "aluesK they wanted ?L@ to $ele+ratetheir (aith andretain the aestheti$ and humane appeal o( 8talian literarymodelsK their pro7e$t $on$erned +oth literary and nationalidentity and therelationship +etween the $ultural impli$ations o( +ein Protestant andEnlish and a wider European $ons$iousness. ?ri((iths; 199/@

    Li,e& Sir Philip Sidney>s $ontemporaries $onsidered him the em+odiment o(the 'enaissan$e ideal: the per(e$t entleman +y +irth and +y nature. %

    warrior; a statesman; a s$holar and a poet; he was a (a"ourite o( the Dueenand presuma+ly at the heart o( $ourt politi$s in the 1#5s and the early1#/5s. He en$ouraed youn Edmund Spenser to pu+lish the Shepherd!s#alendar?to pay homae to his patron Sidney; Spenser dedi$ated the worto him as the president o( no+lesse and $he"alree.@ % o"ernor in the!etherlands; he was +adly wounded on the +attle(ield at Qutpen; in a (ihtaainst -atholi$ Spain; and he died 26 days a(ter. The manner o( his deathmade him a (iure o( myth. They say that; while lyin on the +attle(ieldwounded; he a"e up the water he had reDuested in (a"our o( anotherwounded soldier with these words: Thy ne$essity is yet reater than mine.

    8or9& Sidney the man o( letters did not seem to tae the literary $areer"ery seriously; yet his (ame rests upon three ma7or wors whi$h werepu+lished posthumously: the no"el(rcadia; the sonnet seDuen$e(stropheland Stellaand the essay(n (pologie for Poetry.

    To +rie(ly des$ri+e his no"el; re(eren$e must +e made to the (a$t thathe wrote it (or the amusement o( his sister; the -ountess o( Pem+roe; whilestayin at her estate to $ure (rom his lo"e (or Penelope )e"ereu&; and thathe introdu$ed in it a (airy world o( en$hanted +eauty depi$ted throuh amaster(ully e&Duisite lanuae.

    Cet; at this point; more stress should +e laid; in parti$ular; on hissonnet seDuen$e(strophel and Stella; whi$h re"eals him to +e one o( the

    reatest sonneteers in Enland. ?Pu+lished in 1#91; at (irst under theeditorship o( Thomas !ashe; in a $olle$tion toether with Samuel )aniel>ssonnets; and then in a $orre$ted indi"idual edition; Sidney>s sonnet seDuen$eser"ed as a sour$e o( inspiration (or other sonneteers; lie Edmund Spenserand William Shaespeare.@ 8t epitomi*ed Sidney>s attempt to $on(ront andtrans$end his personal and pu+li$ situation. The emotional atta$hment o(%strophel; the star lo"e; to Stella; the star; transposes; in (a$t; Sidney>slo"e (or Penelope )e"ereu& whom he $ouldn>t marry.

    ady Penelope; sister o( the un(ortunate Earl o( Esse&; was some nineyears youner than her distinuished lo"er. Her (ather had (ormed ahih opinion o( Sir Philip>s promise; and on his death+ed e&pressed awish (or their union: +ut her uardians were in (a"our o( a wealthiermat$h; and two or three years a(ter the old Earl>s death; she was

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    married at the ae o( se"enteen; mu$h aainst her own wishes; to anunattra$ti"e youn no+leman; ord 'i$h. ?into; 1//#@

    Sidney>s re"i"al o( the Petrar$han patterns in this sonnet seDuen$e oes mu$h(urther than mere imitation to parody and $ritiDue and displays layers o(am+iuity; $ontradi$tion and reasonin whi$h are not ne$essarily resol"ed. 8n(a$t; rea$tin to the lon line o( imitations +etween Henry Howard; Earl o( Surreyand himsel(; Sidney prides himsel( on +ein oriinal and $laims that he will notadopt the praises; "ows; and deplorin dumps o( other amorous siners; +utuse as his only sour$e o( inspiration Stella>s iss. ?Sonnet 1@ %nd indeed; mosto( the $on$eptions and $on$eits in Sidney>s sonnets are really his ownK and theydisplay "ery e&Duisite su+tlety and tenderness o( (an$y; o(ten reltin ondialoue; $olloDuial tone and e"en puns ?on the name 'i$h; (or instan$e@.

    8n the liht o( the impa$t o( Protestant (aith and -al"inist assumptionsa+out the sel( and the soul; his sonnets appear as a means o( purin hismoral +ein; re$on$ilin himsel( to unattaina+le desire and $lari(yin the moralmeanin o( his e&perien$e. The stratey (ollowed is to e&plore the ways in

    whi$h %strophel>s e&perien$es as a lo"er had +een (aulty. ?ri((iths; 199/@The (irst (i(ty or si&ty sonnets e&hi+it %strophel>s lo"e in what may +e$alled in (ashiona+le mathemati$al lanuae the stati$al stae: thesu+seDuent dynami$al stae +ein $omposed o( sonnets des$ripti"e o(moods and $on$eits o$$asioned +y a seDuen$e o( in$idents +etween thelo"ers==supposed en$ouraement; "enturous li+erties; dis$ouraement;despair; and so (orth. )urin the stati$al or +roodin stae; the poet=lo"er>smind is o$$upied with similitudes and all sorts o( (an$i(ul in"entions to set(orth the in$ompara+le $harms o( his mistress and the une&ampled (or$e o(his passion. )urin that period his lo"e is su+7e$t to no (lu$tuations; nodynami$ $haneK it su((ers neither in$rease nor a+atement. 8t is $hie(ly in

    this stae that the so(t ra$e(ulness and ethereal rea$h o( Sidney>s (an$yare displayed. ?into; 1//#@Cet; ha"in $onDuered +ut the lady>s indi((eren$e; the lo"er turns out uilty o(will(ul sel(=de$eption and immaturity. 8n "ain does she warn him a+out the needo( sel(=restraintK %strophel>s per$eption o( lo"e is distorted +y his own $arnality?unlie Petrar$h>s persona whi$h; despite the $on(usion o( the eroti$ and thespiritual; is; ne"ertheless; aware o( aura>s pursuit o( "irtue and the di"[email protected]$e Stella has (inally re(used %strophel; the (inal part o( the seDuen$eemphasises his sel(=reardin despairK he is li"in throuh the sel(=puniti"e$onseDuen$es o( remainin in an unreenerate $ondition. The result is thespiritual paralysis do$umented in the (inal sonnet. ?ri((iths; 199/@

    %s (ar as the sonnet (orm is $on$erned; the (a$t must +e mentionedthat Sidney o+ser"es the Petrar$han (orm o( the sonnet in the sense o( thedi"ision o( the stan*a into two sta"es; the (irst o( eiht lines with two rhymes;the se$ond o( si& lines with three rhymes. Whether (or ease or (or "ariety; heis not parti$ular a+out the arranement o( the rhymes within these limits.,urthermore; he o$$asionally su+di"ides the last sta"e into a Duatrain(ollowed +y a $ouplet; $omin thus $loser to the Enlish manner.

    (n (pologie for Poetrie; reprinted with the title o( The Defense ofPoetriein 1#9#; is a treatise inauuratin modern Enlish literary $riti$ism.eant as retort to Stephen osson>s atta$ on all (i$tion writin in TheSchool of ('use; this essay de(ends imainati"e literature and pro$laims thepoet>s superiority o"er the philosopher and the historian throuh his $apa$ityto imitate not merely what is; +ut also what miht +e. Enlarin upon the

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    (un$tion o( the poet in the Eli*a+ethan so$iety; Sidney $laims that poetryshould ser"e moral and reliious purposes and it should o((er sills andmoral insihts important to monar$h; nation and manind. %nd the main o(a new Enlish poetry would demonstrate that the $ulture o( the newProtestant nation was as sophisti$ated as the $ultures o( the old Europeanorder; its lanuae; newly wrouht and de(ined throuh $omposition; as+eauti(ul and e&pressi"e as 8talian and the an$ient tonues. Thus; (or SirPhilip Sidney; the role o( the poet was not 7ust to imitate the e&ternal world;+ut to emulate od in $reatin one that was new. MLN (strophel and Stellamay suest an unsta+le ap +etween the poet>s persona and the writerhimsel(; +ut Sidney>s mani(esto (or poetry and nation was in part a produ$t o(the e&perien$e o( his own writin as mu$h as o( his mem+ership o( a politi$al(a$tion. The sonnet seDuen$e ena+led him to $onstitute himsel( as indi"idual;-hristian and poet in a way that was a preparation (or the pu+li$ statements o(the Defenceand the alleori$al messae to the nation o( his pastoral roman$e(rcadia1 His aim was dida$ti$; that o( translatin the poet>s "isions into

    e"eryday li(e. ?ri((iths; 199/@Ha"in dis$ussed the mission o( the poet; Sidney also sur"eys theEnlish literary s$ene and (inds little to praise: Surrey>s lyri$s; Spenser>sShepherd!s #alendar. 8n $onsiderin drama; he is $hie(ly interested in theway in whi$h playwrihts manae to uphold the unities and atta$s themi&ed (orms o( trai=$omedy.

    Sidney $on$ludes +y a eneral de(ense o( Enlish as a lanuaesuita+le (or poetry and a humorous de(ian$e o( those who will not +e$on"erted +y his wor.

    %lthouh the modern reader $annot wholly aree to some o( Sidney>sde(initions; he is impressed +y his enthusiasti$ de"otion to the $ause o(

    poetry; +y the sin$ere words used in analy*in the oriin; stru$ture and o+7e$to( poetry; +y the ra$e(ul and easy manner.

