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Page 1: Cluj-Napoca, Claudiopolis, Klausenburg, Kolozsvár

Cluj-Napocac l a u d i o p o l i s k l a u s e n b u r g k o l o z s v á r

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Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a României

TUDOR, OCTAVIAN

Pictori români uita]i / Tudor Octavian.

Bucure[ti: NOI Media Print, 2003

ISBN 973-7959-02-7

75(498)

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Cluj-Napocac l a u d i o p o l i s k l a u s e n b u r g k o l o z s v á r

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Clujul, în a doua jum`tate a secolului al XIX-leaVedere general`, dup` o gravur` de M. Kolb, K. Gungen, L. Rohbock [imultiplicat` la Darmstadt în 1864.

Cluj in the second half of the 19th centuryGeneral view after an engraving by M. Kolb, K. Gungen, L. Rohbock,printed in Darmstadt, in 1864.

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Cuprins

Scurt istoric

Via]a cultural`

Peisaj citadin

Parcuri, gr`dini

8

36

54

92

Contents

Short history

The cultural life

Cityscape

Parks, gardens

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Scurt istoric

Ora[ul Cluj-Napoca este situat în nord-

vestul României, la hotarul dintre Mun]ii

Apuseni, Podi[ul Some[an [i Câmpia

Transilvaniei. Cu o popula]ie de 334 543

locuitori în anul 2000, ora[ul se num`r`

printre cele mai mari localit`]i din ]ar`.

Se poate spune c` ora[ul de pe Some[ul

Mic atrage printr-un specific aparte, izvorât

din amestecul pitoresc de culturi [i

confesiuni sedimentate de secole în aceste

locuri. Cum afirma [i Mircea Zaciu, acest

ora[ este „o realitate istoric` format` pe trei

trunchiuri distincte: românesc, unguresc [i

germanic”, ceea ce-i d` individualitatea [i în

acela[i timp reprezint` „un fenomen de dou`

ori interesant prin paralelismul valorilor [i

prin interac]iunea lor…”

Cele mai vechi urme de locuire de pe

teritoriul municipiului Cluj-Napoca apar]in

paleoliticului mijlociu (120 000-35 000 a.Chr.)

[i se g`sesc la Calvaria (Cluj-M`n`[tur),

T`ietura Turcului [i în cartierul Cordo[.

Descoperirile arheologice atest` o populare

dens` [i o via]` neîntrerupt` începând din

neolitic (6 500-2 700 a. Chr.), continuând cu

epoca bronzului [i cu prima vârst` a fierului.

Bogatele vestigii descoperite în vatra

A short history

The city of Cluj-Napoca is situated in

north-western Romania on the border

separating the Apuseni Mountains, the

Somesan Plateau and the Transylvanian Plain.

One can say that the city lying on the banks

of the Some[ul Mic River attracts visitors by its

peculiar features that come from the

picturesque blend of cultures and religious

faiths having existed in this place for centuries.

As Mircea Zaciu put it too, this city is “a

historical reality made up of three distinct

ethnic groups: Romanian, Hungarian and

Germanic”, a fact that gives it its individuality

and, at the same time, is “a phenomenon which

is interesting from two points of view: the

parallelism of values and their interaction.”

The oldest proofs testifying to the fact that

people lived in the territory of the city of Cluj-

Napoca can be traced back to the Middle

Palaeolithic (120.000-35.000 B.C.) and are to be

found in the Calvaria fortification (in the

district of Manastur), in the street called

Taietura Turcului and in the Cordos district.

Archaeological discoveries attest to the fact that

this territory had a numerous population that

uninterruptedly lived here, starting in the

Neolithic Age (6.500-2.700 B.C.) and going on

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ora[ului (zona central`, cartierele

Grigorescu [i M`n`[tur), ca [i cele din

împrejurimi (Gura Baciului) se afl` în

patrimoniul Muzeului Na]ional de Istorie a

Transilvaniei din Cluj-Napoca.

În epoca dacic`, pe teritoriul

municipiului s-a dezvoltat o important`

a[ezare autohton`, iar numele dacic al

acestei localit`]i, Napoca (sau Napuca) va fi

p`strat [i în timpul st`pânirii romane. Prima

men]ionare a a[ez`rii romane Napoca se

g`se[te pe un milliarium (born` kilometric`

into the Bronze Age and the First Iron Age. The

numerous vestiges discovered in the precincts

of the city (the central area, the Grigorescu and

Manastur districts) as well as those discovered

in the surroundings (Gura Baciului) are now to

be found at the National Museum of

Transylvania’s History in Cluj-Napoca.

In the Dacian age an important indigenous

settlement developed in the territory of the

present-day city and the Dacian name of this

place, Napoca (or Napuca), will be preserved at

the time of the Roman rule too. The first

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Harta Transilvaniei (AbrahamOrtelius, 1566)

Map of Transylvania (AbrahamOrtelius, 1566)

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roman` din anii 107-108 a. Chr.). Localitatea

va fi un important centru civil,

me[te[ug`resc [i administrativ primind în

124 p. Chr. titlul de municipium [i apoi, la

sfâr[itul secolului al II-lea p. Chr., va fi

ridicat` la rangul de colonia. S`p`turile

arheologice au dezvelit chiar în centrul

ora[ului urme ale vechiului ora[ roman:

edificii publice, construc]ii din piatr` cu

sisteme de înc`lzire, inscrip]ii, un atelier

pentru turnarea fibulelor, tezaure monetare,

ceramic`, arme etc. În împrejurimi au fost

mention of the Roman settlement of Napoca is

to be found on a milliarium (a Roman milestone

dating back to 108-107 B.C.). The above-

mentioned settlement will be an important

civil, handicraft and administrative centre

which was given the title of a municipium in

A.D. 124 and then, in the late second century, it

will be raised to the rank of a colonia.

Archaeological excavations revealed traces of

the old Roman city in the very centre of Cluj-

Napoca: public buildings, stone houses

equipped with heating systems, inscriptions, a

Clujul la 1617Gravur` de Georg Houfnagel dup`pictura lui Egidius Van der Rhye.

Cluj in 1617An engraving by Georg Houfnagel aftera painting by Egidius Van der Rhye.

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workshop for moulding fibulae, coin treasures,

ceramics, weapons etc. In the surrounding area

research work was carried out, and rural

settlements and villae rusticae (agricultural

farms) were discovered at Dezmir, Apahida,

Floresti and Chinteni.

After the Romans left the province of Dacia

at the time of Emperor Aurelian (A.D. 271),

Napoca visibly turned rural. Roman traditions

can especially be seen in the funerary rites. The

vestiges of the Dacian-Roman population were

found at Manastur-Gradini and at Floresti.

The time of the migrations (the 4th-9th

centuries AD), which was characterized by deep-

going turmoil, left traces consisting in treasures

of precious metals (at Apahida and Someseni

they found Ostrogothic vestiges and at Cordos,

vestiges left behind by the Gepidae). The tombs

in the necropolis at Someseni belong to a Slavic

population that lived together with the native

Dacian-Roman one. The fortifications at Cluj-

Manastur and Dabaca date back to the final

period of the Romanians’ ethno-genesis. They

are attributed to the Romanian population

organized in cnezats and voivodats such as

Gelu’s voivodat, who is supposed to have ruled

over the aforementioned fortifications too.

The beginnings of the mediaeval Cluj are

connected to the fortification in the Manastur

district (Calvaria, the 9th century) and the civil

settlement in the centre of the city, which

partially covered the ruins of the Roman city.

The first documentary mentions are to be

found in 1173, when Thomas Comes Clusiensis,

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cercetate [i identificate a[ez`ri rurale [i

villae rusticae (ferme agricole) la Dezmir,

Apahida, Flore[ti [i Chinteni.

Dup` abandonarea provinciei Dacia, în

timpul împ`ratului Aurelian (271 p. Chr.),

Napoca a suferit un proces vizibil de

ruralizare, persisten]a tradi]iilor romane

putând fi urm`rit` mai ales în ritul funerar.

Vestigiile popula]iei daco-romane s-au g`sit

la M`n`[tur-Gr`dini [i în localitatea Flore[ti.

Fr`mântata perioad` a migra]iilor

(secolele IV-IX p. Chr.) a l`sat urme

constând în tezaure din metal pre]ios (la

Apahida [i Some[eni, vestigii ostrogote, iar

la Cordo[, gepide). Mormintele din

necropola de la Some[eni apar]in unei

popula]ii slave care a convie]uit cu cea

autohton`, daco-roman`. Din perioada final`

a etnogenezei românilor dateaz` fortifica]iile

de la Cluj-M`n`[tur [i D`bâca. Ele sunt

atribuite popula]iei române[ti organizat` în

cnezate [i voievodate, cum a fost [i

voievodatul lui Gelu, despre care se

presupune c` avea în st`pânire [i

fortifica]iile men]ionate.

Începuturile Clujului medieval sunt

legate de fortifica]ia de la Cluj-M`n`[tur

(Calvaria, secolul al IX-lea) [i a[ezarea civil`

din centrul ora[ului, suprapus` par]ial peste

ruinele ora[ului roman.

Primele men]iuni documentare le avem

începând cu 1173, când este atestat Thomas

Comes Clusiensis, comite de Cluj, iar în

1213 este men]ionat` documentar [i cetatea

Pagina anterioar`:

Biserica Calvaria, detaliu

Previous page:

Calvaria Church, detail

Vitraliu de la biserica Sfântul Mihail

Stained glass in the St. Michael Church

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Cluj (castrum Cluj). Numele a[ez`rii deriv`

din latinescul clausa-clusa (loc închis).

Dup` n`v`lirea t`tarilor în 1241, în aceste

locuri s-au a[ezat „oaspe]ii sa[i”, primind o

serie de privilegii. Ca r`splat` a credin]ei lor,

la 19 august 1316, a[ezarea rural` a fost

ridicat` la rangul de ora[ civitas prin

privilegiul acordat de regele Carol Robert de

Anjou.

Popula]ia ora[ului a fost la început

preponderent german` [i toate dreg`toriile

erau ocupate de sa[i, pân` la sfâr[itul

secolului al XV-lea. Al`turi de ei tr`iau

maghiari [i români. Dup` m`rturiile

contemporanilor, Clujul a fost considerat un

ora[ s`sesc pân` în secolul al XVI-lea. În

veacurile urm`toare, componen]a etnic` a

Count of Cluj, is attested, and in 1213 the

citadel of Cluj is mentioned in a document

under the name of castrum Cluj. The name of

this settlement derives from the Latin word

clausa-clusa meaning an enclosed place. After

the Tartar invasion in 1241 the “Saxon guests”

settled here and were given a number of

privileges. As a reward for their loyalty, on

August 19, 1316 the rural settlement was raised

to the rank of civitas through the privilege

granted by King Charles Robert of Anjou.

In the beginning the population of the city

was mostly German and all the high offices were

held by the Saxons till the end of the 16th

century. Hungarians and Romanians used to

live side by side with them. According to some

contemporaries’ testimony, Cluj was regarded

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Clujul în secolul al XVII-leaVedere general`.

Cluj in the 17th centuryGeneral view.

