Criminalitatea si consecintele ei in societatea umana C8.pptx

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Transcript of Criminalitatea si consecintele ei in societatea umana C8.pptx

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    Criminalitatea si consecintele ei insocietatea umana

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    Continutul cursului

    Definitia criminalitatii, explicatii, cauze, tipuride crima,

    Cine sunt criminalii, cine sunt victimile,

    Sistemul de justitie in SUA,

    Criminalitatea in Romania si UE,

    Biologia judiciara, repere teoretice si practice.

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    Myth or Fact?

    Many crimes are

    committed by people who

    are otherwise considered

    quite respectable bythemselves and others.

    Crimes are

    committed by the

    less educated

    people of society.

    Fact Myth

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    Explanations of Crime

    Biological

    explanationsview crime as

    arising from

    peoples

    physical

    constitution or

    genetic makeup.

    Psychologicalexplanationsview crime as

    being linked topersonalitydisorders or

    maladjustments,often developing

    duringchildhood.

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    The Functionalist Perspective

    Crime arises in part from the weakened bondsto family, church, and community.

    Anomie theory (absenta normelor sociale) views

    crime as a consequence of the inconsistency orconfusion between the goals people are taught tostrive for and the culturally approved means theyhave available to achieve these goals.

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    The Conflict Perspective

    Conflict theorists (teoria conflictuala) arguethat it is powerful groups in society thatdecide which crimes will be considered

    serious problems and who will be arrestedand sent to jail for committing crimes.

    Contradictions in capitalism are also a source

    of crime.

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    The Interactionist Perspective

    Cultural transmission theories(teoria mosteniriiculturale) posit that crimes are learned andculturally transmitted through socialization.

    Differential association theory sees crime as learnedthrough interaction with other people

    Labeling theory suggests that whether other people

    define or label a person as deviant is a criticaldeterminant in the development of a pattern ofdeviant behavior.

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    Types of Crime

    Juvenile Delinquency

    VictimlessCrime

    White-Collar Crime

    Organized and GlobalizedCrime

    Cybercrime

    Property Crime

    Violent Crime

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    Model type Environment Group Processes Impacts

    NationalHistorical or

    cultural basis

    Family or

    hierarchy

    Secrecy/bonds.

    Links to insurgents

    Local

    corruption/influenc

    e. Fearful

    community.

    Transnational

    Politically and

    economical

    unstable

    Vertical integration Legitimate cover

    Stable supply of

    illicit goods. High

    level corruption.

    Transnational/trans

    actionalAny

    Flexible. Small

    size.

    Violent.

    Opportunistic. Risk

    taking

    Unstable supply of

    range of illicit

    goods. Exploits

    local young

    offenders.

    Entrepreneurial/tra

    nsactional

    Developed/high

    technology regions

    Individuals or

    pairs.

    Operating through

    legitimateenterprise

    Provision of illicit

    services, e.g.

    money laundering,fraud, criminal

    networks.

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    Crime Rate in the U.S.

    According to the FBI,

    the crime and delinquency rates in the U.S. havebeen rising for a number of decades

    the rise appears to have leveled off in the 1980sand declined somewhat since the early 1990s.

    Some crime increases may reflect a likelihood

    to report crime rather than a increase in theincidence of crime.

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    Who are the Criminals?

    Gender Males have higher rates of involvement in practically all forms of

    criminality.

    Age

    Teens have considerably higher rates of involvement. Socioeconomic Status

    The relationship between socioeconomic status and crime isprobably more complicated and may be weak.

    Race

    Differences in arrest rates between racial groups exist; however,they may merely reflect biases of the criminal justice system,such as the likelihood of arrest.

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    Who are the Victims?

    Twenty-three out of every one thousandAmericans are crime victims each year.

    Race and sex affect rates of victimization withmales and blacks considerably more likely to bevictims.

    Offenders are often the victims of other

    criminals.

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    The Criminal Justice System

    The Police

    The police have much discretion and sometimes donot receive the support of the public or the court.

    The courts There is substantial case attrition following arrest.

    Plea bargaining is involved in over 90% of all

    convictions for criminal offenses.

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    Future Prospects

    To control crime, social reforms that have animpact on the social conditions that cause crimeare needed.

    The legalization of some crimes would free policeto deal with the more serious crimes.

    The police could institute new law enforcementprocedures that would allow them to capture the

    most serious offenders.

    The courts could be made more effective throughjudicial reform.

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    Future Prospects

    Alternatives to prison and prison reform could beenacted to improve the effectiveness of socialcontrol mechanisms.

    There could also be a reduction in theenvironmental opportunities to commit crimes.

    More opportunities for victim restitution could

    be established through programs and policies.

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    Biologia judiciareste un ansamblu de tiine carebazndu-se pe cunotinele de Biologie, le folosetepentru descoperirea cauzelor, locului sau a altorargumente legate de existena unei crime.

    Categorii ale Biologiei judiciare:Antropologia judiciar(recuperarea i identificarea cadavrelor),Botanica judiciar(studiul vegetalelor pentru a furniza dovezi ale crimei),Odontologia judiciar (stabilirea identitatii cadavrului),Biologia moleculara a crimei(tehnici moleculare de

    identificare), Entomologia judiciar(studiul insectelor carese dezvolta pe cadavre), Microbiologia judiciar(studiulmicoorganismelor necrofage)etc.

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    Biologia judiciar,

    repere teoretice i practiceVasile SRBU i Ion SANDU

    Universitatea AL.I.CUZAIai

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    Motivatie

    Ridicarea nivelului de specializare ipolispecializare n rndul studenilor.

    Promovarea cercetrii tiinifice din domeniul criminalisticii n activitateajudiciar Autor Academia de Politie, Al.I.Cuza, Bucuresti, sef contract conf. Dr.Ion

    Olteanu, Partener Universitatea Al.I.Cuza, Iasi, sef subcontract prof.dr. Ion Sandu,

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    Biologia judiciar

    Contribuie la colectarea probelor biologicepentru descoperirea si prevenirea unei crime.

    Foloseste metode i procedee din toatesubramurile Biologiei anatomie uman,antropologie, zoologie, entomologie, botanic,microbiologie, hidrobiologie.

    Este n principal o tiin de laborator.

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    Materiale i mijloace folosite

    Trusa de entomologie,

    Incinte cretere larve,

    Microscoape optice i electronice, Colecii diferite,

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    A. Activitatea didactic

    Programa analitic Insusirea terminologiei de specialitate din domeniul

    Biologiei judiciare, definirea unora din ramurile sale si inspecia