    /& 7& Ed6und S(enser "/;;)3/;@@%

    Li,e& Edmund Spenser; whose name is usually asso$iated with Wyatt;Surrey and Sidney; $ame (rom a so$ial +a$round whi$h had "ery little in$ommon with his aristo$rati$ $ontemporaries. His (ather was

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    8or9&The poetry o( Spenser is the $ulmination o( the alleori$al "erse tradition;this old +ut important stream in Enlish literature. Spenser pro"ed to +e thepoeti$ master Enlish "erse needed. His (a$ility in lanuae +lended the +est o(the ar$hai$ and o( the new "o$a+ulary while his (luen$y in "ersi(i$ation de=monstrated that Enlish was at least the eDual to any other lanuae as a"ehi$le o( reat poetry. To su+seDuent enerations Spenser was the Poets>Poet; +e$ause so many Enlish poets ha"e learned the art o( "ersi(i$ation (romhim: ilton; Thomson; Wordsworth; Ayron; eats; 'ossetti; Tennyson.

    The Shepherd!s #alendar is a series o( 12 e$loues; one (or ea$hmonth; pu+lished in 1#9 and dedi$ated to aister Philip Sidney whoen$ouraed the poet. The e$loue was a $lassi$ (orm presentin a dialoue+etween shepherds and praisin simple li(e. 8n Spenser the e$loue+e$omes dida$ti$ or satiri$al. Aeyond the dominant theme whi$h is theunhappy lo"e o( -olin -lout ?taen (rom Selton@ who is re7e$ted +y'osalinde; $omments on politi$al and reliious disputes ?+etweenProtestants and -atholi$s@ or tri+utes paid to (riends and patrons are also

    inserted. The lanuae in The Shepherd4s #alendar is Spensers own $rea=tion employin phoneti$; rammati$al and "o$a+ulary elements (rom all thediale$ts o( the ae ?!orthern; idlands and Southern@; $olloDuial terms;8talian loans ?e.. stan$ U weary; (rom the 8t. stan$o@; atin neoloisms ando+solete rammati$al (orms whi$h all result in a lanuae that made Aens relationship with Eli*a+eth AoyleK +ut; 7ust as this $ourtship ended;

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    not in despair and dissolution; +ut in marriae; the (moretti are a+le tosuest how the sins o( eotism and desire $an +e inter$epted andleitimi*ed. 8n the (moretti the male lo"er $omes to terms with theinadeDua$y o( Petrar$han e&pe$tationsK whereas %strophel remains lo$edup in sel(=hood; Spenser>s poeti$ persona trans$ends eotism and (inds asel(=less and -hristian lo"e. 8n the pro$ess he interwea"es Protestant moral"alues into the poetry in a way that ena+le +oth lo"er and lady to +e 7udedKhis imaes are those o( sin and damnation; hea"en and hell; "irtue andsal"ation. 8n the pro$ess; Spenser>s lo"er; ,lorinell; $on(ronts and o"er$omesthe traditional; per"erted; per$eptions o( the Petrar$han lo"er: idolisation ando"er="aluation o( the +elo"ed; oppressi"e re7e$tion and stimatisation; sel(=reardin pain; the maso$histi$ en7oyment o( a+sen$e; the possessi"e; and"oyeuristi$ $ateorisation o( the +elo"ed>s physi$al attra$tions ie Wyatt andSidney +e(ore him; there are sonnets in this seDuen$e that draw dire$tly onPetrar$han oriinals; rewored (rom a (resh and $riti$al perspe$ti"e. The +este&ample miht +e Sonnet 5L,II. where Spenser hars +a$ to Wyatt>s

    Whose list to hunt and its Petrar$han model; 0na $andida $er"a.Spenser $learly new +oth the oriinal; and Wyatt>s $yni$al in"ersiono( Petrar$h>s sonnet. His aim may there(ore ha"e +een to show how loss $an+e made into ain throuh the i"in o( sel(. The deli+erate e$hoes o( Wyattemphasise the trans(ormati"e di((eren$e that a surrender o( sel( $an Wyatt he $on"erts Petrar$h>s pursuit o( a white doe into a huntsman$hasin a hind; and the lo"er e&perien$es a similar weariness (rom this "ainassaye. Aut whereas Wyatt>s deer; %nne Aoleyn; is $orrupted +y her ownlust; Spenser>s is a entle deare who returns the way she has (led and iswillin to entrust hersel( to her lo"er>s power. The lo"er has $ome to $ontrolhis desire and she has the $on(iden$e to allow her own desire to mae her

    responsi"e to him. She trusts in the "ision o( married lo"e that the (morettia((irm. 8n no. 6#; Spenser sets out his answer to the Petrar$han dilemmaKdesire $an +e (ul(illed only when eotism and lust are repla$ed +y mutualood will and loyalty within a san$ti(ied unionK at that point desire $an +erat(ied in spotless pleasure en7oyed in mutual (aith. %ppropriately; theEpithalamionthat a$ts as the $oda to the pu+lished (moretti.$onsummatesa Protestant "ision o( Eros (ul(illed and $ele+rates Spenser>s marriae toEli*a+eth Aoyle in 1#94. ?ri((iths; 199/@

    The Faerie )ueene$onsists o( 6 +oos pu+lished +etween 1#95 ?+oos8=888 and 1#96 ?+oos 8B=B8@ and #antos of Muta'ilitepu+lished posthumously in1659. The modern literary tastes ha"e rearded The Faerie )ueeneas a hihly

    arti(i$ial $reation too lon to +e read (or entertainment and +orinly $ompli$atedin its layers o( alleory. While the modern reader is eaer to read The Faerie)ueenepurely as a poeti$ roman$e he will miss mu$h o( Spensers intent.Spenser made his intentions $lear in a letter en$losed to the "olume $ontaininthe initial three +oos o( the wor and addressed to Sir Walter 'aleh; The e=neral end; Spenser wrote to 'aleh; o( all the +oos is to (ashion a entlemanor no+le person in "irtuous and entle dis$ipline +y e&hi+itin the traits thatsu$h a person should ha"e. Spenser (urther des$ri+es his poem as a $ontinuedalleory or dare $on$eit and alleory it is indeed +ut (ar more than that.1

    1%lleory is a (orm o( e&tended metaphor in whi$h o+7e$ts and persons within a narrati"e are

    eDuated with meanins that lie outside the narrati"e. %lleory implies two le"els o( meanin== the literal ?what happens in the narrati"e@ and the sym+oli$ ?what the e"ents stand (or;outside the narrati"e@. 8t e"oes a dual interest: in the e"ents; $hara$ters and settinpresentedK and in the ideas they represent or the sini(i$an$e they +ear. %lleory mayin"ol"e the personi(i$ation o( a+stra$t Dualities ?e.. Pride; Aeauty; )[email protected] it $an also

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    Spenser attempted a uni(ied presentation o( romanti$ ideas within a $lassi$stru$ture; nationalisti$ (eelins and idealisti$ e&pression; the spirit o( the'e(ormation and 'enaissan$e humanism.

    The models whi$h must ha"e in(luen$ed Spenser were %riostos/rland Furiosoand Tassos "erusaleme Li'eratawhi$h pro"ided the intri$ates$heme and the $om+ination o( a$tion and philosophi$al $omment +ut alsosu$h Enlish +oos as Seltons Magnificence; Elyot>s "o%ernour or%s$ham>s Scholemasterwhi$h set (orth the 'enaissan$e $on$ept o( theper(yte man ?per(e$t man@. The same letter to Walter 'aleh re"ealsSpensers o"erall plan as reards the stru$ture o( the poem. The (rameworwas to +e the 12 days -hristmas $ele+rations at the -ourt o( loriana; the,aerie Fueene. n ea$h o( these twel"e days a petitioner will present at the$ourt his or he reDuest (or help. The ,aerie Fueen will assin in turn ea$h o(the 12 nihts at her $ourt sym+oli*in a entlemanly "irtue ea$h to destroy12 "i$es and e"ils a1so alleori$ally presented. The di((erent nihtly (iuresare summed up in the person o( %rthur himsel( +e(ore he +e$ame a in.

    %rthur typi(ies mani(i$en$e in the %ristotelian sense o( the per(e$tion o(all the other "irtues i.e. per(e$t "irtue. He (alls in lo"e with loriana; the ,aerieFueen; who re"eals hersel( to him in a dream; %rthur oes to loriana>s $ourt in,airy land where she is holdin her annual 12 days> (esti"al. loriana stands (orthe national splendour o( Enland as em+odied +y Fueen Eli*a+eth.

    Presuma+ly the entire narrati"e was meant to $o"er a whole $alendaryear +ut the poem has +een le(t un(inished and the 6 +oos that ha"e $omedown to us deal with the ad"entures o( the 'ed -ross niht; representinthe "irtue o( Holiness; o( Sir uyon ?Temperan$e@; o( Aritomart andAelphae+e ?-hastity@; o( Triamond and -am+ell ?,riendship@; o( %rteall?s intent to (orm the ideal puritanhumanist in the spirit o( the per(e$t morals; reliion and philosophy.

    The histori$al le"el $o"ers the whole o( Western $i"ili*ation (rom theoutset o( the -hristian era throuhout the 16th $entury; re(errin to$ontemporary e"ents in ,ran$e; 8taly; and Enland ?the massa$re on St.

    Aartholomew>s E"e; the de(eat o( the Spanish %rmada; the e&e$ution o( ary

    represent a histori$al personae ?e.. loriana U Fueen Eli*a+eth@; a $ateory o( indi"idual?e.. E"eryman U all manind@; or another sort o( a+stra$tion ?0na U the True [email protected]$ters; e"ents and settin may +e histori$al; (i$titious; or (a+ulousK the ey is that theyha"e meanins independent o( the a$tion in the sur(a$e story. n the sur(a$e; E%eryman isa+out a man a+out to lea"e on a trip and the people he meetsK the Faerie )ueenea+out aniht illin a draon and res$uin a prin$ess. n the alleori$al le"el; howe"er; +oth area+out the duties o( a -hristian and the way to a$hie"e sal"ation.