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ora[ului se va schimba, preponderen]i fiind

maghiarii. Localitatea se extinde; noii veni]i,

în special români [i maghiari, se vor a[eza

mai ales în suburbii. Ora[ul se va dezvolta

economic, în 1367 fiind men]ionat` prima

breasl`, cea a bl`narilor, iar în secolul al

XVI-lea num`rul lor ajunge la peste 30. În a

doua jum`tate a secolului al XVI-lea, Clujul

a atins apogeul dezvolt`rii sale sub toate

aspectele, fiind supranumit „ora[ul

comoar`”.

Schimb`ri importante în via]a ora[ului

a adus [i reforma religioas`. Primele idei

reformatoare ale luteranismului au p`truns

începând cu 1530-1540, iar anul 1556 este

considerat anul victoriei luteranismului.

R`spândirea calvinismului [i apoi a

as a Saxon city till the 16th century. In the

centuries to come the ethnic structure of the

city will change and the Hungarians would

become the most numerous ones. The

settlement expands; the newcomers, especially

Romanians and Hungarians, will settle

especially on the outskirts. The city will develop

economically. The first guild, the one of the

furriers, is mentioned in 1367 and their number

will exceed 30 in the 16th century. In the second

half of the 16th century Cluj reached the acme of

its development under all aspects and was

dubbed the “treasure city”.

The Reformation too brought about

important changes in the city’s life. The first

reforming ideas of Lutheranism appeared here

in 1530-1540 and the year 1556 is considered

Clujul în secolul al XVII-leaDup` o gravur` de J. Peeters din Anvers.

Cluj in the 17th centuryAfter an engraving by J. Peeters of Anvers.

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unitarianismului va antrena popula]ia în noi

dispute religioase. Dieta de la Turda accept`

noile religii: luteranismul [i calvinismul în

1563, iar unitarianismul în 1571.

Un alt moment însemnat din istoria

ora[ului este legat de intrarea domnitorului

Mihai Viteazul în Transilvania. Acesta a

manifestat fa]` de Cluj mult` simpatie, poate

[i pentru faptul c` fiul s`u, P`tra[cu, a

studiat la Colegiul Iezuit de aici. A reînnoit

câteva privilegii pentru ora[ [i i-a d`ruit

câteva sate. Dup` biruin]a de la Gurusl`u,

the year when Lutheranism got the upper hand.

The spread of Calvinism and Unitarianism will

make the population get involved in religious

disputes. The Diet in Turda accepts the new

religions: Lutheranism and Calvinism in 1563

and Unitarianism in 1571.

Another important moment in the history

of this city refers to Prince Michael the Brave

entering Transylvania. He was very fond of Cluj

and this may also be accounted for by the fact

that his son, Patrascu, attended the Jesuit

College here. He renewed a few privileges for

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Deschiderea Dietei Transilvaniei din1841 la ClujDup` litografia lui Carol Pop deSzatmary. Sala se afl` în Palatul Reduta.

Opening of the 1841 TransylvanianDiet in ClujAfter a lithograph by Carol Pop deSzatmary. The hall is part of the RedutaPalace.

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Strada Regele Ferdinand la \nceputulsecolului al XX-lea

King Ferdinand Street at thebeginning of 20th century

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Intersec]ia dintre strada RegeleFredinand [i bulevardul 21Decembrie, foto 1904Biserica Evanghelic` este operaarhitectului Georg Winkler [i a fostridicat` între 1816 [i 1829. Edificiulîmbin` armonios elementele barocului cucele neoclasice.

Intersection between King FerdinandStreet and 21 December Boulevard,photo 1904The Evangelical Church was designed byarchitect Georg Winkler and was erectedbetween 1816 and 1829. The buildingcombines Baroque and Neo-Classicalelements.

Palatul de Justi]ieEdificiu ridicat în anul 1902. Prezint`un bogat decor eclectic, realizat dinteracot`, cu figuri alegorice [i frize cumotive vegetale.

The Palace of JusticeThis building erected in 1902 featuresrich eclectic decorations, in terracotta,with allegorical figures and friezes withvegetal motifs.

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Mihai Viteazul va vizita Clujul la 3 august

1601, aducând un pios omagiu fostului s`u

c`pitan, Baba Novac.

Dup` transformarea Transilvaniei în

provincie austriac` pe baza diplomei

împ`ratului Leopold I în 1691, Clujului i-a

revenit un rol de frunte, aici func]ionând

„guberniul”, „Tabla Regal`” [i ]inându-se mai

multe diete. În 1786 a devenit centrul

districtului ce îngloba patru comitate.

Românii se afirm` mai hot`rât în secolul

al XVIII-lea, în lupta pentru ob]inerea

drepturilor lor legitime. Politica de toleran]`

religioas` [i na]ional` promovat` de

împ`ratul Iosif al II-lea a creat un cadru

favorabil pentru comunitatea româneasc` din

the city and gave it a few villages as a gift. After

the victory at Guruslau Michael the Brave will

visit Cluj on August 3, 1601, when he paid a

pious homage to his former captain Baba

Novac.

After Transylvania turned into an Austrian

province on the basis of the Leopoldine

Diploma in 1691, Cluj came to play a most

important part as the headquarters of the

government was here and several diets were

held here too. In 1786 it became the centre of

the district including four counties.

The Romanians assert themselves with

more firmness in the 18th century in the

struggle for their legitimate rights. The policy

of religious and national tolerance promoted by

Bulevardul Eroilor, cu BisericaMinori]ilor, foto 1914Biserica ini]ial`, ridicat` dup` 1724, afost ref`cut` în stil baroc începând cu1779, de c`re arhitectul JohannEberhardt Blaumann. çn prezent,Catedrala Greco-Catolic` din Cluj.

The Boulevard of the Heroes andthe Minorite Church, photo 1914Starting in 1779, architect JohannEberhardt Blaumann retouched, inBaroque style, the initial church erectedafter 1724. Now the abode is the Greek-Catholic Cathedral of Cluj.

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Cluj. Între 1795 [i 1796 s-a ridicat prima

biseric` ortodox`, iar cea greco-catolic` între

anii 1800-1803.

Secolul al XIX-lea a adus schimb`ri

profunde în via]a economic`, socio-politic` [i

cultural` a Clujului. Înfiin]area în 1851 a

Camerei de Comer] [i Industrie a dus la

stimularea economiei, astfel încât în anul

1910 Clujul avea 42 de întreprinderi, iar

crearea unor institu]ii financiare [i de credit a

contribuit la dezvoltarea lor. Prima banc`

Emperor Joseph II created favourable

circumstances for the Romanian community in

Cluj. The first Orthodox church was built

between 1795 and 1796 and the first Greek

Catholic one in 1800-1803.

The 19th century brought about deep-going

changes in the economic, socio-political and

cultural life of Cluj. The setting up of the

Chamber of Commerce and Industry in 1851

stimulated economy so that in 1910 there were

42 companies in Cluj and the creation of some

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Bastionul Croitorilor – singurulp`strat integral din vechea cetate – [i oparte din zidul medieval

The Tailors’ Bastion – the only fullypreserved bastion of the former citadel –and part of the medieval wall

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româneasc`, Economul, a fost înfiin]at` în

1886.

În 1868 începe construirea c`ilor ferate

în jurul Clujului, iar la 7 septembrie 1870

are loc inaugurarea g`rii ora[ului, prin

intrarea primului tren ce venea de la Oradea.

Clujul era integrat în sistemul de po[talion,

sta]ia de diligen]e Biasini fiind pe Calea

Turzii, o dat` cu amenajarea drumului

Feleacului între anii 1823 [i 1827. În toamna

anului 1893 s-a introdus în ora[ un tren care

financial and credit granting institutions

contributed to their development. The first

Romanian bank, Economul, was founded in

1886.

In 1868 they start building railways around

Cluj and on September 7, 1870, the railway

station of the city is opened by the first train

coming from Oradea. Cluj was integrated into

the mail coach system (the Biasini stagecoach

stand was on Calea Turzii) when the Feleac road

was built between 1823 and 1827. In autumn

Bastionul Croitorilor, foto 1890In fundal se poate observa BisericaReformat`.

The Tailors’ Bastion, photo 1890In the background, the ReformedChurch.

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Pia]a central` a ora[ului cuCatedrala Sfântul MihailÎn prima jum`tate a secolului alXIX-lea (sus) [i dup` ad`ugarea,pe latura de nord, a turnului în stilneogotic, terminat în 1860 (jos).

The central city plaza with theSaint Michael CathedralIn the first half of the 19th century(top); with a neo-Gothic styleaddition to the northern side of thetower, finished in 1860 (bottom).

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Pia]a Unirii cu Catedrala SfântulMihailÎn perioada interbelic`, dup`amplasarea statuii ecvestre a luiMatei Corvin (în 1902) [i amonumentului Lupa Capitolina (în1921) .

Unirii Square The Saint MichaelCathedralFrom the inter-war period, after theerection of the Matthias Corvinusstatue (1902,) and of the Lupacapitolina Monument (1921).

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Zi de târg în Pia]a Central`, 1887În fundal, Hotel Pannonia, devenitCentral [i apoi Melody.

Fair day in the Central Plaza, 1887In the background, Hotel Pannonia, laterCentral, and today Melody.

Podul peste Some[ construit în 1834În dreapta, Palatul Babo[. Cl`dire de col],ridicat` la sfâr[itul secolului al XIX-lea.Decor bogat, în stil eclectic.

The bridge across the Somes, built in1834On the right, the Babos Palace, a corneredifice in eclectic style with richdecorations, erected in the late 19th

century.

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circula de la gar` pân` la Prim`rie, apoi la

M`n`[tur [i pe Bulevardul 21 Decembrie

1989 pân` la biserica Sfântul Petru. În 1890

au ap`rut în Cluj primele biciclete.

Clujul secolului al XIX-lea a fost un

remarcant centru politic [i cultural în care

mi[carea româneasc` a avut un rol deosebit,

manifestându-se pregnant în epoca liberal`,

instituit` dup` 1860. Momentul culminant l-

a atins în anul 1894 când, la 7 mai, în sala

„Reduta” a avut loc procesul frunta[ilor

memorandi[ti. Dezbaterile procesului, la

1893 a train started to run from the railway

station to the City Hall and from there, crossing

Manastur and going along the 21 Decembrie

1989 Boulevard, it reached the St. Peter’s

Church. In 1890 the first bicycles appeared in

Cluj.

Nineteenth-century Cluj was a remarkable

political and cultural centre in which the

Romanian movement played a special part and

was particularly active in the liberal period that

was instituted after 1860. The peak moment was

in 1894 when, on May 7, they heard the trial of

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Fântâna artezian` [i chio[cul dinparc, 1905

The artesian fountain and the kioskin the park, 1905

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Fântâna artezian` [i chio[cul dinparcul ora[ului, 1914Fântâna a fost proiectat` de MátrayLajos.

The artesian fountain and the kioskin the city park, 1914The foundation was designed by MatrayLajos.

Parcul ora[ului, 1906

The city park, 1906

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care au asistat români din întreaga

Transilvanie, [i în special pledoariile de

înalt` ]inut` [i demnitate na]ional` ale lui

Ioan Ra]iu, Iuliu Coroianu, Vasile Lucaciu,

au eviden]iat juste]ea demersului românilor

[i adeziunea întregii na]iuni la aceast`

cauz`.

