Flora Și Fauna Apelor Naturale

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    FLORA I FAUNA APELOR NATURA

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    Apa, este un factor de mediu indispensabil vietii. Apa stotdeauna acolo unde exista viata si formeaza substanraspndita pe pamnt. Apa proaspata este o resursa esentiala pentru existenta umana, pentru agricultura sindustrie. Fara apa proaspata si n lipsa cantitatii si cadezvoltarea durabila nu va posibila. Apa a avut un ro

    ordin n aparitia vietii pe planeta noastra si continua sa

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    Malurile rurilor i lacurilor, precum i fundul corpurilorsunt habitate importante care gzduiesc

    numeroase animale !i plante. "le ofer loc pentru reproadpost !i hran pentru animalele care triesc,se hrnereproduc n sau lng ap. Malurile !i #rmurile pot codin straturi de noroi, nisip,pietricele sau bolovani. $tufriul, ierburile i arborii rivstabilizeaz mpotriva for#ei apei. %rodusele chimice

    periculoase !i pierderea vegeta#iei riverane amenin# hanimalelor. %oluarea, pierderea vegeta#iei,eroziunea, introducerea speciilor invazive !i utilizarea nde ctre om determin distrugerea ecosistemului,& care, la rndul su afecteaz bunstarea !i supravie#uspeciilor din interiorul acestuia.

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    BACTERIILE

    ROLUL BACTERIILOR IN NATURA ESTE FOARTE MARE, IN PRINCIPAL PRIN DESCOMPUNEREA SUBSTANTELOR ORGANICE, REZULTATE DIN MOARTEAMODUL ACESTA SE PURIFICA MEDIUL SI SE IMPROSPATEAZA CU NOI ELEMENTE. DE ACTIVITATEA LOR DEPINDE CICLUL CARBONULUI, AZOTULUI, FETC. SI IN GENERAL, CICLUL GEOBIOLOGIC.IN MAREA NEAGRA AU FOST INVENTARIATE 162 DE SPECII DE BACTERII MARINE SI 52 DE SPECII DE CIANOBACTERII.

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    ALGELE VERZI

    Alg ve!"e #$ %l &l$!'(')*+l #e+*#'%- l/e+%*(, &e+% !/'#%, #$ #!*/%*)*!' "'(#el'&(*'"l' #!e $ %e!/'+%'' (#$%'%e. A%'+ge l$+g'/e "e &+ l 2025 #/. E(%e )!e#v'+ *+ ($3l'%*!l, &!'/v! (' l '+#e&$%$l ve!''.

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    Alg ve!"e &l$!'#el$l! #$ l/e+%e e!e#%e, !/'#%e, 4% #$ !'*'' 3l'. C!*/%*)*!'' $ +$/e!*(' &'!e+*''. R/$!'le ('+#*v*'%e # * (e#e!, '+ g!$&e "e #%e 6. A%'+ge l$+g'/e "Se '+%l+e(%e &e &'e%!e, '+ l*#$!' l'+'(%'%e, l "+#'/' /'#'.

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    Alg ve!"e #$ l/e+%e e!e#%e, !/'#%e, 4%e "e ($3(%!% #3l'. C!*/%*)*!'' $ +$/e!*(' &'!e+*''. R/'#%''le %e!/'+"!e&%e ($ &$%'+ #$!3%e (' +$ )*!/e $+ (/*#. Se 4e &&!'+ !'*''. A%'+ge l$+g'/e "e &+ l 0 #/. Se '+%l+e(%e &"+#'/' /'#'.

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    Alg ve!"e #$ %l l/el!, '+ /*" *3'(+$'% +e!/'#% ($ (l3 !#!*/%*)*!$l # * &l# +$ $/&le #el$l. A!e $+ ('+g$! &'!e+*'"l$+g'/e "e &+ l 0 #/. Se '+%l+e(%e &e &'e%!e l "')e!'%e "&e '/&$!'#%e, "! (' '+ &e "$l#'.