    !ote that the simple use o( personi(i$ation ?e.. talin animals or teapots@ does not$onstitute alleory in and o( itsel(K in an alleory; $hara$ters and o+7e$ts usually sym+oli*ea+stra$t Dualities; and the e"ents re$ounted $on"ey a $oherent messae $on$ernin those

    a+stra$tions. %lleory is (reDuently; +ut not always; $on$erned with matters o( reat import:li(e and deathK damnation and sal"ationK so$ial or personal morality and immorality. 8t $analso +e used (or satiri$ purposes.?S$hwart*; http:JJ$la.$alpoly.eduJVds$hwartJenl331J(D.html@

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    ne&t day early in the mornin +ut he pre(ers to o huntin only to et illed +y awild +oar. 8n despair the oddess trans(orms the dead youth into anemone.

    Shaespeare>s sour$e is Metamorphoses ?Aoo @ whi$h modern$riti$ism $on$ei"es o( as a myth o( the "eetation $y$le. With Shaespeare ithas +e$ome a lo"e story in whi$h %donis is shy and +oyish; while Benusem+odies e&perien$ed womanhood.

    Some $riti$s e&plain that Benus and %donis emphasise the $ontrast+etween sa$red and pro(ane lo"e. Benus represents naed passion thatdestroys all that it tou$hes; while %donis stands (or $haste lo"e. %nother "iew isthat %donis represents; in (a$t; the insepara+le union o( lo"e and +eauty. %s inthe sonnets; Shaespeare assumes that +eauty must +e (ore"er re$reated.Benus is the stimulus (or that re=$reation throuh the propaation o( o((sprin.

    )espite the $on"entional poeti$ lanuae; the poem displays mu$hpersonal o+ser"ation and a enuine (eelin o( nature in super+ des$riptions o( theEnlish $ountryside. ,enus and (donispro"ed Shaespeare>s most popular wordurin his li(etime ?15 editions +y 1616; Duoted in 34 $ontemporary writins@.

    The Rape of Lucreceis a mu$h ra"er ?as promised in the dedi$ationto ,enus and (donis@ and loner poem; +ut its more am+itious purpose is not(ully a$hie"ed. Written in rhyme royal ?a (orm o( "erse introdu$ed into Enlish+y -hau$er; $onsistin o( se"en=line stan*as o( iam+i$ pentameter in whi$hthere are three rhymes; the (irst line rhymin with the third; the se$ond with the(ourth and (i(th; and the si&th with the se"enth a+a++$$@ and inspired (rom"id>s Fasti; the poem e&alts the spiritual "irtues o( $hastity and (aith(ulness.u$re$ia is "iolently assaulted +y the de+au$hed Se&tus; the son o( inTarDuin in an$ient 'ome. 0rin her (ather u$retius and her hus+and-ollatinus to a"ene her; u$retia $ommits sui$ide. The deed o( Se&tus$auses the people to re"olt aainst TarDuin and to esta+lish the 'epu+li$.

    The poem depi$ts the disastrous (all o( a sla"e o( passion. TarDuin iso( the (amily o( tyrants. To satis(y his lust; he riss and loses e"erythin andains only disust and despair. u$re$e is the tyrant>s helpless "i$tim; whoawaens the same sort o( pity as )esdemona does. Shaespeare relates hisstory in a re"erent; so+er tone minutely dwellin upon details. The master(uluse o( lyri$al lanuae is marred +y the lon spee$hes and e&tendedrhetori$. ?a"riliu; 2555: 114=#@

    !2e Sonnets. 8t is liely that Shaespeare $omposed his sonnets +etween1#92 and 1#9/ and they were $ir$ulated in manus$ript +y 1#9/ when ,ran$iseres praised Shaespeare>s suared sonnets amon his pri"ate (riends.

    %ll the 1#4 sonnets +y Shaespeare were pu+lished only later; in 1659; +yThomas Thorpe; apparently without the writer>s authorisation; in a $olle$tionentitled Sha3espeare!s Sonnets &e%er $efore Imprinted. The printed te&topens with the (ollowin dedi$ation:

    T THE !8E AEETTE' ,THESE 8!S08! S!!ETS'. W.H. % H%PP8!ESSE

    %!) TH%T ETE'!8T8EP'8SE) AC

    0' EBE'=8B8! PETW8SHETH

    THE WE=W8SH8!%)BE!T0'E' 8!



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    The wordin o( su$h a dedi$ation seems so $learly to +e an address (rom onereal person to another; espe$ially when $ompared to other Shaespeareandedi$ations; whi$h are (ar less $rypti$ and more aimed at thanin a patron (orsupport. ?The dedi$ation o( ,enus and (donis $learly addresses the 'ihtHonoura+le Henry Wriothesley with many mentions o( honour; duty; andno+leL@ %s to the sinature T.T.; this set o( initials miht seem rather easyto de$ode; indi$atin that the dedi$ation does not +elon to Shaespeare; +utto Thorpe. The other set o( initials W.H. raises; howe"er; more Duestions;espe$ially +e$ause o( the am+iuity o( the word +eetter whi$h; inEli*a+ethan Enlish; $ould also mean transmitter; i.e. perhaps the supplier o(the manus$ript. William Hall was su$h a supplier o( manus$ripts to pu+lishers.ther $riti$s e"en ha"e suested that W.H. miht ha"e meant William Himsel(?i.e. Shaespeare@; whi$h is a witty solution; +ut perhaps not so (ittin i( onetaes into a$$ount a possi+le relation +etween these initials and the identity o(the (air (riend who the (irst sonnet seDuen$e is dedi$ated to. ?r Shaespearedid not really (it the des$ription: +eauti(ul; sinle and +lond.@ ,rom the same

    perspe$ti"e; (urther possi+le interpretations o( these initials ha"e suested: [email protected] Her+ert; Earl o( Pem+roe a +rilliant youth; (ond o( arts and prote$toro( a literary roup. +@ Henry Wriothesley; Earl o( Southampton = Shaespeare>sonly nown prote$tor a$nowleded as su$h +y the poet himsel(K a youn mano( e&Duisite +eauty; the (a"ourite o( Eli*a+eth>s $ourt and later in 1659 o(s; the Earl o( Southampton too pride in playin the e$enas to thepoets that surrounded him. 8( this +e the $ase; the in"ersion o( the initials miht+e a$$ounted (or +y the pu+lisher>s $aution who (eared the earl>s indisposition$@ in the liht o( the more re$ent identi(i$ation o( presuma+ly homose&ualo"ertones in some o( the sonnets; a third "ariant miht +e William Huhes; ahomose&ual ship>s $oo and +oy a$tor; who all the physi$al des$riptions; when

    applied to the imae o( a rather androynous and (air youn man; seem to (itper(e$tly. ?s permission isnow a $ertain (a$t. win to their intimate $hara$ter; the poet delayed theirpu+li$ation whi$h; had it e"er +een in his intention; he would ha"eundou+tedly sele$ted and rearraned the sonnets; pro+a+ly pla$in themunder an uneDui"o$al dedi$ation to ser"e his literary $areer. Thorpe;howe"er; rouped the sonnets as (ollows: the (irst 126 sonnets dedi$ated tothe (air (riend; sonnets 12=1#2 dedi$ated to the )ar ady; while the last twosonnets 1#3=1#4; representin modern "ariants o( epiram 62 (rom

    arianos> 8th +oo; were le(t (or the end o( the $olle$tion.%nd i( se"eral suestions ha"e already +een ad"an$ed reardin the

    potential identity o( the (air (riend; re(eren$e should also +e made to thepossi+le answers to the )ar ady enima in Shaespeare>s sonnets. %spre"iously mentioned; sonnets 12=1#2 re(er to a +runette; the poet>s+elo"ed who +rins o"erwhelmin passion into his mature ae. Somes$holars ad"an$e ary ,itton; the Earl o( Pem+roe>s mistress ?and one o(the sonnets maes re(eren$e to his (riend tain his +elo"ed away (rom [email protected] lady=in=waitin (or the Fueen; +ut her sur"i"in portraits depi$t her as a+londe. thers; supporters o( the Earl o( Southampton theory; suest rs.)a"enant; wi(e o( an &(ord inneeper whose son; the dramatist William)a"enant; Shaespeare>s odson; was a$$ordin to some rumours (athered+y Shaespeare himsel(. % third solution was put (orth une&pe$tedly in 1963+y the &(ord historian %..'owse who suested that the )ar ady o( the

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    sonnets miht ha"e +een; in (a$t; Emilia Aassano; the dauhter o( the 8talianAaptist Aassano; a musi$ian at Eli*a+eth>s $ourt. )ar=haired; uns$rupledand am+itious; Emilia was said to ha"e +een the mistress o( many no+lemenat the $ourt. The (a$t that her hus+and was William anier; a $ourt musi$ian;miht $ast a new liht upon sonnets 13#; 136; and 143 whi$h in$lude puns+ased on the word will: Will the $u$old hus+andK Will the lo"er and will the $ommon noun with an o+s$ene meanin ?U wish or desire@.

    Sometimes; Thorpe>s arranement miht appear unsatis(a$tory assonnets lie 33=3# and 45=42 miht perhaps (ind a +etter pla$e in the )arady sonnet seDuen$e than in the ,air ,riend one. Aesides; many sonnets$ould +e eDually applied to the (air (riend; the )ar ady or to neither o( them.ater attempts at re"isin the order o( Shaespeare>s sonnets were made +ys sorrow at the en(or$edseparation (rom his (riend.

    - Sonnets 33=3# and 45=42 (oreshadow the idea o( +itter disappointment$aused +y his (riend ha"in an a((air with the woman lo"ed +y the speaer=poet as well. E"entually; lo"e (or his (riend is stroner than his su((erin andthe poet a$$epts the un(aith(ulness o( +oth (riend and mistress assomethin natural and ine&ora+le. ?see espe$ially; sonnet 33@

    - ,urther $on(li$ts are also re$orded in the $olle$tion. Sonnets /=/5; /2=/6;/=93 show the poet>s $on$ern and sorrow (or +ein repla$ed +y a 'i"alpoet presuma+ly eore -hapman; mentioned (or his translations (romHomer who has enaed the attention and the a((e$tion o( the younman. What the poet seems to reret most is the loss o( $on(iden$e ratherthan that o( (inan$ial patronae.