În toamna anului 1918, Clujul a devenit

centrul unor ac]iuni hot`râte organizate de

c`tre Senatul Na]ional Român din Ardeal,

participând al`turi de Consiliul Na]ional

Român Central [i g`rzile na]ionale

the leaders of the memorandum petitioners in

the Reduta room. The debates during the trial,

which was attended by Romanians coming from

all over Transylvania, and especially the pleas

revealing high national dignity made by Ion

Ratiu, Iuliu Coroianu and Vasile Lucaciu

pointed to the justness of the steps taken by the

Romanians and the entire nation supporting

this cause.

In autumn 1918 Cluj was the centre of

some firm actions organized by the Romanian

National Senate in Transylvania. The Romanian

28

Palatul RedutaÎn secolul al XVII-lea, ad`postea hanulor`[enesc Calul B`lan. În secolul alXVIII-lea edificiul a fost supraetajat,primind o fa]ad` în stil neoclasic [idevenind Palatul Reduta. Ast`zi estesediul Muzeului Etnografic alTransilvaniei.

The Reduta PalaceIn the 17th century it housed theTowhead Horse City Inn. In the 18th

century another floor and a Neo-Classicfacade were added to what became theReduta Palace. Today, it shelters theEthnographic Museum of Transylvania.

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române[ti la organizarea Marii Adun`ri

Na]ionale de la Alba-Iulia. Delega]ii din Cluj

au votat al`turi de ceilal]i participan]i unirea

Transilvaniei cu România.

În 21 decembrie 1918, trupele române

au intrat în ora[, iar în ianuarie 1919 au fost

numi]i primii reprezentan]i ai administra]iei

române. Marea Unire [i integrarea

Transilvaniei în cadrul României a dat o

nou` dimensiune vie]ii ora[ului, acesta

devenind un simbol al prefacerilor societ`]ii

transilv`nene. Se încheia o epoc`, cea a

national guards took part in the organization of

the Great National Assembly in Alba-Iulia

together with the Central Romanian National

Council. The delegates from Cluj voted for the

union of Transylvania with Romania together

with the other participants.

On December 21, 1918 the Romanian

troops entered the city and in January 1919 the

first representatives of the Romanian

administration were appointed. The Great

Union and Transylvania’s integration into

Romania gave a new dimension to the city’s life

Biserica reformat`S-a construit între 1821 [i 1859 de c`trearhitectul Georg Winkler. Fa]adaneoclasic` este flancat` de dou` turnuri.În planul al doilea se vede una dinpor]ile ora[ului. Gravura a fost realizat`de A. Rottmann, L. Rohbock [imultiplicat` la Darmstadt în 1864.

The Reformed Church It was built between 1821 and 1859 byarchitect Georg Winkler. The Neo-Classical facade is flanked by two towers.In the background, one of the city gates.The engraving was made by A.Rottmann and L. Rohbock, and printedin Darmstadt in 1864.

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domina]iei maghiare [i începea alta nou`, de

românizare [i de dezvoltare a regiunii ca

parte integrant` a României. Crearea

institu]iilor române[ti (universitate, teatru,

oper` etc.) a constituit o prioritate pentru

noile autorit`]i ale ora[ului. Clujul

interbelic a devenit un important municipiu,

re[edin]` administrativ` în care tr`iau

români, maghiari, germani [i evrei, dar [i

centru economic [i, mai ales, cultural al

Transilvaniei.

as Cluj became a symbol of the changes in the

Transylvanian society. An age, the one of the

Hungarian rule, came to an end and another

new one began, the age of giving a Romanian

character to and developing the above-

mentioned region as an integrant part of

Romania. The setting up of the Romanian

institutions (university, theatre, opera house,

etc) was a priority for the city’s new authorities.

Interwar Cluj became an important city, an

administrative seat where Romanians,

30

Hotelul ContinentalHotelul Na]ional, o cl`dire în stilclasicist aflat pe acest loc, a fost demolatîn anul 1894, ridicându-se în locul s`uhotelul New York, azi Continental, unedificiu de col] în stil eclectic.

The Continental HotelThe National Hotel. The building inclassical style, which was situated onthis spot, was demolished in 1894, andthe New York Hotel, today Continental,a corner building in eclectic style, wasbuilt instead.

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Rupt vremelnic din trupul ]`rii prin

Dictatul de la Viena din august 1940, ora[ul

va cunoa[te timp de patru ani ororile

ocupa]iei str`ine, întreaga via]` româneasc`

fiind zdruncinat` din temelii. A fost eliberat

la 11 octombrie 1944 de sub domina]ia

horthyst`, iar la 13 martie 1945 a revenit

oficial la patria mam`.

Perioada postbelic` [i noul regim

comunist instaurat [i-au pus amprenta [i

asupra dezvolt`rii ora[ului. Au fost

Hungarians, Germans and Jews lived together,

but also an economic and especially cultural

centre of Transylvania.

Snatched away for a time from the native

country by the Vienna Diktat in August 1940,

this city will experience the horrors of the

foreign occupation for four years, and the entire

Romanian life was badly shaken. It was freed

from under the Horthyist domination on

October 11, 1944 and on March 13, 1945 it

officially came back to the mother country.

Sinagoga neolog`Edificiu construit dup` proiectulinginerului Izidor Hegner [i inauguratla 4 septembrie 1887. În tratarea fa]adeise folosesc, pe lâng` elementeletradi]ionale, [i cele de inspira]ieoriental`.

The synagogueThis building erected according to thedesigns of engineer Izidor Hegner wasinaugurated on September 4, 1887. Theornamental work of the facade exhibitsboth traditional and oriental elements.

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Palatul BánffyFotografie din perioada interbelic`.

The Banffy PalaceInter-bella photo.

construite noi cartiere de locuinte:

M`n`[tur, M`r`[ti, Grigorescu, care practic

au dublat popula]ia ora[ului. În 1974

Clujului i s-a ad`ugat numele de Napoca. În

decembrie 1989, Clujul a avut parte de

represiunea manifesta]iilor anticomuniste.

Au fost eroi, au fost jertfe umane. În prezent

ora[ul manifest` o mare deschidere c`tre

Europa, c`tre întreaga lume, între]inând

rela]ii cu alte ora[e de pe toate continentele.

The post-war time and the newly set up

communist regime left their imprint on the

city’s development too. New residential districts

were built: Manastur, Marasti, Grigorescu, and

they practically doubled the number of the

city’s population. In 1974, the name of Napoca

was added to the name of Cluj.

In December 1989 Cluj witnessed the

repression of the anticommunist demon-

strations. There were heroes, there were

human sacrifices.

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33

Colegiul Academic, azi CasaUniversitarilorCl`direa a fost construit` între 1935 [i1937, pe baza planurilor arhitectuluiGeorge Cristinel. Edificiu compus dinpavilioane diverse [i are dou` cur]i cuarcade. Fa]ada este simpl`. Gr`dina afost acoperit` în anul 2002 cu ostructur` din metal [i sticl`, în form` depiramid`.

The Academic College, today theAcademe HouseThe building was erected between 1935and 1937 according to the designs ofarchitect George Cristinel. It iscomposed of various pavilions and it hastwo yards with arcades. The facade issimple. In 2002, the garden was coveredwith a metal-and-glass pyramidalstructure.

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Dreapta, sus:

Catedrala Ortodox`Vedere din perioada interbelic`.

Right, up:

The Orthodox CathedralInter-bella photograph.

Stânga [i dreapta, jos:

Teatrul Na]ional [i Opera Român`Vedere din perioada interbelic`.

Left and right, down:

The National Theater and theRomanian Opera HouseInter-bella photograph.

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Via]a cultural`

Clujul a fost [i este un ora[ prin excelen]`

cultural, fiind considerat capitala spiritual` a

Transilvaniei. În Cluj, cultura este

reprezentat` de un num`r mare de institu]ii,

care desf`[oar` o prestigioas` activitate.

Institu]ia care a conferit ora[ului o dimensiune

important` [i a avut o importan]` deosebit` în

definirea caracterului s`u a fost Universitatea.

Întorcându-ne în timp, înc` din 1557 s-au pus

bazele unui colegiu, iar în 1579 c`lug`rii

iezui]i au înfiin]at un colegiu universitar cu

trei facult`]i: Teologie, Filosofie [i Drept. În

1701, colegiul a fost ridicat la rangul de

Academie, iar în 1753 devine Colegiu Academic

Universitar. La Colegiul Piarist au studiat

mul]i tineri români, care au jucat un rol

important în via]a cultural` [i politic` a vremii.

În 1872 se va înfiin]a Universitatea „Franz

Joseph”, cu o catedr` de limba român`. La 3

noiembrie 1919 [i-a deschis por]ile noua

universitate româneasc`, avându-l ca prim

rector pe Sextil Pu[cariu. Universitatea Daciei

Superioare, cum era numit` în epoc`, avea

patru facult`]i: Litere [i Filosofie, Medicin`,

ßtiin]` [i Drept, cu un str`lucit corp

profesoral. Universitatea s-a dezvoltat de-a

The cultural life

Cluj has been and still is a pre-

eminently cultural city and is considered the

spiritual capital of Transylvania. In Cluj

cultural life is represented by a large number

of institutions carrying on a prestigious

activity. The institution that conferred an

important dimension on the city and had a

special importance in defining the character

of the city was the university. Going back in

time, one can learn that, as early as 1557,

they laid the foundations of a college and in

1579 the Jesuit monks set up a university

college with three faculties: theology,

philosophy and law. In 1701 the college was

raised to the rank of an academy and in 1753

it became the University Academic College.

The Piarist College was attended by many

Romanian young men, who played an

important part in the cultural and political

life of that time. In 1872 they founded the

Franz Joseph University, which would

include a Romanian language chair. On

November 3, 1919 the new Romanian

university came into being, with Sextil

Pu[cariu as its first chancellor. The

University of Upper Dacia, as it was called at

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lungul anilor, ajungând în prezent la peste

40.000 de studen]i, care înva]` în cele 20 de

facult`]i, cu 125 specialit`]i.

Centrul universitar clujean cuprinde

ast`zi patru universit`]i mari: Universitatea

Babe[-Bolyai, Universitatea de Medicin` [i

Farmacie Iuliu Ha]ieganu, Universitatea

Tehnic` [i Universitatea de ßtiin]e Agricole [i

Medicin` Veterinar`. Acestora li se adaug` [i

dou` academii: Academia de Muzic` Gheorghe

Dima [i Academia de Arte Vizuale Ion

Andreescu, precum [i universit`]ile

that time, included four faculties: letters and

philosophy, medicine, science and law. It had

a remarkable teaching staff. The university

developed in years and came now to offer

tuition to more than 40.000 students who

learn in the 20 faculties with 125 specialties.

Present-day Cluj has four important

universities: the Babes-Bolyai University, the

Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and

Pharmacy, the Technical University and the

University of Farming Sciences and

Veterinary Medicine. To all these one could

38

Liceul Brassai [i Biserica Unitarian` Liceul Brassai a fost ridicat dup`planurile arhitectului Ludovic Pákei.Cl`direa a fost inaugurat` în anul 1901.Edificiu realizat cu elementeneorenascentiste [i neoclasice. Fa]ada areo compozi]ie eclectic`.Biserica a fost ridicat` între anii 1792 [i1796, dup` proiectul lui Anton Türk înstil baroc târziu. Fa]ada este dominat` deun turn cu dou` etaje, pila[trii aucapiteluri, iar stucaturile sunt decorateîn stil neoclasic.