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    ALTE TIPURI DE ALGE Alge !*(''

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    ALTE TIPURI DE ALGE

    Algele l3(%!e C8+*3#%e!'-

    Algele l3(%!e ($+% *!g+'(/e /'#!*(#*&'#e, $+'#el$l!e, '*!e$+'%e 9+ #*l*+''. M*"$l "e v':; e(%e $%*%!*), "e*!e#e #el$le#*+:'+ &'g/e+:' #l*!*l'e+'. C$l*!e l*! e(%e "%; "e &'g/e+%$#!#%e!'(%'# l3(%!$ve!"e, +$/'% #*#'+'+, #!e &!e"*/'+;#$ #e'll:' &'g/e+:' #l*!*l'e+'.

    C*l*+''le "e lge l3(%!e $ )*!/ v!'%;< &*% gl*3$l*(e"e (l3; "e /;!gele, l/el!e ($ l/e+%*(e. A#e(%e "'+ $('/&le ($ !/'#%e. F*!/ #el$lel*! e(%e v!'%;< *vl;, ()e!el'&(*'"; ($ #'l'+"!'#;. Tl$l )*!/% "e lgele l3(%!e e(%e 9+ #$!'l*! #*&e!'% #$ $+ 9+vel'> gel%'+*(.

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    ALGE ALBASTRE

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    ROTIFERELE

    R*%')e!ele R*%')e! ($ R*%%*!'- "'+ l%'+ !*% ? !*%; @ )e!&$!%- ($+% * 9+#!e+g;%$!; "e +eve!%e3!%e #v%'#e /'#!*(#*&

    9+!$"'%e #$ +e/%*"ele, +e(eg/e+%%e, &(e$"*#el*/%e, #$ "9+%!e 0,0 //, #$ #*!&$l l$+g'%, #'l'+"!'# ($ /' !! ()e!'#, &!%e +%e!'*!; $+ ($ "*$; #*!*+e "e #'l' &$%e!+'#', #!e

    9+v!%e(# # * !*%;, "e $+"e ' +$/ele, (e!v'+" l +%!e+!e

    l'/e+%!e (&!e g$!; ' l /'#!e. Se #$+*(# #'!# 2 500 (&e#/=*!'%%e "e &; "$l#e, &$'+e /!'+e, l'%*!le ' %e!e(%!e 9+l'#e+'-. U+ele "'+%!e !*%')e!e ($+% )*!/e l'3e!e, e &l$%'%*!e (

    9+*%;%*!e &l+#%*+'#e-, e %!+"$(e &e )$+"$l &e' 3e+%*+)*!/e 3e+%*+'#e ($+% (e('le, "'#; 4%e &e )$+"$l &e' &!'+ e4l*! &*(%e!'*!; ', 9+ #ele /' "e(e #$!', 9+#*+=$!%e "e %$3$!&!*%e#%*!e. P$'+e (&e#'' ($+% &!'%e, $+ele l &l+%e, l%ele

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    DIATOMEE

    D'%*/eele ($+% &l+%e $+'#el$l!e "e "'/e+('$+' /'#'. Ele (e g;(e(# 9+ #*l*+'' "e /'l'!"e >' &ele "e &e &l+e%;.

    Cele /' /!' "'%*/ee ($+% #$ g!e$ v''3'le *#'$l$' $/+, '! #ele /' /'#' $ * l$+g'/e //'l'/e%!'. T*%$>', "e>' ele ($+% )*!%e /'#', e#!e "'+%!e ele 9>' #*+(%!$'e>%e $+ ";&*(% "'+ &'#*+('(%e+: g!+'%$l$'. S$ "e(#*&e!'% &e(%e 10.000 "e (&e#'' "e "'%*/ee, #$ * /$l%'%$"'+e

    A";&*(%$l $+e' "'%*/ee #*+(%; 9+ "*$; (#*'#' ($ vlve, &l(%e $+ &e(%e #ell%;, &!e#$/ >' :'+$%e 9/&!e$+; "e $+ )el "e #e+%$!;. +;$+%!$l ";&*(%$l$' (e ; &l+% v'e.