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    - Sonnets 94=9# suest e"en "enereal in(e$tion; the un(aith(ulness o( theyoun man leadin the speaer to Duestion his moral $hara$ter with "eryspe$i(i$ imaes o( in(e$tion and disease.

    - Sonnets 111 and 121 i"e "oi$e to the poet>s re"olt aainst hostile (ate orsu((erin (or +ein slandered.


    Sonnets 9=153 and 113=114 re$ount the a+sen$e o( the poet (rom his(riend; while the poet had +een wanderin throuh the $ountry with histroupe o( a$tors.

    - Sonnets 159 =112 and 11#=116 see a restoration o( the poet in his (riend>sheart. The ties o( a((e$tion are stronly a((irmed and misrepresentations denied.

    Ma7or themes and motifs in the first se6uence:- the perisha+ility o( +eauty whi$h de$lines +y $han$e or nature>s $hanin

    $ourse untrimmed ?Sonnet 1/@K- the power o( art to mae +eauty last (ore"er. Shaespeare seems to ha"e

    (ound with "id and Hora$e the notion that a poet>s praise o( his patron$on(ers upon the reat man earthly immortality. 8t is this immortalisin $apa$ity

    o( art that prote$ts him (rom the ra"aes o( time.- the o+session with the passae o( time and with death. 8n Sonnet 8B;(or instan$e; Shaespeare (ollows "id in $hoosin the $easelessen$roa$hment o( the sea upon the land as a striin e&ample o( the ruin(ollowin in the wae o( eternal $hane:

    When 8 ha"e seen the hunry o$ean ain%d"antae on the indom o( the shore; MLN

    'uin hath tauht me thus to ruminate;That Time will $ome and tae my lo"e away.

    The only $om(ort (or the (utility o( man>s endea"ours is art>s $apa$ity to (i&them in eternal (orms.

    - $riti$ism o( the literary and so$ial li(e o( the ae. Shaespeare opposes therhetori$al e&$esses o( the literary (ashion ?Sonnets 21 and 6@ anddisappro"es o( his $ontemporaries> e&tra"aant $lothin or wis made o(dead people>s hair. Sonnets 66=5 and 94=96 treat o( the world>s $orruptionpi$turin $ontemporary li(e with its li(e (or pro(its; its a+uses and $orruption.

    8n sonnets 12=1#2; the poet>s relationship with the )ar ady +e$omes themain $on$ern. 8n dealin with the )ar ady theme; Shaespeare mer$i(ullyspares his readers the tiresome Petrar$han $on"entions. He does notlu&uriate in the woe o( the re7e$ted suitor. He seldom laments the aony o( asleepless niht. He a"oids $omparisons o( the lady>s $harms with o+7e$ts o(natural +eauty:

    y mistress> eyes are nothin lie the sun;-oral is (ar more red; than her lips red;8( snow +e white; why then her +reasts are dun:8( hairs +e wires; +la$ wires row on her head...

    8n lo"in this dar=haired woman; the poet is aware o( his deradation +othas hus+and and man and; in praisin a dar +eauty; he diso+eys theEli*a+ethan poeti$al standards (i&ed upon a +lond ideal. The whole seDuen$ere$ords the inner torments e&perien$ed +y the poet torn +etween passionand lu$idity. o"e appears as an almihty (or$e that inspires +oth (as$inationand hatred. Sonnets lie 135 that e&tol the mistress>s +eauty oppose othersonnets lie 129; 146; 14 or 1#2; whi$h e&press; in an o((endin tone; thepoet>s re7e$tion o( the )ar ady and o( e"erythin she stands (or.

    The metaphori$al style o( the sonnets is e&tremely ri$h despite therelati"e simpli$ity o( "o$a+ulary. The stru$ture o( the sonnet (reDuently

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    rein(or$es the power o( the metaphors: ea$h Duatrain de"elops an imae o(approa$hin e&tin$tion o( a season; o( a day; o( a (ire; +ut also o( humane&isten$e. The three Duatrains are eDually and su$$essi"ely at worpreparin (or the $on$lusion in the $ouplet.

    The rhetori$al stratey in the sonnets is e&tremely "aried. Some sonnets+ein with a remem+ran$e o( thins pastK others are $ommandin in toneKothers introdu$e eneral statements to (urther illustrate them. The imaery $omes(rom a wide "ariety o( sour$es: ardenin; na"iation; law; +usiness; paintin;astroloy; (amily li(e. The moods o +eyond those o( the Petrar$han lo"er. Theyin$lude deliht; pride; melan$holy; shame; disust or (ear.

    %ll these Dualities o( the Shaespearean sonnets entitle moderns$holarship; in parti$ular; and readership; in eneral; to $onsider them the(inest lo"e sonnets e"er written in the Enlish lanuae ?i( not in anylanuae.@ ?a"riliu; 2555: 11#=125@

    /& ;& 5ractical A((lications& E1a6ination !ests&

    1. %nswer the (ollowin Duestions:a. Who introdu$ed (or the (irst time the 8talian sonnet in Enlish literatureX+. What are the di((eren$es in stru$ture +etween the 8talian and the Enlish

    sonnetX$. What was the (irst sini(i$ant $olle$tion o( 'enaissan$e "erse pu+lished in

    EnlandXd. What is a sonnet seDuen$eX !ame the 'enaissan$e poets who wrote

    sonnet seDuen$es.e.What is an alleoryX What alleori$al elements $an +e identi(ied in

    Spenser>s The Fairie )ueene8

    (. Who are the histori$al $hara$ters whom William Shaespeare dedi$ated hissonnets toX

    . What are the main themes o( William Shaespeare>s sonnetsX2. 8denti(y the most important inno"ations in poetry writin o( the (ollowin'enaissan$e writers: a. Sir Thomas WyattK +. Henry Howard; Earl o( SurreyK$. Sir Philip SidneyK d. Edmund SpenserK e. William Shaespeare.3. 'ead the (ollowin sonnets and $ompare them in terms o(:a. themati$ $ontentK +. stylisti$ pe$uliaritiesK $. (orm ?sonnet type and stru$ture;rhyme; rhythm@.

    Ed6und S(enser

    Sonnet LBne day 8 wrote her name upon the strand;Aut $ame the wa"es and washed it away:%ain 8 wrote it with a se$ond hand;Aut $ame the tide; and made my pains his prey.Bain man; said she; that dost in "ain assay;% mortal thin so to immortali*eK,or 8 mysel( shall lie to this de$ay;%nd ee my name +e wiped out liewise.!ot so; ?Duod 8@ let +aser thins de"iseTo die in dust; +ut you shall li"e +y (ame:y "erse your "ertues rare shall eterni*e;%nd in the hea"ens write your lorious name:Where whenas death shall all the world su+due;ur lo"e shall li"e; and later li(e renew.

    Sonetul LB8=am s$ris alesei numele=n nisip;)ar "alul nY"Ylind; l=a Zters pe datY:[i iar l=am s$ris; \ntru a$elaZi $hip;)ar marea Zi=a (Y$ut din truda=mi pradY.-opile; spuse ea; $e=n$er$i \n "anS=n"eZni$eZti un lu$ru pieritor;Eu \nsYmi "a la (el sY mY destram;a (el s=o Ztere numele=mi uZor.!u; nu] striai; $e=i $alp \n ^Yr_nY moarY;-i tu prin har "ei dYinui \n lumeKBoi nemuri \n "ers (Yptura=^i rarY;[i=n $er "oi dYltui $eres$u=^i nume.[=a$olo; $_nd peri="a lumea toatYTrYi="om $u iu+ire=mprospYtatY

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    8illia6 S2a9es(eare

    Sonnet Lie as the wa"es mae towards the pe++led shore;So do our minutes hasten to their end;Ea$h $hanin pla$e with that whi$h oes +e(ore;8n seDuent toil all (orwards do $ontend.

    !ati"ity on$e in the main o( liht;-rawls to maturity; wherewith +ein $rowned;-rooed e$lipses ainst his lory (iht;%nd Time that a"e; doth now his i(t $on(ound.Time doth trans(i& the (lourish set on youth;%nd del"es the parallels in +eautys +row;,eeds on the rarities o( natures truth;%nd nothin stands +ut (or his s$ythe to mow. %nd yet to times in hope; my "erse shall stand Praisin thy worth; despite his $ruel hand.

    Sonetul L-um "alurile $res$ peste prundiZuriminute $ur spre moartea=n *+or ne+un;lo$ul Zi=l lasY (YrY o$oliZuri$elor din urmY; $are le rYpun.

    Te naZti \ntr=a o$eanului splendoare;prin "_rste $uri dar Timpul ^i=a sortite$lipse; lupte laZe Zi surparede"YlmYZind tot $e ^i=a dYruit.Tot $e=i "ioare Timpul \n$o"oaie;(runtea ^i=o taie $u \n$re^ituri$u=a"eri se=ndoapY; "ia^a o despoaieiar $oasa lunY n=ai $um sY i=o (uri. )oar "ersul meu prin "remi se mai aude; slY"indu=te \n $iuda m_inii $rude...

    4. %nalyse the (ollowin sonnets:

    Sir !2o6as 84att

    I Find No 5eace/

    8 (ind no pea$e; and all my war is done:8 (ear; and hopeK 8 +urn; and (ree*e lie i$eK8 (ly a+o"e the wind; yet $an 8 not ariseK%nd nouht 8 ha"e; and all the world 8 sei*e onKThat lo$eth nor loseth holdeth me in prison;%nd holdeth me not; yet $an 8 s$ape nowise:!or letteth me li"e; nor die at my de"ise;%nd yet o( death it i"eth me o$$asion.Without eyen 8 see; and without tonue 8 plainK8 desire to perish; and yet 8 as healthK8 lo"e another; and thus 8 hate mysel(K8 (eed me in sorrow; and lauh in all my pain.

    iewise displeaseth me +oth death and li(e;%nd my deliht is $auser o( this stri(e.