The Brassai High School and TheUnitarian ChurchThe Brassai High School was built onthe designs of architect Ludovic Pakei.The building, with Neo-Renaissance andNeo-Classic elements, was inauguratedin 1901. The facade is eclectic.The church was erected between 1792and 1796, on the designs of Anton Turk,in late Baroque style. A two-storiedtower dominates the facade, the pilastershave capitals, and the stucco is decoratedin Neo-Classic style.

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39

particulare: Dimitrie Cantemir, Avram Iancu,

Bogdan Vod` [i Sapien]a, cea din urm` cu

predare în limba maghiar`. Procesul de

reform` se manifest` tot mai pregnant în

cadrul universitar, ducând la un înv`]`mânt

performant, cu largi deschideri spre valorile

europene.

Un factor important de cultur` sunt

teatrul [i opera. Primul teatru a func]ionat în

limba maghiar` înc` din secolul al XVIII-lea, în

înc`perile Palatului Rhédey, apoi într-o cl`dire

din strada Kog`lniceanu, pe locul actualei Case

add two academies (the Gheorghe Dima

Academy of Music and the Ion Andreescu

Academy of Visual Arts) as well as the

following private universities: Dimitrie

Cantemir, Avram Iancu, Bogdan Voda and

Sapienta, this last one with tuition in

Hungarian. The reform process is more and

more obvious in universities and leads to a

first-class education with a wide opening to

European values.

The theatre and the opera house make

up an important cultural factor. The first

Teatrul Maghiar de StatPrima companie maghiar` de teatru afost înfiin]at` în urm` cu mai bine de200 de ani. Actualul sediu a fostconstruit între 1909 [i 1910 dup`planurile lui Markus Géza [i ale luiSpiegel Frigyes. Întreaga cl`dire v`de[teinfluen]a Secession-ului vienez, îmbinatcu elemente baroce. În 1960, fa]ada a fosttransformat` complet, iar interiorulpar]ial.

The Hungarian State TheaterThe first Hungarian theater companywas established more than 200 years ago.Markus Géza and Spiegel Frigyesdesigned the present building between1909 and 1910. The whole constructionevinces Viennese Sezession and Baroqueinfluences. In 1960 the façade wascompletely remodeled and the interiorwas partly refurbished.

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a Universitarilor. Publicul românesc avea

posibilitatea s` asiste la spectacolele în limba

român`, sus]inute de c`tre diferite trupe.

Inaugurarea, în 1906, a noii cl`diri (a teatrului

de azi) a deschis noi perspective în via]a

teatral`. În 14 mai 1919 cl`direa a fost preluat`

de c`tre statul român, avându-l ca director pe

cunoscutul actor Zaharia Bârsan. Prima

reprezenta]ie a avut loc la 1 decembrie 1919 cu

piesele: Se face ziu` [i Poemul Unirii de

Zaharia Bârsan, iar inaugurarea solemn` a

theatre gave performances in Hungarian as

early as the 18th century in the rooms of the

Rhedey Palace, and later in a building in the

Kogalniceanu Street, on the site of the

present-day Academics’ House. The

Romanian audience had the opportunity to

see performances in Romanian given by

various troupes. The inauguration in 1906 of

the new building (of the present-day theatre)

opened up new prospects to theatrical life.

On May 14, 1919 the building was taken over

by the Romanian State, with the well-known

actor Zaharia Barsan as its managing

director. The first performance was given on

December 1, 1919. They played Zaharia

Barsan’s The Day Is Breaking and The Poem

of the Union. The solemn inauguration took

place on the occasion of the great national

festivals on February 1, 1920. Being

managed by great actors, the theatre staged

a remarkable national and international

repertoire along the years. The Romanian

Opera House was founded by Tiberiu

Brediceanu and Constantin Pavel, the latter

was its first managing director. It was

inaugurated on May 21, 1920, with Giuseppe

Verdi’s Aida being performed on that

occasion.

The Hungarian Theatre and Opera

House continued their activity in a new

building that was made between 1909 and

1910 on the site of an open-air theatre. Both

institutions carry on a remarkable activity,

which is appreciated by the spectators.

Liceul teoretic ßtefan BathoryEdificiu construit în stil neoclasic întreanii 1817-1821, de Friederich Thallinger.

The Stefan Bathory High SchoolThis is edifice erected in Neo-Classicalstyle between 1817 and 1821 byFriederich Thallinger.

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avut loc cu ocazia marilor serb`ri na]ionale din

1 februarie 1920. Sub conducerea unor mari

arti[ti, teatrul a pus în scen` de-a lungul anilor

un str`lucit repertoriu na]ional [i

interna]ional. Opera Român` i-a avut ca

întemeietori pe Tiberiu Brediceanu [i

Constantin Pavel, acesta din urm` fiind primul

director. La 21 mai 1920 a avut loc

inaugurarea cu opera Aida de G. Verdi.

Teatrul [i Opera Maghiar` [i-au continuat

activitatea în cadrul unei noi cl`diri construit`

Besides these institutions other ones

asserted themselves: the Transilvania State

Philharmonic, which was founded in 1955,

the Puppet Theatre, with sections in

Romanian and Hungarian, and the Puck

Puppet Theatre.

Besides universities and research

institutes, as far back as the interwar years

there were big libraries, which developed

and turned into genuine cultural centres:

the Central University Library, the Academy

42

Universitatea Babe[-BolyaiConstruit` între anii 1893-1902, dup`planurile arhitectului Carol Meixner.Edificiu de form` rectangular`, grupat înjurul a dou` cur]i dreptunghiulare.Pere]ii din c`r`mid` aparent` prezint`deschiz`turi pentru ferestre [i portaluri.Fa]ada principal` e dominat` de unfronton sus]inut de pila[tri.

The Babes-Bolyai UniversityThe edifice was built between 1893 and1902, on the designs of architect CarolMeixner. It is rectangular, groupedaround two rectangular yards. Its wallsin exposed bricks feature window andportal openings. The principal facade isdominated by a fronton supported bypillars.

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între anii 1909-1910, pe locul unui teatru de

var`. Ambele institu]ii desf`[oar` o activitate

prodigioas`, apreciat` de c`tre publicul

spectator. Al`turi de aceste institu]ii s-au impus

Filarmonica de Stat Transilvania, înfiin]at` în

anul 1955, Teatrul de P`pu[i cu sec]ii în limba

român` [i maghiar` [i Teatrul de P`pu[i Puck.

Library, the Octavian Goga County Library

and a few other libraries of the research

institutes. In this city too, especially within

the cultural centres or the ones guided by the

Babe[-Bolyai University, there are several

libraries (American, British, German, French,

Italian, Jewish, Finnish, Portuguese, Spanish).

44

Teatrul Na]ional [i Opera Român`.Edificiu construit între anii 1904-1906 dec`tre firma austriac` Fellner [i Helmer,pe locul fostei pie]e de lemne a ora[ului.Este unul dintre cele mai reprezentativemonumente ale stilului Secession. Fa]adaprincipal` este flancat` de dou` turnuriîncununate de câte o cvadrig` tras` de lei[i purtând personaje simbolice.Elementele decorative ale s`lii [imobilierul sunt specifice anului 1900.

The National Theatre and theRomanian Opera HouseThis building was erected between 1904and 1906 by the Austrian firm Fellner andHelmer, on the site of the former timbermarket of the city. It is one of the mostrepresentative monuments in Sezessionstyle. The facade is flanked by two towers,each crowned by a quadriga pulled by lionscarrying symbolic characters. Thedecorative elements of the hall and thefurniture are characteristic of the year1900.

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Palatul BánffyConstruirea cl`dirii a avut loc între anii 1774 [i1785, dup` planul lui Johann EberhardtBlaumann. Este o construc]ie în stil baroc, în jurulunei cur]i patrulatere, cu foi[oare [i cu arcade laparter, coloane [i arhitrave la etaj. Fa]adaprincipal` are o loggie la etaj, cu coloane ionice,decor sculptural al ancadramentelor ferestrelor, iarbalustrada de la baza acoperi[ului are statui [iurne. Statuile au fost realizate de A. Schuchbauer.Edificiul a fost re[edin]a guvernatoruluiTransilvaniei. Ast`zi este sediul MuzeuluiNa]ional de Art`.

Banffy PalaceThe building was put up between 1774 and 1785,according to the designs of Johann EberhardtBlaumann. This Baroque construction is groupedaround a square yard, and features turrets, arcades onthe ground floor, columns and architraves on the firstfloor. On the main facade, there is a loggia on the firstfloor, with Ionic columns, and sculpted decoration ofthe window frames, while the roof parapet is adornedwith statues and urns. A. Schuchbauer was the authorof the sculptures. The building was the residence ofthe Governor of Transylvania, and today is houses theNational Art Museum.

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47

Pe lâng` universit`]i [i institute de

cercetare, înc` din perioada interbelic` au

func]ionat biblioteci mari, care s-au

dezvoltat devenind adev`rate centre

culturale: Biblioteca Central` Universitar`,

Biblioteca Academiei, Biblioteca Jude]ean`

Octavian Goga [i alte câteva biblioteci ale

institutelor de cercetare [tiin]ific`. Tot în

ora[, mai ales în cadrul centrelor culturale

sau patronate de Universitatea Babe[-Bolyai

func]ioneaz` mai multe biblioteci:

american`, britanic`, german`, francez`,

The older museum collections developed

into big museums coming today to be real

centres preserving and turning to account

the national patrimony and the one of

scientific research. The collections of the

Transylvanian Museum as well as those of the

old Antique Museum made up the patrimony

of the National Museum of Transylvania’s

History, which has over 200.000 exhibits

today. The Virgil Cioflec art collection was

the basis of the future National Museum of

Art, which was founded in 1952.

Palatul Bánffy, detaliu

Banffy Palace, detail

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italian`, iudaic`, finlandez`, portughez` [i

spaniol`.

Colec]iile muzeale mai vechi s-au

dezvoltat constituindu-se cu timpul în mari

muzee [i ajungând ast`zi adev`rate centre de

p`strare [i valorificare a patrimoniului

na]ional [i de cercetare [tiin]ific`. Colec]iile

Muzeului Ardelean, ca [i cele ale vechiului

Muzeu de Antichit`]i, au constituit

patrimoniul Muzeului Na]ional de Istorie a

Transilvaniei având ast`zi peste 200 000 de

piese. Colec]ia de art` „Virgil Cioflec” a stat la

In 1922, under the management of

Romulus Vuia, they laid the foundations of

Transylvania’s Ethnographic Museum in a

building in the Central Park and the open-air

museum in the Hoia forest was arranged.

Now the Ethnographic Museum is located in

the well-known building Reduta on the

Memorandum Street.

The medical scientific collections

formed the basis of the Museum of the

History of Pharmacy (today it is a section of

the History Museum) and the zoological and

48

Palatul Bánffy, detaliuBalustrada de la baza acoperi[uluiîmpodobit` cu statui [i urne.