    M$l%e "'%*/ee &l$%e(# 9+ &; >' (e 4e; "e &'e%!e ($ &l+%e "e &; /' /!' #$ $+ )el "e

    "'+%!e ele &*% (; 9+*%e, 9+#e%, "'+%!$+ l*# 9+ l%$l. +(;, 9+#; +$ ( "e(#*&e!'% e4#% /*"$l 9+&!*&$l(e; ('+g$!e.

    De *3'#e', "'%*/eele (e !e&!*"$# "'v'+"$(e. Cel$lele "'+ '+%e!'*!$l &l+%e' v'' (e 9/&!%, v'! e#;!e' =$/;%;:' 9' #!e>%e * +*$; vlv; &e ($&!): &!*(&;% e4&$(;.

    D'%*/eele ($+% '/&*!%+%e &e+%!$ +*'. /&!e$+; #$ l%e /'#' )*!/e "e v':;, ele ($+% &!'+#'&*#e+e. Pe &!#$!($l v'e:'', ele %!+()*!/; +$%!'e+:'' "'*lv:' 9+ &; 9+ ($3(%+:e *!g+'#e >', * ($!(; "e !+; &e+%!$ %*% )el$l "e #!e%$!' #v%'#e, '+#l$('v &e>%' >' 3le+e. Ule'$l &!*"$( "e3*g% 9+ v'%/'+e >' (e #$/$le; 9+ #%$l &e>%'l*!, "'+ #!e (e &!*"$# >' v'%/'+ele "'+ #*/

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    D'%*/ee

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    PLANARII

    Pl+!' e(%e $+ v'e!/e &l%, +e&!'%, '+%l+'% '+ /$l%e &!%' %!'+" '+ !$!', ($ &e (%%%*!e, %% "$l#' #% (' (!%e. U+el($+% %e!e(%!e, (#$++"$(e ($3 3$%$#', '+ &/+$l $/e", ($'+ *+e $/e"e. Pl+!' e(%e '+!$"'% #$ &!'%$l #!e &!*"$"e #% ,gl3e, #$+*(#$% '+ (&e#'l l *'.

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    PLECOPTERE

    Ple#*&%e!ele Ple#*&%e!, "e l &le#*( ? !ee7 &%e!*+ ? !'&;- ($ &e!l'"ele(%e $+ *!"'+ "e '+(e#%e e!'e+e &!'/'%'ve 9+%l+'%e 9+ &!e=/ &el*!. S$+%3$!;%*!e. L!vele ' +'/)ele ($+% #v%'#e. O!"'+$l #$&!'+"e &e(%e 2000 "P!e'+%; '/&*!%+;, '+"#; '+%!; 9+ !+ +%$!l; &e%'l*!.

    A"$l'' &le#*&%e!el*! 3*!;, 9+ ge+e!l, g!e$7 e' (e 9+%l+e(# #/ &!'+ #el$+"e %!;'e(# ' l!vele, e 9+ l*#$!' /$+%*(e #$ &e !e#' ' !e&e', e 9+ l*##/&'e #$ &e (%;%;%*!e Ne/$!, /' le(-. A"$l'' ev'%; l$/'+ /$l%;, #

    e)e/e!*&%e!ele. A"$l'' 9' &e%!e# '$ (#$+' 9+ vege%' "e &e /l$!'le 3$!+" (e! ' 9+ %'/&$l +*&''. S$+% )*!/e #e (e 9+%l+e(# '!+, # /$l%($ &!'/;v!, # (&e#'' "e Pe!l*"e(, l%ele v!, # (&e#'' "e Pe!l, ($ #%'/&$l +$l$', # (&e#'' "e Le$#%!.