    5ierdut36i este (aceaPierdutY=mi este pa$ea: n=am arme sY mY +at;[i sper; Zi ard; Zi=s hea^Y; Zi mY $uprinde (ri$a;[i=n $eruri *+or; Zi=n ^YrnY *a$ pururi nemiZ$atKa piept str_n humea=ntreaY Zi n=am la pieptnimi$a.=a prins \ntr=o=n$hisoare (Yr> de *Y"or la poartYK!i$i li+er un mY lasY; ni$i nu mY=n$hide=n ea.!u "rea sY mY u$idY %mor; ni$i nu mY iartY;!i$i "iu nu mY doreZte; ni$i $hinul nu mi=l ia.!=am o$hi Zi "Yd; Zi; (YrY de lim+Y stri la $erK[i mY urYs$ pe mine pe $_t mi=i ea de draY.`mi pla$e $Y mY doare Zi "esel sunt pl_n_ndK

    )e "ia^Y Zi de moarte sunt de*ustat de r_nd...)in "ina ta; adonY; mY $hinui "ia^a=ntreaY]

    18n imitation o( Petrar$h; Sonnet 154: )es$ription o( the -ontrarious Passions in a o"er.

    Henr4 Hos title: )es$ription o( Sprin; wherin e$he thin renewes; saue onelie the louer. %dapted (rom Petrar$h>s315th ?269th@ sonnet ?in some editions the 42nd sonetto in Morte@. Surrey>s sprin is Enlish rather than 8talian.

    Sir 52ili( Sidne4

    With how sad steps; oon; thou $lim+st the

    sies]How silently; and with how wan a (a$e]What; may it +e that e"en in hea"nly pla$eThat +usy ar$her his sharp arrows tries]Sure; i( that lon=with lo"e=a$Duainted eyes

    With how sad steps; oon; thou $lim+st the

    sies]How silently; and with how wan a (a$e]What; may it +e that e"en in hea"nly pla$eThat +usy ar$her his sharp arrows tries]Sure; i( that lon=with lo"e=a$Duainted eyes

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    -an 7ude o( lo"e; thou (eelst a lo"ers $ase;8 read it in thy loosK thy lanuishd ra$eTo me; that (eel the lie; thy state des$ries.Then; e"n o( (ellowship; oon; tell me;8s $onstant lo"e deemd there +ut want o( witX%re +eauties there as proud as here they +eX)o they a+o"e lo"e to +e lo"d; and yetThose lo"ers s$orn whom that lo"e doth possessX)o they $all "irtue there unrate(ulnessX?Sonnet 8@

    -an 7ude o( lo"e; thou (eelst a lo"ers $ase;8 read it in thy loosK thy lanuishd ra$eTo me; that (eel the lie; thy state des$ries.Then; e"n o( (ellowship; oon; tell me;8s $onstant lo"e deemd there +ut want o( witX%re +eauties there as proud as here they +eX)o they a+o"e lo"e to +e lo"d; and yetThose lo"ers s$orn whom that lo"e doth possessX)o they $all "irtue there unrate(ulnessX?Sonnet 8@

    8illia6 S2a9es(eare

    Sonnet BIIIShall 8 $ompare thee to a summers dayXThou art more lo"ely and more temperate:'ouh winds do shae the darlin +uds o( ay;%nd summers lease hath all too short a date:Sometime too hot the eye o( hea"en shines;%nd o(ten is his old $omple&ion dimmed;%nd e"ery (air (rom (air sometime de$lines;Ay $han$e; or natures $hanin $ourse untrimmed:

    Aut thy eternal summer shall not (ade;!or lose possession o( that (air thou owst;!or shall death +ra thou wandrest in his shade;When in eternal lines to time thou rowst; So lon as men $an +reathe or eyes $an see; So lon li"es this; and this i"es li(e to thee.

    Sonetul BIII-u=o *i a "erii poate sY te semuiXTu eZti mai plin de (arme$ Zi mai +l_nd]0n "_nt do+oarY $reana Zi +lestemu=i$Y (run*a "erii moare prea $ur_nd.%des e o$hiul $erului (ier+inteZi aur \l pre$ede=ntune$atpre$um (rumosul din (rumos des$indesu+ $erul simplei (iri; netul+urat.

    )ar "ara ta eternY nu pYleZteZi n=ai sY pier*i $e astY*i stYp_neZti\n um+ra mor^ii n=ai sY plim+i $aleZte$_nd \ntr=un "ers etern ^i=e dat sY $reZti. -_t oamenii pri"es$ Zi $_t respirY trYieZti Zi \n $_ntu=n$his \n lirY.

    2. 'ead the (ollowin (rament (rom Edmund Spenser>s The Fairie )ueeneand answer the (ollowin Duestions: a. Who is the $hara$ter re(erred toXK +.How is he portrayedXK $. How does the (rament anti$ipate the (urtherde"elopment o( the main plot line in Aoo 8XK d. How $an the alleori$alpattern en$losed in the (rament +e de$odedXK e. What (eatures o( ar$hai$

    lanuae $an +e identi(iedXK (. How would you des$ri+e the te&t in terms o((orm ?stan*a type; rhythm; [email protected]

    1 % entle niht was pri$in on the plaine;2 C $ladd in mihtie armes and sil"er shielde;3 Wherein old dints o( deepe wounds did remaine;4 The $ruell mares o( many a +loudy (ieldeK# Cet armes till that time did he ne"er wield:6 His anry steede did $hide his (omin +itt; %s mu$h disdaynin to the $ur+e to yield:/ ,ull iolly niht he seemd; and (aire did sitt;9 %s one (or nihtly iusts and (ier$e en$ounters (itt.

    15 Aut on his +rest a +loudie -rosse he +ore;

    11 The deare remem+ran$e o( his dyin ord;12 ,or whose sweete sae that lorious +ade hewore;13 %nd dead as li"in e"er him adord:14 0pon his shield the lie was also s$ord;1# ,or so"eraine hope; whi$h in his helpe he had:16 'iht (aith(ull true he was in deede and word;1 Aut o( his $heere did seeme too solemne sad;1/ Cet nothin did he dread; +ut e"er was ydrad.

    19 0pon a reat ad"enture he was +ond;25 That reatest "lorianato him a"e;21 That reatest lorious Fueene o( Faerieland;22 To winne him worship; and her ra$e to ha"e;23 Whi$h o( all earthly thins he most did $ra"eK24 %nd e"er as he rode; his hart did earne2# To pro"e his puissan$e in +attell +ra"e26 0pon his (oe; and his new (or$e to learneK

    0n m_ndru ,Yt da pinteni peste plai;`n"eZm_ntat \n (ier; $u s$ut de=arhirPe $are *im^i de rYni ad_n$i "edeaiTot semn de=n$r_n$enate=mpotri"iriK,ier nu purtase \n$Y \n turnirKSirep (ua$i; muZ$a *Y+ala rea!e=nduple$at sY ra+de (r_ul=*+ir,rumosul ,Yt; $e (alni$ se ^inea-a unul "redni$ de=n$leZtYri; \n(iorate prea.

    Purta pe pieptu=i $ru$e s_nerie;

    )ra su"enir murindului )omn s(_nt;[i=n draul 08 purta el $ru$ea "ie;)ra sus \n $er; pre$um Zi pe pYm_nt.Pe s$ut a$elaZi semn Zi=a (ost sYp_nd;!Yde7de=naltY=n naltul a7utor:-instit era \n (aptY Zi=n $u"_nt;)ar $hipu=i prea \nneurat de=un norKEl $el mereu temut; $i ni$i$_nd temYtor.

    -u mare (aptY se Ztia dator)omni^ei loriana $ea $rYias$Y;'eina=n lorii=a Yrii Q_nelor ui sla"Y Zi=al ei har sY=Zi do+_ndeas$Y;-ea mai r_"nitY a"ere pYm_nteas$YK

    [i tot onind; onind; sim^ea ardoareult sY strYlu$e=n luptY "oini$eas$Y,r_n_nd "rYZmaZ; $u +ra^ul sY=Zi mYsoare;,r_n_nd "rYZmaZ; Aalaur; (iarY=nro*itoare.

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    2 0pon his (oe; a )raon horri+le and stearne.

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    Section )0 En#lis2 Dra6a in t2e Si1teent2 entur4

    )& /& !2e Rise o, t2e Secular Dra6a

    )& /& /& Eli$a'et2an 5la42ouses and !2eatrical 5er,or6ances

    When Eli*a+eth +e$ame Fueen o( Enland in 1##/; there were no spe$iallydesined theatre +uildins. -ompanies o( a$tors ?usually small; made o( # to/ mem+ers@ toured the $ountry and per(ormed in a wide "ariety o( temporarya$tin spa$es; mainly in inn yards; +ut also in $hur$hes; Town Halls; TownSDuares; reat halls o( 'oyal Pala$es or other reat houses; or anywhereelse that a lare $rowd $ould +e athered to "iew a per(orman$e.

    8t is true that they $ontinued to tour throuhout Eli*a+eth>s rein?espe$ially durin the Plaue in ondon; when theatres were $losed orearned +ut little money@. !e"ertheless; i"en the laws passed +y the Fueen

    to $ontrol wanderin +ears and "arants whi$h impli$itly a((e$ted thea$tin $ompanies as well many a$tors were en$ouraed to settle down withpermanent +ases in ondon.

    The first permanent theatresin Enland were old inns whi$h had +eenused as temporary a$tin areas when the $ompanies had +een tourin. E..The #ross 9eys. The $ull. The $el Sa%age. The $ell all oriinally +uilt asinns. Some o( the inns that +e$ame theatres had su+stantial alterationsmade to their stru$ture to allow them to +e used as playhouses.