Banffy Palace, detailThe roof parapet adorned with statuesand urns.

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49

baza viitorului Muzeu Na]ional de Art` fondat

în 1952.

În anul 1922, sub conducerea lui Romulus

Vuia, s-au pus bazele Muzeului Etnografic al

Transilvaniei, într-o cl`dire din Parcul Central

al ora[ului [i a fost amenajat muzeul în aer

liber de la Hoia. Ast`zi, Muzeul Etnografic

func]ioneaz` în cunoscuta cl`dire „Reduta” de

pe strada Memorandumului.

Colec]iile [tiin]ifice medicale au stat la baza

Muzeului de Istorie a Farmaciei (azi o sec]ie a

Muzeului de Istorie), iar cele de zoologie [i

speleological ones gave birth, in time, to the

Zoology Museum that is located in the Emil

Racovita Speleological Institute. Besides all

these museums mention should also be

made of the Museum of Romanian

Literature, the Museum of the University,

the Mineralogical Museum, the Emil Isac

Memorial Museum, the Firemen’s Museum

and the Waters Museum.

Quite famous have always been the

Botanical Gardens and Museum, which were

founded by Professor Alexandru Borza in

Casa Hintz Nucleul ini]ial al edificiului dateaz` dinsecolul al XV-lea. Transform`rile de lamijlocul secolului al XVIII-lea i-auschimbat înf`]i[area, devenind unmonument caracteristic barocului. Aici afunc]ionat prima farmacie din ora[.Ast`zi ad`poste[te Colec]ia de Istorie aFarmaciei din cadrul Muzeului Na]ionalde Istorie a Transilvaniei.

The Hintz HouseThe original nucleus of the house datesto the 15th century. In the mid 18th

century its looks were altered to becomea characteristic Baroque building. It oncehoused the first chemist’s shop in thecity, and now it hosts the History ofPharmacy Collection within the NationalMuseum of Transylvania.

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speologie au dat na[tere în timp Muzeului de

Zoologie aflat în incinta Institutului de

Speologie Emil Racovi]`. Al`turi de acestea, se

g`sesc Muzeul Limbii Române, Muzeul

Universit`]ii, Muzeul Mineralogic, Muzeul

Memorial Emil Isac, Muzeul Pompierilor [i

Muzeul Apelor.

De o mare faim` s-au bucurat Gr`dina [i

Muzeul Botanic, fondate de profesorul

Alexandru Borza în anul 1920. Întins` pe 14

hectare în sere [i în aer liber, gr`dina cuprinde

mii de variet`]i de plante de pe întreaga planet`.

1920. Covering 14 ha in greenhouses and in

the open, the gardens include thousands of

varieties of plants coming from all over the

world.

In Cluj there are also societies of

writers, fine artists, composers and several

foundations of the civil society: the Vatra

Romaneasca Cultural and Patriotic Society,

the Avram Iancu Cultural and Patriotic

Society, the Lucian Blaga Cultural Society,

the Dragos Voda Pro Maramures Society,

ASTRA, the Society of the Transylvanian

Cl`direa libr`riei universit`]ii

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În Cluj î[i mai desf`[oar` activitatea

societ`]i de crea]ie ale scriitorilor, arti[tilor

plastici [i compozitorilor [i mai multe funda]ii

ale societ`]ii civile: Societatea Cultural-

Patriotic` Vatra Româneasc`, Societatea

cultural-patriotic` Avram Iancu, Societatea

Cultural` Lucian Blaga, Societatea Pro

Maramure[ Drago[-Vod`, ASTRA, Societatea

Muzeului Ardelean, Societatea cultural` Heltai

Gáspar, Asocia]ia cultural` Pro Basarabia

[.a.m.d.

Manifest`ri culturale na]ionale [i

Museum, the Heltai Gaspar Cultural Society,

the Pro Basarabia Cultural Society and so

on.

National and international cultural

events took place here, and some of them

turned traditional: the Golden Peacock

International Folklore Festival, the Festivals

of the Latin World, the Gala of National

Theatres, the Lucian Blaga Literary Festival,

the Gheorghe Dima International Creation

and Performance Competition, the Nicolae

Bretan International Singing Competition,

Biblioteca Central` Universitar`Lucian BlagaEdificiu ridicat între anii 1906-1908 dec`tre Gergely Kálmán [i Korb FlavisNándor. Construc]ie inspirat` deSecession-ul austriac. Decorul fa]adei red`în c`r`mid` motive geometrice de inspira]iepopular`.

The Lucian Blaga Central UniversityLibraryAn edifice built between 1906 and 1908 byGergely Kalman and Korb Flavis Nandor,the Library evinces Austrian Sezessioninfluences. The decorative brick work on thefacade uses geometrical motifs of folkinspiration.

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Biserica Piari[tilorConstruit` între 1718 [i 1724 de c`treordinul iezuit. Este prima cl`dire de cultridicat` dup` victoria Reformei înTransilvavia. Cl`direa introduce tipulnou, specific barocului: o fa]ad` cu dou`turnuri [i un interior cu capele. În 1776este preluat` de piari[ti. Portalul [iinteriorul prezint` decora]ii de influen]`baroc austriac`.

The Piarist ChurchBuilt between 1718 and 1724 by theJesuit Order, it was the first religiousabode erected in Transylvania after thetriumph of the Reformation. Itintroduced the Baroque in the two-towerfacade and the interior separated intochapels. In 1776, it was taken over by thePiarists. The portal and the interiorevince Austrian Baroque influences.

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the Contemporary Music Festival, etc. In

Cluj there are several publishing houses and

numerous daily and periodical publications

are issued.

interna]ionale s-au desf`[urat în ora[, unele

devenind tradi]ionale: Festivalul Interna]ional

de Folclor „P`unul de Aur”, „Serb`rile

Latinit`]ii”, Gala Teatrelor Na]ionale,

Festivalul Literar „Lucian Blaga”, Concursul

Interna]ional de Crea]ie [i Interpretare

„Gheorghe Dima”, Concursul Interna]ional de

Interpretare Vocal` „Nicolae Bretan”,

Festivalul Interna]ional de Film Transilvania

etc. În Cluj î[i desf`[oar` activitatea mai multe

edituri [i apar numeroase publica]ii cotidiene

[i periodice.

Biserica Ortodox` din DealL`ca[ul, numit [i Biserica Sfânta Treime

din Deal, a fost ridicat între 1795 [i1796, cu sprijinul negustorilor români

din Bra[ov. Patrimoniul bisericiicuprinde manuscrise [i c`r]i religioase,

icoane [i obiecte de cult, tip`rituri demare valoare (unul dintre acestea este

Liturghierul tip`rit în 1797 laBucure[ti). çn perioada 1919-1932

edificiul a devenit catedrala Episcopieireînfiin]ate a Vadului [i Feleacului.

The Orthodox Church on the HillErected between 1795 and 1796 with the

help of the Romanian merchants ofBrasov, the abode is also called the HolyTrinity of the Hill. The church heritage

includes religious manuscripts andbooks, icons and religious items, highly

valuable printings (one of them is theMissal issued in 1797, in Bucharest.

Between 1919-1932 the edifice becamethe cathedral of the reinstated bishopric

of Vad and Feleac.

Biserica BobA fost ridicat` datorit` episcopului IoanBob, f`r` aprobarea autorit`]ilorhabsburgice, între 1800 [i 1803.Construit` în stil baroc dup` planurilearhitectului Joseph Leder, prezint` ostructur` asem`n`toare cu cea a BisericiiOrtodoxe din Deal.

The Bob ChurchThe building was erected thanks tobishop Ioan Bob, without the approval ofthe authorities, between 1800-1803.Built in baroque style on the designs ofarchitect Joseph Leder, the church has astructure similar to that of the RomanianOrthodox Church on the Hill.

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Peisaj citadin

Trec`torul ce-[i plimb` pa[ii pe str`zile

ora[ului, observ` imediat arhitectura

eclectic` [i patina vechilor cl`diri, mai ales a

celor baroce. Ici [i colo au ap`rut [i noile

edificii din beton [i sticl`, amprente ale

modernit`]ii imediate.

Ora[ul antic, dezv`luit în bun` parte de

c`tre arheologi, avea un perimetru de cca. 32

ha, fiind înconjurat de un zid de incint` [i

cuprindea Pia]a Unirii, Pia]a Muzeului,

strada Regele Ferdinand, parcul I.L.

Caragiale, strada Emil Zola, strada Victor

Deleu, iar în afara zidurilor se aflau

necropolele ora[ului. În vatra vechiului ora[

antic s-a ridicat în parte ora[ul medieval,

având pentru început centrul în Pia]a

Muzeului de ast`zi. Prima incint` fortificat`

a Clujului a fost construit`, probabil, la

sfâr[itul secolului al XIV-lea, iar cea de-a

doua s-a ridicat în 1405. Centrul a[ez`rii s-a

mutat în actuala pia]` central`: Pia]a Unirii.

Casele s-au aliniat dup` principiul stradal

occidental. Str`zile au fost podite cu grinzi

[i scânduri.

În secolul al XVI-lea s-au construit

poduri de piatr` peste Some[ [i conducte de

lemn pentru ap` potabil`. Din perioada

Cityscape

The passer-by walking in the streets of this

city is sure to notice immediately the eclectic

architecture and the patina of the old buildings,

especially of the baroque ones. Here and there

one can see the new edifices made of concrete

and glass, imprints of the present-day reality.

The ancient city, which was largely

discovered by archaeologists, covered an area of

32 ha, was surrounded by a ring wall and

included the Unirii Square, the Muzeului

Square, the Regele Ferdinand Street, the I.L.

Caragiale Park, the Emil Zola Street, the Victor

Deleu Street. Outside the walls there were the

city’s necropolises. The mediaeval city partly

appeared on the precincts of the old ancient

city. Initially its centre was in the present-day

Muzeului Square. The first fortified precincts of

Cluj were probably built in the late 14th century

and the second ones, in 1405. The centre of the

settlement moved to the present-day central

square, the Unirii Square. The houses were

aligned according to the western street

principle. The streets were paved with beams

and planks.

In the 16th century they built stone bridges

across the Somes River and wooden pipes for

drinking water. The Gothic times gave us a few

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Casa Matei Corvin, portal

Matthias Corvinus House, the portal

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Casa Matei CorvinÎn aceast` cl`dire, datând din veacul alXV-lea, s-a n`scut Matei Corvin,viitorul rege al Ungariei. Se maip`streaz` în interior câteva cadre de u[iîn stil gotic. Azi este sediul Academiei deArte Vizuale Ion Andreescu.

The Matthias Corvinus HouseMatthias Corvinus, the future king ofHungary, was born in this 15th-centuryhouse. Some Gothic doorways can still beseen inside. Today the house is the seat ofthe Ion Andreescu Academy of VisualArts.