    V' "$l'l*! e(%e (#$!%;, "'+ #e(% &$+#% "e ve"e!e (e/;++"$(e #$ e' "$!e; "e l (;&%;/+', # l $+ele (&e#'' "e Pe!l, &+; l H (;&%;/(&e#''le "e I(*ge+$(, ($ #'! 25 "e (;&%;/+', # l $+ele (&e#'' "e Le$#

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    TRICOPTERE

    T!'#*&%e!ele ($+% '+(e#%e #!e &!%'+ *!"'+$l$' T!'#*&%e!. S%$"''le !% # e4'(% &!*4'/%'v 1200 "e (&e#''. Ele ($+% #$+*(#$%e ($

    !*g*, !$(l'' (' 3!e3e+*#'. T!'#*&%e!ele "$l%e ($+% %e!e(%!e, '+ %'/& #e l!vele ($+% #v%'#e (' &*%

    l#$!', !$!', &!$!' (' l%e ($!(e "e & "$l#e, '! &!ee+% #e(%*! '+(e#%'+"'# )&%$l # $+ e#*(8(%e/ #v%'# e(%e (%%*(.

    T!'#*&%e!ele "$l%e (e (e/+ #$ /*l''le. De(' %!'e(# &e &/+%, %!'#*&%e!ele "$l%e l*#$'e(# "e *3'#e' '+ &!*&'e!

    "e & "$l#e, '+ (#*&$l "e $($! &!*#e($l "e !e&!*"$#e!e v''%+" & "(' "e&$+e *$le.

    T!'#*&%e!ele $ $+ !*l '/&*!%+% '+ /e+%'+e!e e#'l'3!$l$' e#*l*g'# l ($"$l#e, (e!v'+" "!e&% !+ &e(%'l*!. A=$% "e (e/e+e l &(%!!e #e(%& #$!%e '/&*%!'v l'/e+%el*!, )!$+el*! #$%e (' l%*! /%e!'l.

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    TRICOPTERE

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    FITOPLANCTON

    F'%*&l+#%*+$l e(%e &l+#%*+$l )*!/% "'+ &l+%e #v%'#e '+)e!'*!e.N$/ele "e %*&l+#%*+ v'+e "'+ g!e#; "e l #$v+%$l &8%*+ #!e

    9+(e/+; J&l+%;J ' "e l #$v+%$l &l+K%*( #!e 9+(e/+; J*'+!#ele /' /$l%e *!', %*&l+#%*+$l e(%e &!e /'# &e+%!$ &$%e v;*#'$l l'3e!, 9+(;, %$+#' #+" (e "$+; $+ +$/;! ($#'e+% "e /!e

    %*&l+#%*+, #e(% &*%e v;$% 9+ &; # * ($&!); "e #$l*!e v"%*!'%; #l*!*le' "'+ #el$lele (le.

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    CLADOCERE

    G!$& "e #!$(%#ee e4%!e/ "e '/&*!%+% '+ &l+#%*+$l &el*! /!'+e. F''+" (&e#'' "e /(, #!e&!e'+% $+ "'+ ve!'g'le e(e+%'le, '+ l+%$!'le %!*#e "'+ %*%e e#*('(%e/ele #v%'#e. Regl%!%*! (' #'%%e "e (e '+/$l%' &!%e+*ge+e%'#, le ('g$! &e "e * &!%e * ($!( "e !'+e&$'3'l (' #'%%e "e "ev*l% &*&$l%'' #$ "e+('%%' e4%!e/ "e /!' '+ /( &e'.