    The (irst purpose +uilt theatre +uildin in Enland was simply $alledThe Theatre; e"entually i"in its name to all su$h +uildin ere$ted in theoutsirts o( ondon and (un$tionin until the $losin o( the theatres in 1642durin the -i"il War.

    The Theatrewas +uilt in 1#6; at Shoredit$h in the northern outsirtso( ondon; +y the Earl o( ei$ester>s en who were led +y s sons to se$retly

    tear down the +uildin and $arry away the tim+er to +uild a new playhouse onthe Aanside whi$h they names The "lo'e. Ay this time; the Aur+aes had+e$ome mem+ers o( ord -ham+erlain>s -ompany; alon with WilliamShaespeare; and The "lo'e is (amously remem+ered as the theatre inwhi$h many o( Shaespeare>s plays were (irst per(ormed. ?The "lo'e wasdestroyed in 1613 in a (ire $aused +y the spars o( a $annon (ired durin theper(orman$e o( Shaespeare>s Henry ,III. 'e+uilt; it was $losed anddemolished in 1644 durin the -i"il War. The modern re$onstru$tion o(Sha3espeare!s "lo'e Theatrein ondon was $ompleted in 199.@

    Ae(ore oin into more details reardin the stru$ture o( theEli*a+ethan theatre; distin$tion should +e made; howe"er; +etween two

    $ateories o( playhouses: the pu'lic :outdoor; theatres and the pri%ate:indoor; theatres. The (ormer were amphitheatre +uildins open to the air andthere(ore $heaper The lo+e; (or instan$e; $hared two pen$e (or a seat inEn#lis2 Renaissance Literature );

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    the alleries or a sinle penny to stand in the yard. The latter ?e..$lac3friarsK The #oc3pit@ were +uilt to a hall desin in en$losed and usuallyre$tanular +uildins more lie the theatres we now today. They had amoree&$lusi"e audien$e sin$e they $hared $onsidera+ly more the $heapestseat in a pri"ate theatre $ost si&pen$e. The adult $ompanies did not start touse the pri"ate hall theatres until a(ter Eli*a+eth>s death; +ut they were used+y the +oy $ompanies ?made up entirely o( $hild and teenae a$tors@ inEli*a+eth>s rein and were used +y Shaespeare>s -ompany = +y this timethe in>s en = and other adult $ompanies in the despite the poor"iew o( the +a$ o( the a$tors. ?!e"ertheless; the audien$e at lare wouldha"e a ood "iew o( the ords and the ords were a+le to hear the a$tors$learly.@ There were also additional +al$onies on the le(t and riht o( the ord>srooms $alled the entlemen>s rooms; also meant (or the ri$h patrons o( thetheatres.

    %s pre"iously mentioned; the stae wall stru$ture $ontained two doors?at least@ leadin to a small stru$ture; +a$ stae; $alled the Tiring Houseused +y a$tors to dress; prepare and wait o((stae.

    %+o"e the stae allery; there is a third storey $onne$ted with theHea"ens e&tendin (orward (rom the tirin=house o"er the rear part o( thestae; whi$h was o(ten used to represent the walls o( a $astle or a $ity.

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    ast +ut not least; on top o( this stru$ture; there was also what miht +e$alled a (ourth storey o( the tirin=house; re(erred to as the Hut presuma+lyused as a storae spa$e and housin suspension ear (or (lyin e((e$ts; whilethe third storey stae $o"er ser"ed as a loadin room (or players preparin toG(ly> down to the stae. n top o( the hut; a (la ?a +la$ one; i( it was atraedy; a white one; i( it was a $omedy; or a red one; i( it was a history@ wasere$ted to let the world now a play was to +e per(ormed that day.

    The a$$ess to the playhouse was ensured +y one main entran$e;where playoers had to put the admission (ee i.e. 1 penny; (or those whowat$hed the play (rom the yard; standin; $alled the roundlins?shopeepers; $ra(tsmen; apprenti$es@; or more; up to 4=# pen$e (or the entryand the reat lords sittin in the alleries. The alleries $ould +e rea$hed +ythe two sets o( stairs in the stru$ture; on either side o( the theatre. The (irstallery would $ost another penny in the +o& whi$h was held +y a $olle$tor?atherer@ at the (ront o( the stairs. The se$ond allery would $ost anotherpenny. %t the start o( the play; a(ter $olle$tin money (rom the audien$e; the

    admission $olle$tors put the +o&es in a room +a$stae; $alled the +o&o((i$e.

    The PlayersThere were in"aria+ly many more parts than a$tors. Eli*a+ethan

    Theatre; there(ore; demanded that an a$tor +e a+le to play numerous rolesand mae it o+"ious to the audien$e +y $hanes in his a$tin style and$ostume that he was a new person ea$h time. When the same $hara$ter$ame on disuised ?as; (or e&ample; many o( Shaespeare>s (emale$hara$ters disuise themsel"es as +oys e.. The Merchant of ,enice orTwelfth &ight@ spee$hes had to +e in$luded main it "ery $lear that this was

    the same $hara$ter in a new $ostume; and not a $ompletely new $hara$ter.%ll o( the a$tors in an Eli*a+ethan Theatre $ompany were male ?whi$hmiht e&plain the s$ar$ity o( (emale roles in Eli*a+ethan drama@. There werelaws in Enland aainst women a$tin onstae and Enlish tra"ellers a+roadwere amused and ama*ed +y the strane $ustoms o( -ontinental European$ountries that allowed women to play (emale roles. E&$eptions : ne woman= ary ,rith; +etter nown as oll -utpurse = was arrested in the s The Roaring "irl@ and somesuest that she may a$tually ha"e +een illeally playin hersel( in theper(orman$e; and women sometimes too part in -ourt asDues ?a "ery

    stylised and spe$ta$ular sort o( per(orman$e (or the -ourt; usually dominated+y sinin and dan$in@; +ut otherwise Enlish women had no part in theper(orman$e o( Eli*a+ethan plays. The male a$tors who played (emale partsha"e traditionally +een des$ri+ed as Aoy %$tors they were a$tually +oyswhose "oi$es had not $haned.

    The rehearsal and per(orman$e s$hedule that Eli*a+ethan Players(ollowed was intense and demandin. 0nlie modern theatres; where asu$$ess(ul play $an run (or years at a time; Eli*a+ethan theatres normallyper(ormed si& di((erent plays in their si& day wee; and a parti$ularlysu$$ess(ul play miht only +e repeated on$e a month or so. ,or e&ample; in atypi$al season; a theatri$al $ompany $ould per(orm thirty=eiht di((erent plays.The Eli*a+ethan a$tor did not ha"e mu$h time; there(ore; to prepare (or ea$hnew play; and must ha"e had to learn lines and prepare his +lo$in larely on

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    his own and in his spare time pro+a+ly helped +y the tenden$y o( writers toha"e parti$ular a$tors in mind (or ea$h part; and to write roles whi$h weresuited to the parti$ular strenths and ha+its o( indi"idual a$tors. There were(ew (ormal rehearsals (or ea$h play and no eDui"alent o( the modern )ire$tor?althouh presuma+ly the writer; theatre manaers; and the most importanta$tors = who owned shares in the theatre $ompany = would ha"e i"en somedire$tion to other a$tors@. 8nstead o( +ein i"en (ull s$ripts; ea$h a$tor had awritten part; a lon s$roll with nothin more than his own lines and minimal$ue lines ?the lines spoen +y another a$tor 7ust +e(ore his own@ to tell himwhen to spea = this sa"ed on the la+orious tas o( $opyin out the (ull playrepeatedly +y hand. There was a +ooholder or prompter who held a $ompletes$ript and who helped a$tors who had (orotten their lines.

    Performance Techni6uesWe now "ery little; un(ortunately; a+out how Eli*a+ethan a$tors

    a$tually played their roles. Per(orman$es pro+a+ly ran $ontinuously without

    any sort o( inter"al or %$t Areas. $$asionally musi$ may ha"e +een played+etween %$ts or $ertain s$enes; +ut s$holars thin this was Duite unusuale&$ept in the hall playhouses; where $andles had to +e trimmed and repla$ed+etween %$ts. We do not e"en now how lon Eli*a+ethan plays usually ran.The law e&pe$ted plays to last +etween two and two and a hal( hours; +utsome plays = su$h as Hamlet; whi$h in modern times runs (or more than (ourhours = seem mu$h too lon to ha"e +een per(ormed in su$h a short time.What props and s$enery there were in the Eli*a+ethan Theatre werepro+a+ly $arried on and o(( while the s$enes $ontinued; while a$tors were$ontinually mo"in (orward and +a$ward into the midst o( the surroundinaudien$e. %ll entran$es and e&its were throuh the doors at the rear o( the

    stae proper: one a$tor le(t throuh one door while a se$ond a$tor wouldappear throuh the se$ond door to swin into the ne&t s$ene. That meansthat there would ha"e +een no need to wait (or s$ene $hanes. The a$torswere ept in $onstant motion and; i"en the desin o( the stae; they had to(a$e in as many di((erent dire$tions as possi+le durin a s$ene.

    %nother aspe$t o( Eli*a+ethan per(orman$e that we now a little a+outwas the use o( $lowns or (ools. Shaespeare $omplains in Hamleta+out the(a$t that the (ool o(ten spoe a reat deal that was not in$luded in his s$ript;and in the early Eli*a+ethan period espe$ially it seems to ha"e +een normal(or the (ool to in$lude a reat deal o( impro"ised repartee and 7oes in hisper(orman$e; espe$ially respondin to he$lers in the audien$e. %t the end o(

    the play the Eli*a+ethan a$tors o(ten dan$ed; and sometimes the (ool andother $omi$ a$tors would per(orm a 7i = whi$h $ould +e anythin (rom asimple +allad to a Duite $ompli$ated musi$al play; normally a (ar$e in"ol"inadultery and other +awdy topi$s. Some time was apparently put aside (or the(ool to respond to $hallenes (rom the audien$e = with spe$tators in"entinrhymes and $hallenin the (ool to $omplete them; asin riddles andDuestions and demandin witty answers; or simply aruin and $riti$isin the(ool so that he $ould respond.