Pl`cu]` comemorativ` pe CasaMatei Corvin

Commemorative plaque on theMatthias Corvinus House

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remarkable works of architecture: St Michael’s

Church and the Dominican cloistered precinct,

St George’s equestrian statue. In 1486 they

started building the Gothic church and

monastery in the Mihail Kog`lniceanu Street,

which were initially meant for the Minorite

order and then transferred to the Reformed

faith. The only 15th-century house that is still

standing is the house in which Mathias

Corvinus was born. The house was an inn built

before 1440, which underwent visible changes

in the centuries that followed. The entrance

gotic` au r`mas câteva opere arhitecturale

remarcabile: biserica Sfântul Mihail [i

claustrul dominican, statuia ecvestr` a

Sfântului Gheorghe. În 1486 s-a început

construc]ia bisericii [i m`n`stirii gotice din

strada Mihail Kog`lniceanu, destinate ini]ial

ordinului minorit [i transferate apoi

reforma]ilor. Singura cas` din secolul al XV-

lea r`mas` în picioare este casa în care s-a

n`scut Matei Corvin. Cl`direa a fost un han

construit înainte de 1440 [i care a suferit în

secolele urm`toare transform`ri vizibile. Se

58

Cet`]uiaPe dealul „Cet`]uia”, în centrulora[ului, s-a ridicat între 1700-1735 ocetate austriac` tip Vauban. Aici, întimpul Revolu]iei din 1848 a fost închis[i apoi executat cunoscutul lupt`tor [iumanist ßtefan Ludwig Roth.

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Bastionul Croitorilor [i statuia luiBaba Novac Construc]ia face parte din incinta deap`rare a ora[ului pe latura de sud-est.Ridicarea sa a început în anul 1475.Statuia a fost ridicat` în memoriac`pitanului lui Mihai Viteazul, BabaNovac, care a fost executat în Pia]aCentral` a ora[ului, din porunca luiSigismund Bathory [i apoi tras în ]eap`lâng` Bastionul Croitorilor. Statuia afost executat` de c`tre sculptorul VirgilFulicea în anul 1975.

The Tailors’ Bastion and the Statueof Baba NovacThe structure belongs to the city’ssoutheastern defense enclosure. Itsconstruction began in 1475. The statue was erected in memory of acaptain of Michael the Brave’s, BabaNovac, who was executed in the centralsquare of the city on orders fromSigismund Bathory, and then impalednear the Tailors’ Bastion. The statue isthe creation of sculptor Virgil Fulicea,and dates to 1975.

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Biserica Sfântul Mihail,nava central`

The Saint Michael Church,the central nave

Biserica Romano-Catolic` SfântulMihailMonument de arhitectur` gotic`, ridicatîntre anii 1350 [i 1486. Biseric` tip hal`,cu bol]i în form` de stea, sprijinite destâlpi puternic reliefa]i. Partea cea maiveche o constituie altarul, terminat la cca1390. În interior se afl` portalul de lasacristie, în stil rena[centist, datat 1528,având în lunet` portretul ctitorului,Johannes Clyn. Pe latura vestic`,intrarea are un portal gotic deasuprac`ruia se afl` statuia ArhangheluluiMihail, iar amvonul, în stil baroc, esteopera sculptorilor Nachtigal [iSchuchbauer. Pe latura nordic` a fostadosat turnul în stil neogotic, terminatîn anul 1860.

The St. Michael’s Roman CatholicChurchA monument of Gothic architecture builtbetween 1350 and 1486, it is a religiousabode of the hall type, with star-shapedvaults supported by powerful pillars. Theoldest part is the altar, finished round1390. The entrance on the west sidefeatures a Gothic portal on top of whichstands a statue of Archangel Michaeland the Baroque pulpit is the work ofsculptors Nachtigal and Schuchbauer. In1860 a tower in Neo-Gothic style wasattached to the northern side.

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Statuia ecvestr` a lui Matei CorvinOper` a sculptorului clujean IánosFadrusz, dezvelit` în anul 1902. Grupulstatuar este compus din statuia ecvestr`a regelui, plasat` pe un piedestal depiatr`, în fa]a c`ruia sunt dispusestatuile lui Blasiu Magyar, conduc`torde o[ti, Pavel Chinezu, banul Timi[oarei,ßtefan Zápolya, palatinul Ungariei [ißtefan Báthory, voievodul Transilvaniei.

The equestrian statue of MatthiasCorvinusThis work by the Cluj-born sculptorJanos Fadrusz was unveiled in 1902. Thestatuary group is composed of theequestrian statue of the king, placed on astone pedestal, in front of which rise thestatues of Blasiu Magyar, armycommander, Pavel Chinezu, HighSteward of Timisoara, Stefan Zapolya,Palatine of Hungary, and StefanBathory, Prince of Transylvania.

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Pagina anterioar`:

Cl`direa statusului Romano-CatolicEdificiile au fost construite dec`tre Alpár Ignac în 1898 în stileclectic.

Previous page:

The building of the Roman-Catholic StationAlpar Ignac designed the edificesin 1898, in eclectic style

Hotelul Continental

The Continental Hotel

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Palatul Bánffy [i cl`dirileStatusului Romano-Catolic

Bánffy palace and the buildings ofthe Roman-Catholic Station

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67

mai p`streaz` portalul de la intrare [i

ferestrele decorate în manier` renascentist`.

În secolul al XVI-lea s-au ridicat o serie de

edificii în stil renascentist, dintre care

pu]ine au r`mas netransformate în secolele

urm`toare. Multe elemente rezultate din

transform`rile ulterioare se p`streaz` în

lapidarul medieval de la Muzeul Na]ional de

Istorie a Transilvaniei din Cluj.

În secolul al XVII-lea s-au construit în

ora[ numeroase palate nobiliare [i s-au

ref`cut edificii mai vechi. În veacul urm`tor

portals and the windows decorated in a

Renaissance manner are still in place. In the

16th century a number of edifices were built in a

Renaissance manner and only few of them went

unchanged in the centuries that followed. Many

elements deriving from the subsequent

changes are kept in the mediaeval stone

collection at the National Museum of

Transylvania’s History in Cluj.

In the 17th century the city witnessed the

building of numerous aristocratic palaces and

older buildings were restored. In the next

Biserica [i M`n`stirea FranciscanilorConstituie unul dintre cele mai vechiansambluri arhitecturale, datând din1728-1745. M`n`stirea, realizat` în stilgotic cu sprijinul lui Iancu deHunedoara, a fost ridicat` pe locul uneivechi biserici construite în 1272.

The Franciscan Church and Monastery These are among the oldest architecturalensembles of the place, dating backto1728-1745. The monastery, in Gothicstyle, was erected with the support orIancu of Hunedoara (Hunyadi orHuniades) on the place of an olderchurch dating to 1272.

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Biserica CalvariaPe platoul de deasupra Some[ului Mic s-au descoperit urmele unei fortifica]ii delemn [i p`mânt, din secolul al IX-lea,apar]inând voievodului Gelu. Îninteriorul ei s-a ridicat ini]ial o biseric`în stil romanic [i apoi în stil gotic, lasfâr[itul secolului al XV-lea. Aici, încadrul Conventului, a avut locîn]elegerea dintre r`scula]i [i nobilime,în cursul r`scoalei de la Bobâlna din1437.

The Calvaria ChurchOn the plateau above the Somesul MicRiver traces of a wood and earthfortification were dug out, dating to the9th century, and most likely belonging tovoivode Gelu. Initially, a Roman-stylechurch was erected in its stead, and thena Gothic one towards the close of the 15th

century. It was here, in the Convent thatthe understanding between the rebelsand the nobility was concluded duringthe Revolt of 1437.

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ora[ul s-a îmbog`]it cu adev`rate capodopere

ale stilului baroc: Biserica Piari[tilor (1718-

1724); Biserica Unitarian` (1792-1796);

Biserica Minori]ilor (1799); Casa Hintz, Casa

Bolyai, Palatul Bánffy (1774-1785); Palatul

Teleki (1790-1795).

În arhitectura Clujului, trecerea de la

stilul baroc se face treptat, vechiul stil

l`sându-[i amprenta: Palatul Rhédey (1796);

Palatul Tholdalagi-Korda (1801-1807);

Biserica Ortodox` (1795-1796); Biserica

Greco-Catolic` Bob (1800-1803). Cl`dirile

century the city acquired genuine masterpieces

of the baroque style: the Piarist church (1718-

1724), the Unitarian church (1792-1796), the

Minorite church (1799), the Hintz House, the

Bolyai House, the Banffy Palace (1774-1785),

the Teleki Palace (1790-1795).

In the architecture of Cluj there was a

gradual passage from the baroque style as the

influence of the old style was to be felt for a long

time to come: the Rhedey Palace (1796), the

Tholdalagi-Korda Palace (1801-1807), the

Orthodox Church (1795-1796), the Bob Greek

Biserica Reformat` Monument gotic, având contraforturiputernice. Construc]ia bisericii (ini]ialcatolic`) a început în 1486 cu sprijinulregelui Matei Corvin, fiind terminat` în1494, iar m`n`stirea a fost finalizat` în1516. Amvonul este sculptat în lemn dec`tre Elias Nicolai, reprezentant de seam`al Rena[terii transilv`nene. Mobilierul dinlemn a fost executat de c`tre me[teriibistri]eni la sfâr[itul secolului al XV-lea.Pe lâng` m`n`stire func]iona [i unColegiu Universitar la care a înv`]at între1595 [i 1600 Nicolae P`tra[cu, fiul luiMihai Viteazul.

The Reformed ChurchA Gothic monument with strongbuttresses, its construction began in1486, and was finished in 1494. Themonastery was terminated in 1516. EliasNicolai, an important representative of theTransylvanian Renaissance, carved thepulpit in wood. The wooden furniture wasmanufactured by Bistrita craftsmen at theend of the 15th century.

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Biserica Sfântul PetruA fost construit` între 1848 [i 1850, în stil neogotic.În fa]a bisericii se afl` portalul Sfântul Mihail, executatde Johann König între 1743-1747, ca ex-voto dup`valul de epidemii din anii 1738-1742 [i adus adusaici în 1957-1960, când a avut loc restaurareabisericii. În spatele altarului se afl` statuia MarieiProtectoare, executat` de sculptorul AntonSchuchbauer în 1744. Ini]ial, locul statuii era înpartea central` a str`zii Universit`]ii, alc`tuindîmpreun` cu Biserica Piari[tilor [i celelalte cl`diri unansamblu arhitectonic caracteristic baroculuiincipient.

The Saint Peter ChurchBuilt between 1848 and 1850, the church is in Neo-Gothic style. In front sits the Saint Michael portal,work of Johann König, between 1743 and 1747, anex-voto after the epidemics of 1738-1742, broughthere during the 1957-1960 restoration works. Behindthe altar there is the statue of the Protective Virginby sculptor Anton Schuchbauer, dating to 1744.Initially, the statue stood in the central part ofUniversity Street. Together with the Piarist Churchand the other surrounding buildings it made up anarchitectural complex specific for the early Baroque.

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Statuia ecvestr` a SfântuluiGheorghe omorând balaurulÎn fa]a bisericii gotice se afl` copia înbronz a statuii Sfântului Gheorghe,realizat` în 1373 de c`tre Martin [iGheorghe, fiii pictorului Nicolae. Statuiaoriginal` a fost comandat` de c`treregele Carol al IV-lea al Cehiei [i se afl`în curtea Palatului Regal din Praga, peHradcin. Statuia se înscrie printrelucr`rile Rena[terii timpurii.