    Cl"*#e!ele ($+% (&e#'' &elg'#e, #$ #*!&$l (#$!%, #$ (eg/e+%%'e +e#l!, l#%$'% "'+ #el /$+$/!$l &e!e#'l*! "e &e+"'#e v!''+" '+%!e (' 6. C&$l e(%e l'3e!, !e(%$l #*!&$l$' '+" #*!e 3'vlv, %e!/'+% "e(e &*(%e!'*! #$ $+ (&'+. Pe #& ($+% &!ee+%' "*' *#' &e"$+A+%e+ele ($+% !/'#%e, (e!v'+" l '+*%. A&e+"'#ele %*!#'#e ($+% (#$!%e (' l%'%e. D*!(l, ($3

    #/e! '+#$3%*!e l +'vel$l #!e' (e &(%!e *$le &!%e+*ge+e%'#e ($ #ele "e !e"ev*l%!e &!e'+% /' /$l%e ge+e!%'' &!%e+*ge+e%'#e '+ &e!'*" #l" +$l$'. D'+ *$ 'e(e/+%*! #$ "$l%$l, l #e(% g!$& /e%/*!)* '+" 3(e+%. Cl"*#e!ele &!e'+% "e (e)e+*/e+$l "e #'#l*/*!)* '+ )$+#%'e "e %e/&e!%$! &e', "')e!'%ele ge+e!%'' (e "e*(e3e("'/e+('$+'le (&'+$l$' #!e' ($ e4#!e(#e+%e' #e)l'#e. P!e)e!+" &ele !e#' (' *4'ge+%ee)e#%$e /&le /'g!%'' &e ve!%'#l, +*&%e 'e('+" l ($&!)% &e+%!$ # '$ ( #*3*!&!*)$+"e.

    I+ &ele M!'' Neg!e ($+% '+ve+%!'%e 6 "e (&e#'' "'+ #!e 6 (' '+ &ele %e!'%*!'le !*/+e(

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    CLADOCERE

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    NUFARUL

    S&e#''le "e +$)e!' $ !;";#'+'le +#*!%e 9+ (*l, '! )!$+ele >' &l$%e(# l ($&!): &e'. S$+% 9+%l+':' &e ($&!): l#$!'l*! #&!e#$/ >' #$!($!'l*! "e &; #$ #$!ge!e !el%'v le+%;. A/3ele

    9+*!e(# 9+ '+%e!vl$l "'+%!e l$+'le '$+'e >' $g$(%. F!$/$(e:e (&e#%$l l*! e(%e%'# );#$% # 9+ (#$!% %'/& #e(%e *!' (; e l'+%!*"$(e &e /&/*+" 9+ !*l "e &l+%e *!+/e+%le &e '$!

    l#$!'le &!%'#$l!e. Se '+%l+e(# /' /$l%e %'&$!' "e +$)e!';!' %$3e!#$l')*!/e. T$l&'+>' )*l'%;. F!$+ele ($+% l$+g', l'e!/)!*"'%e, &e"'#el%e ($ (e(&'#e #*/%e '! 9+vel'>$l *&!'+ 6 &e!'.

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    PAPURA

    P&$! (e '+%l+e(%e l /!g'+e 3l%'l*!, l#$!'l*!, #+lel*#$!g%*!e.

    P&$! #$ )!$+ '+

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    P&$! #$ )!$+ '++g$(%')*l'- e(%e *&*&$l!, #$ * '+*"e#*!%'v #*/&$(/!* "'(&$(e '+ #'l(e4 )e/'+'+ ($+% /

    g(e(# l 3, '+ %/(#$l'+e ($+% glg(e(# '+ &!%e "eI+*!e(#e+%ele '+ )&*% $(#%e. Pl+%#*/&le%e l#$l +%$!le%e. Pe l+g

    %!g%*!e, #e(%)$+#%'e 3'*l*g'# '//e+%'+ & #$!%($3(%+%ele +$%!'%'vl%)el (! &$%e !