    With no modern stae lihtin to enhan$e the a$tors and put theaudien$e into darness; lo+e audien$e mem+ers $ould see ea$h othere&a$tly as well as they $ould see the per(ormers and the roundlins inparti$ular were near enouh to the stae to +e a+le to tou$h the a$tors i( theywanted to and the (ront row o( the roundlins routinely leaned their arms andheads onto the (ront o( the stae itsel(. The roundlins were also (or$ed to

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    stand (or two or three hours without mu$h mo"ement; whi$h en$ouraed shortattention spans and a desire to tae a$tion rather than remain $ompletelyimmo+ile. This means that the roundlins (reDuently shouted up at the a$torsor hissed the "illains and $heered the oodies. Eli*a+ethan audien$es seem toha"e +een "ery responsi"e in this way = as their intera$tions with the ,oolsuests = and were parti$ularly well nown (or hurlin nut shells and (ruitwhen they dislied an a$tor or a per(orman$e. The Eli*a+ethan audien$e wasstill more distra$ted; howe"er; sin$e +eer and (ood were +ein sold and$onsumed throuhout the per(orman$e; prostitutes were a$ti"ely soli$itin (ortrade; and pi$po$ets were +usy stealin oods as the play proressed.

    Eli*a+ethan audien$es may ha"e "iewed plays "ery di((erently;hen$e the oriin o( the word audien$e itsel(. The Eli*a+ethans did not speao( oin to seea play; they went to hearone = and it is possi+le that in thedensely $rowded theatre = o+stru$ted +y the pillars and the e&tra"aantheadear that ri$her mem+ers o( the audien$e were wearin = theEli*a+ethan audien$e was more $on$erned to hear the words spoen than to

    +e a+le to see the a$tion. This idea is i"en e&tra weiht +y the (a$t that inthe pu+li$ outdoor theatres; lie the lo+e; the most e&pensi"e seats werenot the ones with the +est "iews ?in (a$t the +est "iew is to +e had +y theroundlins; standin dire$tly in (ront o( the stae@; +ut those whi$h weremost easily seen +y other audien$e mem+ers. The most e&pensi"e seatinwas in the ord>s +o& or +al$ony +ehind the stae = looin at the a$tion (rom+ehind = and otherwise the hiher the seats the more an audien$e mem+erhad to pay. ?Some Eli*a+ethan do$uments suest that the reason (or thisrane o( pri$es was the ri$her patron>s desire to +e as (ar (rom the stin o(the roundlins as [email protected]$i(i$ aspe$ts o( Eli*a+ethan per(orman$es: 'ear='aiting: three +ears in as$endin si*e are set upon +y an Enlish

    hound in a (iht to the death] fencing: less ruesome; this $i"ili*ed sport also too pla$e +e(ore plays. dum'=shows

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    Ay the turn o( the 1# th$entury; the later moralities +ean to in$orporate moreand more non reliious material. The morality plays rea$hed a point when itis impossi+le distinuish $learly +etween them and the early se$ularinterludes. %(ter 1#55 the term interlude $an to +e used indis$riminately (orany play maintainin its $hara$ter o( se$ular humour. The term was (irst usedas a +rie( play +etween the $ourses o( a +anDuet. ther re$ords o( the ae$onsider the interlude as a play per(ormed outdoors in summer. Whate"er itsoriin or e&a$t meanin it is out o( the interlude that the wholly se$ular dramain Enlish de"eloped in the (urther years. The s$holarly re"i"al o( interest inthe an$ient drama $ontri+uted to a "iorous playwritin in Enlands s$hoolsand $ollees; in the no+lemens houses and at the 8nns o( -ourt.

    Henr4 Ced

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    "erse here employed in drama (or the (irst time. Sir Philip Sidney praises thetraedy in his Defense of Poetrie.

    The oriinal $reation o( the Enlish 'enaissan$e dramatists was the$hroni$le play the prototype o( whi$h was 9ing 2ohan?$. 1#3/@ +y

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    The marriae +etween Ael=8mperia and Aaltha*ar is set; and theBi$eroy tra"els to Spain to attend the $eremony. Hieronimo is in $hare o( theentertainment (or the marriae $eremony; and he uses it to $arry out hisre"ene. He puts up a play to +e per(ormed at the weddin; and $on"in$esoren*o and Aaltha*ar to a$t in it. Ael=8mperia; +y now a $on(ederate inHieronimos plot (or re"ene; also a$ts in the play. Hieronimo: Torn apart +etween his "iolent ures o( a rie"in (ather whose

    son was +rutally murdered and his responsi+ility as the niht=arshal; thetop 7ude (or any leal matters $on$ernin the Spanish in or his estate;Hieronimo; the a%enger; lins thus two o( the play>s ey themes; 7usticeand

    re%enge. He eDuates the two (reDuently; and; indeed; the play seems tosupport his eDuation with its "arious $alls (or re"ene and retri+ution.!e"ertheless; he seems to (a$e a num+er o( pro+lems when it $omes tore"ene and this i"es him the psy$holoi$al $omple&ity and "erisimilitudetypi$ally asso$iated with the trai$ protaonist; main Hieronimo a sort o(proto=trai$ protaonist in Enlish literature. !ot e"en an important $hara$teruntil the murder o( his son Horatio; Hieronimo is suddenly thrust into the$entre o( the a$tion. His $hara$ter then de"elops o"er a series o( soliloDuies;wrestlin with se"eral ey Duestions: whether to end his misery +y sui$ideinstead o( waitin to see re"ene; where to see re"ene aainstmurderers with (ar more in(luen$e o"er the in than he; how to re$on$ile hisduties as a 7ude with his ina+ility to (ind 7usti$e (or his son; whether to lea"ere"ene to od on$e his leal means are e&hausted; andIha"in de$idedto see his re"eneIhow to do it in the (a$e o( enemies who $ould easilydestroy him with their "astly reater in(luen$e and power at $ourt. %nd heresol"es the (inal Duestions tain the de$ision o( seein re"ene in aa$hia"ellian; de$eit(ul manner. This is a radi$al shi(t (or Hieronimo; whoe((e$ti"ely adopts the ta$ti$s o( the murderer oren*o aainst oren*ohimsel(. %nd thouh his re"ene is su$$ess(ul; Hieronimo>s rie( is notrelie"ed; only death and silen$e manaes to do this.

    Hieronimo>s $on"ersion to a$hia"ellianism and his "iolent; +loody

    re"ene; may raise pro+lems (or +oth an Eli*a+ethan and a modernaudien$e. Sympathi*in with someone who re"eals himsel( to +e +othde$eit(ul and +loodthirsty is di((i$ult. Aut yd does sow the seeds o(

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    Hieronimo>s $on"ersion (rom the "ery +einnin; in the (irst %$t; whenHieronimo presents a masDue to entertain the $ourt. 8n dire$t $onne$tion withthat early moment in the play; we may see Hieronimo>s re"ene less as a"iolent; e"il a$t than as a $reati"e way to (ind 7usti$e in an un7ust so$iety.

    $el=Imperia. The main (eminine $hara$ter in the play; she is a "ery

    un(ortunate youn woman: she (alls in lo"e with +oth %ndrea and Horatioshortly +e(ore they dieK she also has the mis(ortune to ha"e an e"il +rotherin oren*o and to +e the o+7e$t o( Aaltha*ar>s a((e$tion; when Aaltha*ar isthe "ery man who murdered her +elo"ed %ndrea and then went on tomurder her +elo"ed HoratioK she is then (or$ed +y +oth her (ather; the )ueo( -astille; and her un$le; the in o( SpainIthe two most power(ul men inthe $ountryIto wed this "ery same Aaltha*ar.

    )espite her mis(ortune; she does not appear as a wea woman: shedisplays her rhetori$al a+ility in sti$homythia ?line=+y=line e&$hanes@+etween her; Aaltha*ar; and oren*o and she also has se"eral soliloDuies;durin whi$h we ha"e a$$ess to a mind; an interiority; with "ery stron

    opinions; desires; and moti"ations. We also ha"e e"iden$e that she has thene$essary strenth o( will to a$t on her desires and moti"ationsK the$learest e&ample o( this may +e her parti$ipation in Hieronimos re"eneplaylet; Soliman and Perseda. She may indeed appear too $al$ulatin; too$old; too (o$used on re"ene ?pushin Hieronimo (orward when he appearstoo la*y to pursue the re"ene@; +ut that is somewhat e&plaina+le in the$ase o( a woman who has su((ered so mu$h.

    Loren+o& oren*o is an e&ample o( the Machia%ellian %illain; typi$al o( manyEli*a+ethan traedies and dramas. ?E.. 'i$hard 888 o( lou$ester inShaespeare>s Richard III; 8ao in Shaespeare>s /thelloK Aara+as inarlowe>s The 2ew of Malta@ This $hara$ter e&ploited the popular

    disappro"al o( the early si&teenth=$entury 8talian politi$al philosopher!i$$olo a$hia"elli; whose The Princeportrayed a pi$ture o( a politi$alruler who used manipulation o"er persuasion and (ear o"er lo"e to ensurethe loyalty o( his su+7e$ts. This $hara$ter also drew hea"ily on thetraditional Bi$e (iure in Enlish literature.

    The Bi$e (iure would use "er+al $le"erness to lead a protaonist intosin; usin that protaonists inherent moral weaness. Similarly; oren*o useshis "er+al $le"erness to lead the people around him to in7usti$e; playin ontheir moral weaness as well as their la$ o( nowlede. %nd lie the Bi$e(iure; oren*o has a (oil. 8n the morality plays; the (oil was usually a "irtuousold man. 8n this traedy; the honest and "irtuous Horatio a$ts as a (oil. Aut aey di((eren$e +etween the a$hia"ellian "illain and the Bi$e (iure is that the"illain is human; whereas Bi$e is supernatural ?mu$h lie 'e"ene in thisplay@. So oren*o is wea in the same way those he manipulates are wea;and he is as easily manipulated as those he manipulates. This ironi$ (a$t ispro"en +y Hieronimo when he lures oren*o into the playlet; manipulatin theyoun no+lemans lo"e o( theatre and erroneous +elie( that Hieronimo +earshim no hard (eelins.