The equestrian statue of St Georgekilling the dragon In front of the Gothic church there is abronze copy of St George’s statue madein 1373 by Martin and Gheorghe, thesons of painter Nicolae. King Charles IVof Bohemia commissioned the originalstatue, which is now to be found in thecourtyard of the Royal Palace in Prague,in Hradcany. The statue is an earlyRenaissance work.

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Palatul Babo[ Cl`dire de col] ridicat` la sfâr[itulsecolului al XIX-lea. Decor bogat în stileclectic.

The Babos PalaceA corner building, the palace wasconstructed in the late 19th century, andfeatures eclectic decoration.

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neoclasice se caracterizeaz` prin simplitatea

organiz`rii [i prin folosirea unor elemente

decorative de inspira]ie antic` (pila[tri [i

coloane cu capiteluri, compozite, frunze de

acant): Colegiul Reformat; azi liceul

Gheorghe ßincai (1801); Biserica

Evanghelic` (1816-1829); Biserica

Reformat` (1821-1859); Liceul Academic

Piarist; azi liceul Báthory István (1817-

1821); Palatul Jósika, Cazarma Sfântul

Gheorghe (1834-1837); Palatul Reduta

(1810).

Catholic church (1800-1803). The neo-

classical buildings are characterized by the

simplicity of organization and by the use of

some decorative elements inspired by the

ancient times (pilasters and columns with

capitals, composites, acanthus leaves): the

Reformed College, nowadays the Gheorghe

Sincai High School (1801), the Evangelical

church (1816-1829), the Reformed church

(1821-1859), the Piarist Academic High

School, nowadays the Bathory Istvan High

School (1817-1821), the Josika Palace, the St

Bulevardul Eroilorçn fundal, Biserica Minori]ilor

The Boulevard of the HeroesIn the background, the Minorite Church

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74

Edificii ridicate la capetele poduluipeste Some[În stânga, Palatul Széky în stil neogotic;în dreapta, Palatul Elian în stil eclectic,1891

Buildings erected at both ends of thebridge over the SomesOn the left, the Szeky Palace in Neo-Gothic style, on the right the ElianPalace in eclectic style, in 1891

Edificiul fostei B`nci Austro-Ungare,ridicat în 1890Stil eclectic. Din 1990 este sediul B`nciiDacia Felix, iar în prezent al B`nciiEuocom.

The building of the former Austro-Hungarian Bank, built in 1890Eclectic style. From 1990, it has housedfor a time the Dacia Felix Bank, andtoday the Euocom Bank.

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La mijlocul secolului al XIX-lea, în

arhitectura Clujului motivele antice vor fi

înlocuite cu forme inspirate din tradi]iile

Rena[terii la început [i apoi din cele gotice,

stilul din urm` fiind frecvent imitat de c`tre

arhitec]ii ora[ului: Palatul Prim`riei (1843-

1846); Palatul Prefecturii, azi Prim`ria

ora[ului, Biserica Sfântul Petru (1848-1850);

Turnul neogotic al Bisericii Sfântul Mihail

(1834-1860). Sunt înl`turate vestigiile

medievale, care [i-au pierdut rostul lor

strategic, constituind [i o piedic` în calea

George Barracks (1834-1837), the Reduta

Palace (1810).

In the mid 19th century the ancient motifs

in the architecture of Cluj will be replaced with

forms inspired by the traditions of the

Renaissance in the beginning and then by the

Gothic ones. This latter style was more often

imitated by the architects of the city: the City

Hall Palace (1843-1846), the Prefecture Palace,

today the City Hall of Cluj, St Peter’s Church

(1848-1850), the neo-Gothic tower of St

Michael’s Church (1834-1860). The mediaeval

Curtea de ApelEdificiu ridicat în anul 1902. Prezint`un bogat decor eclectic, realizat dinteracot`, cu figuri alegorice [i frize cumotive vegetale.

The Court of AppealThis building erected in 1902 featuresrich eclectic decorations, in terracotta,with allegorical figures and friezes withvegetal motifs.

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Cl`dire în stil Secession, de laînceputul secolului al XX-lea

Early 20th century Sezession stylebuilding

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extinderii centrului. Ora[ul medieval se va

p`stra doar în jurul casei Matei Corvinul [i

Biserica Franciscanilor, iar din sistemul de

fortifica]ii s-a p`strat integral Bastionul

Croitorilor, iar Bastionul S`punarilor s-a

transformat în Turnul Pompierilor.

Fragmente din zidul de ap`rare se mai pot

vedea [i pe strada Potaissa.

O febr` a construc]iilor s-a manifestat în

ultimul deceniu al secolului al XIX-lea [i în

primul deceniu al veacului urm`tor. Are loc

degajarea [i modernizarea Pie]ei Centrale, a

vestiges were removed as they lost their

strategic justification and were an obstacle in

the way of the city’s expansion. The mediaeval

city will be only preserved around the house of

Mathias Corvinus and the Franciscan church.

Only the Tailors’ Bastion was entirely preserved

of the fortification system, and the Soap

Makers’ Bastion turned into the Firemen’s

Tower. Fragments of the defence wall can still

be seen in the Potaissa Street too.

A rush to build was quite obvious in the

last decade of the 19th century and in the first

Fa]ad` Secession, detaliu Cariatide în stil Secession, începutul

secolului al XX-lea.

Sezession facade, detailCaryatids in Sezession style from the

early 20th century.

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Prim`ria municipiului Cluj-NapocaEdificiu proiectat de Igna]iu Alpár, lasfâr[itul secolului al XIX-lea, cu o fa]ad`ce folose[te formele barocului [i cu unturn dezaxat, având un bogat decoreclectic. Toate confer` cl`dirii un aspectmonumental. În interior este de remarcatsala de sticl`.

The City Hall of Cluj-NapocaMunicipalityThe building was designed by IgnatiuAlpár, at the end of the 19th century witha Baroque facade and an off-axis towerrichly decorated with eclectic elements.All this endows the building with amonumental air. Inside, the glass hall isabsolutely outstanding.

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Prefectura jude]ului ClujCl`direa a fost ridicat` în 1910 de c`treHubert Jósef, ca sediu al Camerei deIndustrie [i Comer]. Compozi]ie de mareplasticitate, cl`direa îmbin` elementelede inspira]ie popular` cu cele de factur`gotic`, Rena[tere maur` [i Secession.

Prefect’s Office in Cluj CountyThe building was erected by HubertJósef in 1910 as the headquarters of theChamber of Commerce and Industry. Aremarkable construction, it blends folkart, and Moresque elements, withRenaissance and Sezession touches.

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Palatul Regionalei C`ilor Ferate Construit la sfâr[itul secolului al XIX-lea.Al`turi de celelalte palate învecinate dinPia]a Avram Iancu, el alc`tuie[te ocompozi]ie de mare plasticitate.

The Palace of the Railway RegionalOfficeBuilt in the late 19th century, togetherwith the neighboring edifices, in AvramIancu Plaza, it makes up an extremelypictorial composition.

Pie]ei Mihai Viteazul, sistematizarea Pie]ei

Avram Iancu [i ßtefan cel Mare. Pavilioanele

clinicilor se vor construi între 1897-1902. În

prima jum`tate a secolului al XIX-lea s-a

f`cut regularizarea [i modernizarea str`zilor.

În 1838 se dispune alinierea str`zilor, iar în

1839 se începe numerotarea lor. Înc` din

1791 s-a început pavarea str`zilor din centru

cu piatr` în locul vechii podele din grinzi [i

scânduri. În 1820-1822 se execut` o nou`

pavare cu piatr`, iar în 1908 erau deja pavate

120 str`zi. În 1887 va fi canalizat ora[ul, în

decade of the next century. The Central Square

and the Mihai Viteazul Square were cleared

and refurbished; the Avram Iancu and Stefan cel

Mare Squares were systematized. The pavilions

of the clinics will be built between 1897 and

1902. In the first half of the 19th century streets

were regularized and modernized. In 1838 they

ordered the streets to be aligned and in 1839

they started numbering them. As far back as

1791 they began paving the central streets with

stone instead of the old floor made of beams and

planks. In 1820-1822 a new stone pavement was

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anul urm`tor se va construi Uzina de Ap` [i

apeductul, iar în 1892 se va introduce

sistemul de canalizare în centrul ora[ului.

De la felinarele cu l`mpi de petrol, din 1826,

se trece în 1871 la iluminatul cu gaz

lampant, iar din 1901 se introduce

iluminatul electric.

Sfâr[itul secolului al XIX-lea [i începutul

secolului al XX-lea se caracterizeaz` printr-un

amestec stilistic al formelor, ob]inându-se

ansambluri pitore[ti. Se manifest` [i influen]e

venite din Viena, capitala imperiului, unde

made and in 1908 a number of 120 streets were

already paved. In 1887 they will supply the city

with a sewerage system, in the next year they

will build the Water Works and the aqueduct

and in 1892 they will supply a sewerage system

to the centre of the city too. From the oil

burning street lamps in 1826 they pass to the

kerosene lighting in 1871 and in 1901 the

electric lighting is introduced.

The end of the 19th century and the

beginning of the 20th century are characterized

by a stylistic blend of forms that resulted in

Monumentul „Glorie Osta[uluiRomân”, dedicat memoriei celor care s-aujertfit pentru patrie, sculptor Radu Aftene(1996).Pe un soclu de piatr` se înal]` un arc detriumf suplu, înconjurat de siluetele debronz ale unor osta[i din epoci diferite. Pelaturile scurte sunt prezentate în pandantdou` figuri: una reprezint` un osta[ c`zutla datorie, iar cealalt` o „Victorie”.

The Monument “Glory to theRomanian Soldiers” dedicated to thememory of those who laid down their livesfor the homeland. Sculptor Radu Aftene(1996)A supple triumphal arch rises on a stonepedestal. Bronze statues of soldiers fromvarious epochs surround it. The shortsides present two figures in pendant: asoldier fallen in line of duty and a Victory.

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arta se integrase stilului Secession, toate

ducând la l`rgirea eclectismului decorului:

hotelul New-York, azi Continental (1894);

Institutul Societ`]ii de Asigurare (1912-

1913); Palatele Statusului romano-catolic [i

ansamblul de cl`diri de la cele patru capete

ale podului de peste Some[, ridicate la

sfâr[itul secolului al XIX-lea: Palatul Babo[,

Palatul Széky, Palatul Elian [i Palatul Berde.

La hotarul dintre secole, în tratarea

fa]adelor predomin` corni[ele, profilurile

curbe, folosirea pl`cilor de ceramic`

picturesque ensembles. One can also notice

influences coming from Vienna, the capital of

the empire, where art had got integrated into

the Sezession style, all of this leading to a

more marked eclectic character of the

environment: the New York Hotel, nowadays

the Continental Hotel (1894), the Institute of

the Insurance Company (1912-1913), the

palaces of the Roman Catholic Status and the

ensemble of buildings at the four ends of the

bridge across the Somes River, which were

erected in the late 19th century: the Babos

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Camera de Comer]Cl`dire în stil Secession, construit` în1910. A func]ionat ca Hotel Astoria.