    P&$! #$ )!$+ l% &*%e %'+ge '+l%'/' "e &+ l / !e )!$+ele l%e "e 1

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    P&$! #$ )!$+ l% &*%e %'+ge '+l%'/' "e &+ l /, !e )!$+ele l%e "e 1l'+'!e, &l%e, )% "e &&$! #$ )!$+ '+g$(% "$& #$/ '' (&$+e (' "e+$/'!e- &+ l 1 #/ l%'/e. S&'#ele /(#$le (' )e/ele +$ ($+% (e&!%e l &&$! #$ )!$)e/el v+" g!*('/e '+%!e 2 (' 2,5 #/ '+" "e #$l*!e 3!$++eg!'#'*(. L &&$!(&'#$l /(#$l %e!/'+l e(%e (e&!% "e #el )e/el, ('%$% /' =*(, v+" #$l*!e 3

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    LINTIA

    L'+%'% e(%e #e /' /'# &l+% #$ *!', &!ee+%+"$(e ($3 )*!/ $+*! !'#ele v&l$%e(# &e ($&!)% '$!'l*!. Pl+% )#e &!%e "'+ ge+$l Le/+ (' !e * %$l&'+ "()e!'#, )! )!$+e (', "e !eg$l, #$ * ('+g$! !"#'+, % ($3 &. Ge+$l Le/!e&!ee+%% "e &l+%e #v%'#e &l$%'%*!e #!e &!%'+ )/'l'e' A!#ee, $ $+ !'%/#!e(%e!e, #*+(%'%$'e ($!( "e !+ &e+%!$ +$/e!*(e +'/le (' &l+% "e 3 '+3'*/e"'#/e+%e.

    E4'(% /' /$l%e (&e#'' "e l'+%'% Le/+ g'33, Le/+ /'+*!, Le/+ %!'($l#, Le

    $+ele '+" %% "e /'#' '+#% &*% '+%! &!'+%!* g/l'e "e #. Ce /' /'# (&e#'eA$(%!l', +$ !e !"#'+' "el*#, '! "'/e%!$l &e #!e 'l %'+ge l /%$!'%%e e(%e "3' "# &*%e v$% #$ *#'$l l'3e!.

    L'+%'% &!*"$#e #ele /' /'#' *!' "'+ l$/e. A#e(%e (e )*!/e '+ +'(%e &$+g' /

    ($+% l'&('%e "e &e%le. S$+% %% "e /'#' '+#% $+ 3$#e% )*!/% "'+%!* "$'+ '+%!'+#& )! &!*3le/e &e v!)$l $+$' #.

    TIA, PLANTA EMERSA CE DEVOREAZA NITRAII

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    TIA, PLANTA EMERSA CE DEVOREAZA NITRAII

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    MREANAM!e+ v+;%;, ($ /!e+; &;%%;, /*'*gB!3$( &e%e+8', ('+*+'/ B!3$( /e!'"'*+l'(&e%e+8'- e(%e $+ &e%e "$l#'#*l "e 1025 #/ "'+)/'l' #'&!'+'"el*!, #$ (&'+!e v+;%; "e $+"e '+$/ele-, 3"*/e+$l l3g;l3$'. T!;'e%e, 9+(&e#'l, 9+ !$!'le "e "el ' "e /$+%e 9+ 3'+ele'"!*g!#e le D$+;!'', N'(%!$l$' ' 9+ &ele "'+Pe+'+($l Bl#+'#;.M!e+ v+;%; %!;'e%e, 9+ (&e#'l, 9+ !$!'le #*l'+!e "e "el- ' "e /$+%e /' leA!"el ' 9+ 3'+$l B'(%!'e'-, #$ & l'/&e"e, #$!g;%*!e ' 3'+e *4'ge+%;, /' le&ele #$ "e3'%e /'#', l;%$!' "e &;(%!;v ' l'&+. A )*(% 9+%l+'%; ' &e ve!(+%$l ($"

    C!&'l*! ' #'! 9+ &!'ele /'#' "e "el, "'+ !eg'$+e B$#$!e%'. P*%e %!;' ' 9+ #$!g;%*!e, #e (e#; /$l% 9+ %'/&$l (e#e%e'.

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  • 7/24/2019 Flora i Fauna Apelor Naturale

    34/35

  • 7/24/2019 Flora i Fauna Apelor Naturale

    35/35

    CRAPUL

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