    Themes and motifs Re%enge and 2ustice1%s pre"iously stated; the o((i$ial Eli*a+ethan attitude

    towards re"ene is epitomised +y Hieronimo>s Duote (rom the Ai+le in %$t 888;

    i.e. Benean$e is mineK 8 will repay; sayeth the ord. That implies that'e"ene should +e per(ormed +y od ?or the State; whi$h deri"ed its power(rom od@; +ut it still needs to +e per(ormed. This is the presupposition thatunderlies Hieronimo>s dou+ts whether the Hea"ens ?and od@ are in (a$t

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    7ust; whi$h are dou+ts he e&presses a(ter the murder o( his son and theapparent es$ape o( his murderers. 8t is in the liht o( this lin +etweenre"ene and 7usti$e that Hieronimo de$ides to re"ene Horatio>s deathhimsel( and that he interprets Ael=8mperia>s o((er o( help as a sin thatHea"en (a"ours his de$ision. Hieronimo may here $onsider himsel( theaent o( the di"ine "enean$e that a 7ust od must +rin aainst his son>smurderers; the man $hosen +y od to re"ene Horatio>s death. His a$twould thus +e a ser"i$e to od and not an usurpation o( od>s role.

    (ppearance %ersus Reality. yd uses dramati$ irony throuhout the play todri"e a wede +etween the world as his main $hara$ters see it and theworld as it a$tually is. To i"e a sini(i$ant e&ample; oren*oenthusiasti$ally arees to play his part in Hieronimo>s traedy; not nowinthat Hieronimo intends not only his $hara$ter to die; +ut (or him to die aswell. Aut; perhaps the most $on$rete and dramati$ e&ample o( this wedeis Pedrinano>s +elie( that a pardon is $ontained inside the +o& oren*ohas sent him. The +o& then $omes to sym+oli*e; in the "iew o( many $riti$s;

    a more (undamental and eneral limitation on human nowlede. 8n otherwords; the $hara$ters> ina+ility to et past appearan$es is typi$al o( allhuman +eins> ina+ility to penetrate appearan$es.

    Madness. 8t +e$omes mani(est in two distin$t $hara$ters in the play:Hieronimo>s turns to outward destru$tion and leads to +loody re"ene;8sa+ella>s results in inward destru$tion and e"entually in sui$ide. %nyway;in +oth $ases; madness appears as a mani(estation o( the desire toes$ape (rom a horri+le reality. ,urthermore; madness is ratherparado&i$al in the sense that it is a ind o( sane madnessImadness inthe (a$e o( a world that has itsel( one insane and to whi$h madness isthe only possi+le response. This madness pla$es the sane and happy;

    su$h as the in; in an ironi$ position; espe$ially i( we understandmadness as a dis$onne$ted state (rom reality. 8n the world o( the play; itis the sane and happy who are truly dis$onne$ted (rom reality; una+le toe"en see the per"asi"e e"il that surrounds them.

    Machia%ellism. 8n Eli*a+ethan Enland; a$hia"elli>s name wassynonymous with e"il; dupli$ity; use o( "iolen$e and (ear. a$hia"elli>sphilosophy was a$tually intended (or the rulers o( $itiesK he maintained?reasona+ly@ that su$h rulers $ould not +e +ound +y $on"entional morality.The a$hia"ellian "illain; howe"er; applied the philosopher>s prin$iples topri"ate li(e. 8roni$ally; Hieronimo; the play>s protaonist; is (or$ed to adopt

    a$hia"ellian ta$ti$s in order to a"ene his son. (ntithesis and Irony. Aoth rhetori$ally and in terms o( $hara$teri*ation; ydlo"es opposites: oren*o is uneDui"o$ally un7ust; while Hieronimo isuneDui"o$ally 7ust. Horatio is honoura+le; while oren*o is typi$allydishonoura+le. This lo"e (or opposition e&presses itsel( in the (reDuento$$urren$e o( the rhetori$al de"i$e o( antithesis.where the opposition o( twoideas is e&pressed in one senten$e or in a parallel stru$ture o( senten$es.

    Cet; many o( the initially antitheti$al $hara$ters at times seem "erysimilar to ea$h other. %t the end o( the play; Hieronimo adopts oren*o>sa$hia"ellianism; and oren*o plays Hieronimo>s part o( the inno$entdupe. Ae$ause o( oren*o>s plot; the 7ust Hieronimo ends up $ommittin

    an a$t o( in7usti$e in the hanin o( Pedrinano. These resolutions ande&$hanes are ironi$; +e$ause they show how +oth meanins and

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    ta"ern +rawl miht ha"e +een the wor o( o"ernment aents. ittle e"iden$eto support these alleations has $ome to liht; howe"er.8or9s. While still in -am+ride; arlowe wrote his (irst play Dido. )ueen of#arthageand perhaps e"en outlined the (irst part o( Tam'urlaine the "reat.arlowe also turned out an e&$ellent translator in "erse o( "id>s (moresando( the (irst +oo o( u$an>s Pharsalia; as well as a poet ?$hie( amon his lyri$alprodu$tions; the more oriinal poem Hero and Leander$ould +e mentioned.@

    %(ter ha"in settled in ondon; worin with ord %dmiral>s en;arlowe wrote (or the stae the (ollowin plays:

    - Tam'urlaine the "reat; parts 1 and 2 ?a+out 1#/@K- The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus?a+out 1#//J 1#[email protected] The 2ew of Malta?1#/9=1#[email protected] Edward II ?a+out 1#[email protected] The Massacre at Paris ?1#93@.

    Ea$h o( arlowe>s plays is; in a sense; a tour de force; a spe$ial $reation ?despite

    the (a$t that some o( the plays lie The 2ew of Malta; Didoand The Massacre atParisare not; a$$ordin to some s$holars; as well written as the other[email protected]>s (irst and most important ser"i$e to drama was the

    impro%ement of 'lan3 %erse. 'o+ert reene had $ondemned its use as +einuns$holarlyK Sa$"ille and !orton had used it; +ut were not a+le to li(t ita+o"e $ommonpla$e; $on(inin it to isolated lines; all made a(ter onerhythmi$al pattern; with the same num+er o( (eet and the $bsura always inpla$e; (ollowin one another; with no roupin a$$ordin to thouht. arlowein"ented num+erless "ariations while still eepin the satis(yin rhythm withina re$urrin pattern. Sometimes he le(t a redundant sylla+le; or le(t the lineone sylla+le short; or mo"ed the position o( the $bsura. He rouped his lines

    a$$ordin to the thouht and adapted his "arious rhythms to the ideas. Thus+lan "erse +e$ame a li"in oranism; plasti$; +rilliant; and (inished.arlowe>s se$ond +est i(t to drama was his conception of the heroic

    tragedy +uilt on a rand s$ale; with the three=(old unity o( $hara$ter;impression; and interest; instead o( the arti(i$ial unities o( time and pla$e.Ae(ore his time; traedies were +uilt either a$$ordin to the loose style o( the$hroni$le; or within the me$hani$al (ramewor o( the Sene$an modelK +ut; ineither $ase; the dramati$ unity attained +y the rees was la$in. arlowe;with his disreard o( the so=$alled $lassi$ rules; was in (a$t mu$h nearer thespirit o( %es$hylus and Sopho$les than the sla"ish (ollowers o( the pseudo=$lassi$ s$hools. ?%nd so was William Shaespeare too.@ -omin to ondon

    o+sessed with (antasti$ aspirations; arlowe painted ianti$ am+itions;desires (or impossi+le thins; lonins (or a +eauty +eyond earthly$on$eption; and so"ereins destroyed +y the "ery powers whi$h had raisedthem to their thrones. Tam+urlaine; ,aust; Aara+as are personi(i$ations o(arroan$e and insatia+le am+ition; lust (or power and wealth. )espite thetou$h o( the e&tra"aant or +om+asti$; or e"en o( the puerile that sometimes$hara$terise his plays; and his ina+ility to portray women ?none o( his playsdeals with lo"e as the main su+7e$t@; or the (a$t that his world is notaltoether our world; +ut a remote (ield o( the imaination; his plays manaedto impose a standard upon all su$$eedin theatri$al $ompositions and topa"e thus the way (or the rise o( the reatest drama o( Enlish history.

    arlowe>s Gtriloy> (o$used on the rise and (all o( power(ul men startswith a story o( "iolen$e and $ruelty in whi$h Tam+urlaine; turned (rom a mere

    En#lis2 Renaissance Literature 7@

  • 8/11/2019 Literatura Engleza Anul I, Sem. 2 Final


    Section )0 En#lis2 Dra6a in t2e Si1teent2 entur4

    S$ythian shepherd into a +loody tyrant whom not e"en Qeno$rate>s lo"e $antou$h; $reates an empire; +ut dies an inlorious death a(ter ha"in arroantlyde(ied ahomed himsel(. 8n(luen$es o( Tam'urlaine the "reat may +eidenti(ied in Shaespeare>s Richard III; a play whi$h displays similar$on$entration on the unity o( $hara$ter. 'i$hard; lie Tam+urlaine; seese&$eptional power and is deterred +y no moral or reliious s$ruples (romattainin his ends.

    8n $reatin Tam+urlaine; arlowe inno"ated the old pattern o( the staehero and $reated the prototype o( the 'enaissan$e eoist; the auda$ious"illain; a (iure as enthrallin as ilton>s Satan. ?)ay in a"riliu; 2555: 15#=6@

    %nother story o( ra$ial $on(li$t and re"ene $omes to $omplete therane o( $onseDuen$es o( the