The Chamber of CommerceThis Sezession building was erected in1910, and it once housed the AstoriaHotel.

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Palatul Elian, detaliuConstruc]ie în stil eclectic, 1891.

The Elian Palace, detailErected in eclectic style, 1891.

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Catedrala Ortodox`S-a în`l]at între 1923 [i 1933. A fost proiectat` înstil tradi]ional românesc, de c`tre arhitec]iiConstantin Pomponiu [i George Cristinel, iarpictura interioar` este realizarea lui Catul Bogdan [ia lui Anastasie Demian.

The Orthodox CathedralThis abode was erected between 1923 and 1933.Designed in the traditional Romanian style byarchitects Constantin Pomponiu and GeorgeCristinel, the Cathedral features interior paintingsby Catul Bogdan and Anastanie Demian.

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Stauia ecvestr` a domnitoruluiMihai Viteazul

A fost ridicat` de Marius Butunoiu înanul 1976, pe un soclu solid din piatr`.De jur împrejurul soclului se reliefeaz`

stemele ]`rilor române [i simbolurileunit`]ii na]ionale.

The equestrian statue of PrinceMichael the Brave

Erected by Marius Butunoiu in 1976, itssolid stone pedestal is decorated with thecoat-of-arms of the Romanian Lands and

the symbols of national union.

Statuia lui Avram Iancu, executat`de Ilie Berindei (1993)De pe postament se înal]` o coloan` depiatr` ne[lefuit` având la baz` treitulnic`rese, iar în vârf se afl` statuia debronz a Craiului Mun]ilor, AvramIancu.

The statue of Avram Iancu, erectedby Ilie Berindei (1993)A column in rough stone rises on thepedestal. At the base, it features threewomen sounding alpen-horns, and abovethe bronze statue of Avram Iancu, thePrince of the Mountains.

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sm`l]uit` [i c`r`mid` aparent` (Biblioteca

Central` Universitar` Lucian Blaga (1906-

1908), Cl`direa G`rii (1870). Se manifest`,

de asemenea, orientarea spre o art` cu

caracter pronun]at utilitar ap`rând

construc]iile cu caracter industrial,

administrativ [i cultural. Acestea din urm`

sunt palate înc`p`toare, cu sc`ri

monumentale, saloane de [edin]e [i

spectacole: Palatul de Justi]ie (1902), Teatrul

Na]ional (1904-1906), Palatul Direc]iei

Finan]elor, Palatul Direc]iei C`ilor Ferate,

Palace, the Széky Palace, the Elian Palace and

the Berde Palace.

At the turn of the century in the facades

they used many cornices, curved profiles, slates

of glazed ceramics and face bricks as in the

Lucian Blaga Central University Library (1906-

1908) and the building of the railway station

(1870). There is also a trend to resort to an art

of a marked utilitarian character and this

generated the buildings to be used in industry,

administration and culture. These last ones are

roomy palaces, with monumental staircases,

Monumentul Lupa CapitolinaA ajuns la Cluj în 1920 [i reprezint` undar f`cut ora[ului de c`tre statul italian,ca semn de recunoa[tere a originii latinea românilor. In prezent este amplasat`pe Bulevardul Eroilor.

The Lupa Capitolina MonumentThe ensemble came to Cluj in 1920 as agift of the Italian state in token ofrecognition of the Romanians’ Latinorigin. At present, it has beenestablished on the Boulevard of theHeroes, in front of the TransfigurationChurch.

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Palatul Direc]iei Silvice, Teatrul Maghiar

(1909-1910), Palatul Urania (1910).

În perioada interbelic` s-au construit

multe edificii noi: Catedrala Ortodox`, Banca

Albina (azi, Cercul Militar), Colegiul

Academic (azi, Casa Universitarilor),

Academia Teologic` Greco-Catolic` (azi,

Academia de Muzic`), Palatul Societ`]ii de

Asigur`ri Adriatica, Palatul Societ`]ii

Na]ionale de Gaz Metan, Palatul Uzinei

Electrice. În Pia]a Central` (azi, Pia]a Unirii)

s-a dezvelit, în 1921, „Lupa Capitolina”,

meeting and performance halls: the Law Courts

(1902), the National Theatre (1904-1906), the

Palace of the Finance Department, the Palace of

the Railway Department, the Palace of the

Forestry Department, the Hungarian Theatre

(1909-1910), the Urania Palace (1910).

During the interwar years many new

buildings were made: the Orthodox Cathedral,

the Albina Bank (today, the Military Circle), the

Academic College (today, the Academics’

House), the Greek Catholic Theological

Academy (today, the Academy of Music), the

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Vedere panoramic` a Clujului de pedealul Cet`]uiaçn planul al doilea, Catedrala Ortodox`.

Panoramic view of Cluj from theCetatuia Hill with the OrthodoxCathedral in the background.

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statuie primit` în dar de la oficialii Romei.

În perioada postbelic`, Clujul a

cunoscut o puternic` dezvoltare edilitar`,

construindu-se cartiere mari de locuin]e,

complexe studen]e[ti, hoteluri, spitale:

cartierul Gheorgheni (1965-1972),

Grigorescu (1952-1964), M`r`[ti (1978),

Zorilor (1980), M`n`[tur (1971), Complexul

Studen]esc Ha[deu, Arhivele Statului (1966-

1968), Biblioteca Academiei (1976). S-au

ridicat câteva monumente: grupul statuar

„ßcoala Ardelean`”, în fa]a Universit`]ii

Palace of the Adriatica Insurance Company, the

Palace of the National Methane Gas Company,

the Palace of the Electricity Works. In 1921 they

unveiled the Lupa Capitolina in the Central

Square (today, the Unirii Square), a statue that

was received as a present from the officials in

Rome.

In the post-war time Cluj witnessed a

marked town planning development as big

residential districts, student complexes, hotels,

restaurants and hospitals were built: the

districts of Gheorgheni (1965-1972), Grigorescu

Vedere panoramic` a Clujului de pedealul Cet`]uiaçn planul al doilea, Catedrala SfântulMihail.

Panoramic view of Cluj from theCetatuia Hill with the Saint MichaelCathedral in the background.

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„Babe[-Bolyai” (sculptor Romulus Ladea),

statuile lui Mihai Eminescu (sculptor Ovidiu

Maitec) [i Lucian Blaga (sculptor Romulus

Ladea) în fa]a Teatrului Na]ional, grupul

statuar Horia, Clo[ca [i Cri[an (sculptor Ioan

Vlasiu), statuia lui Baba Novac (sculptor

Virgil Fulicea).

Dup` 1990, municipalitatea a îmbog`]it

peisajul citadin cu câteva lucr`ri de art`:

monumentul lui Avram Iancu (sculptor Ilie

Berindei), Crucea de pe Cet`]uie (arhitect

Virgil Salvanu), monumentul „Glorie

(1952-1964), Marasti (1978), Zorilor (1980),

Manastur (1971), the Hasdeu Student Complex,

the State Archives (1966-1968), the Academy

Library (1976). A few statues were erected: the

Transylvanian School group of statues in front

of the Babes-Bolyai University (sculptor

Romulus Ladea), the statues of Mihai Eminescu

(sculptor Ovidiu Maitec) and Lucian Blaga

(sculptor Romulus Ladea) in front of the

National Theatre, the Horia, Closca and Crisan

group of statues (sculptor Ioan Vlasiu), the

statue of Baba Novac (sculptor Virgil Fulicea).

90

Cl`diri de pe Strada Republicii

Buildings on Republicii Street

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Osta[ului Român” (sculptor Radu Aftene),

monumentul eroilor Revolu]iei din 1989

(sculptor Aurel Terec), monumentul

închinat memorandi[tilor (sculptor Eugen

Paul), memorialul din Pia]a Mihai Viteazul.

After 1990 the municipality enriched the

cityscape with a few works of art: the monument

to Avram Iancu (sculptor Ilie Berindei), the

Cross on the Citadel (architect Virgil Salvanu),

the monument titled “Glory to the Romanian

Soldier” (sculptor Radu Arsene), the monument

to the heroes of the 1989 Revolution (sculptor

Aurel Terec), the monument to the

Memorandum petitioners (sculptor Eugen

Paul).

Cartierul M`n`[turFotografie aerian`.

Manastur districtBird’s eye view.

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Parcuri, gr`dini,locuri turistice

În configura]ia urbanistic` întâlnim

înc` de la începutul secolului al XIX-lea

locuri de recreere [i gr`dini publice. Cea mai

întins` era gr`dina Haller situat` la sud-vest

de actualul parc în zona str`zii George

Co[buc. Un mic pod peste canalul Some[ului

lega gr`dina de locul de promenad`.

Actualul parc al ora[ului era ini]ial un

loc ml`[tinos, br`zdat de mici bra]e ale

Some[ului. Amenajarea lui a început în 1812

[i în câ]iva ani a ajuns locul public cel mai

agreat din ora[, cu aleile umbrite de arbori

seculari [i lacul de la Cazinou, unde se pot

face plimb`ri cu barca. Imediat în apropiere

se afl` parcul sportiv Iuliu Ha]ieganu

construit în perioada interbelic` [i dotat cu

piste [i terenuri sportive, dar [i cu alei [i

bazine pentru recreerea locuitorilor

ora[ului. Oaze de verdea]` [i parcuri g`sim [i

în cartierele noi ale ora[ului: Gheorgheni

sau Grigorescu. Nu putem uita Cet`]uia, de

unde se vede aproape întreg ora[ul, Gr`dina

Botanic`, cu splendoarea ei [i p`durea Hoia,

unde se afl` Parcul Etnografic Romulus

Vuia.

Parks, gardens,tourist sites

As early as the beginning of the 19th

century there were recreation places and public

gardens in the city. The largest one was the

Haller Garden, which was situated south-west

of the present-day park near the George Cosbuc

Street. A small bridge across the canal of the

Somes River used to connect the garden to the

promenade.

The present-day park of the city was

initially a marshy ground crossed by small

streams of the Somes River. They started

arranging it in 1812 and a few years later it

came to be the most popular public place in the

city, with alleys covered in the shade of

century-old trees and the lake at the Casino

where one can go rowing. Close nearby there is

the Iuliu Hatieganu sports park, which was

made in the interwar years. It has sports

grounds and tracks but also alleys and

swimming pools for the entertainment of the

city dwellers. Green spots and parks are also to

be found in the new districts of the city,

Gheorgheni or Grigorescu. We cannot forget

the Citadel, which offers a view of almost the

entire city, the Botanical Gardens with their

splendour and the Hoia forest, where there is

the Romulus Vuia Ethnographic Park.

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Gr`dina Botanic`

The botanical gardens

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Text [i legende / Text and captionsEugenia Glodariu

Fotografii / PhotosMircea Savu

ßtefan PetrescuDan Ioan DinescuNOI Media Print

Imagini de arhiv` / Archive imagesNOI Media Print

Biblioteca Academiei RomâneMuzeul Na]ional de Istorie a Transilvaniei Cluj-Napoca

Concep]ie grafic` / Graphic layoutMecena Consult

Ovidiu Morar

DTPGabriel Nicula

Versiune englez` / English versionMira Stoiculescu

Alina Cârâc

Director de proiect / Project managerArpad Harangozo

Ovidiu Morar