Cluj-Napoca, Claudiopolis, Klausenburg, Kolozsvár

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Cluj-Napoca, Claudiopolis, Klausenburg, Kolozsvár - an information booklet in Romanian and English

Transcript of Cluj-Napoca, Claudiopolis, Klausenburg, Kolozsvár

  • 1. Cluj-Napoca claudiopolis klausenburg kolozsvr
  • 2. Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a Romniei TUDOR, OCTAVIAN Pictori romni uita]i / Tudor Octavian. Bucure[ti: NOI Media Print, 2003 ISBN 973-7959-02-7 75(498)
  • 3. Cluj-Napoca claudiopolis klausenburg kolozsvr
  • 4. Clujul, n a doua jum`tate a secolului al XIX-lea Vedere general`, dup` o gravur` de M. Kolb, K. Gungen, L. Rohbock [i multiplicat` la Darmstadt n 1864. Cluj in the second half of the 19th century General view after an engraving by M. Kolb, K. Gungen, L. Rohbock, printed in Darmstadt, in 1864.
  • 5. Cuprins Contents Scurt istoric Short history 8 Via]a cultural` The cultural life 36 Peisaj citadin Cityscape 54 Parcuri, gr`dini Parks, gardens 92
  • 6. 8
  • 7. Scurt istoric A short history Ora[ul Cluj-Napoca este situat n nord- The city of Cluj-Napoca is situated in vestul Romniei, la hotarul dintre Mun]ii north-western Romania on the border Apuseni, Podi[ul Some[an [i Cmpia separating the Apuseni Mountains, the Transilvaniei. Cu o popula]ie de 334 543 Somesan Plateau and the Transylvanian Plain. locuitori n anul 2000, ora[ul se num`r` One can say that the city lying on the banks printre cele mai mari localit`]i din ]ar`. of the Some[ul Mic River attracts visitors by its Se poate spune c` ora[ul de pe Some[ul peculiar features that come from the Mic atrage printr-un specific aparte, izvort picturesque blend of cultures and religious din amestecul pitoresc de culturi [i faiths having existed in this place for centuries. confesiuni sedimentate de secole n aceste As Mircea Zaciu put it too, this city is a locuri. Cum afirma [i Mircea Zaciu, acest historical reality made up of three distinct ora[ este o realitate istoric` format` pe trei ethnic groups: Romanian, Hungarian and trunchiuri distincte: romnesc, unguresc [i Germanic, a fact that gives it its individuality germanic, ceea ce-i d` individualitatea [i n and, at the same time, is a phenomenon which acela[i timp reprezint` un fenomen de dou` is interesting from two points of view: the ori interesant prin paralelismul valorilor [i parallelism of values and their interaction. prin interac]iunea lor The oldest proofs testifying to the fact that Cele mai vechi urme de locuire de pe people lived in the territory of the city of Cluj- teritoriul municipiului Cluj-Napoca apar]in Napoca can be traced back to the Middle paleoliticului mijlociu (120 000-35 000 a.Chr.) Palaeolithic (120.000-35.000 B.C.) and are to be [i se g`sesc la Calvaria (Cluj-M`n`[tur), found in the Calvaria fortification (in the T`ietura Turcului [i n cartierul Cordo[. district of Manastur), in the street called Descoperirile arheologice atest` o populare Taietura Turcului and in the Cordos district. dens` [i o via]` nentrerupt` ncepnd din Archaeological discoveries attest to the fact that neolitic (6 500-2 700 a. Chr.), continund cu this territory had a numerous population that epoca bronzului [i cu prima vrst` a fierului. uninterruptedly lived here, starting in the Bogatele vestigii descoperite n vatra Neolithic Age (6.500-2.700 B.C.) and going on 9
  • 8. Harta Transilvaniei (Abraham Ortelius, 1566) Map of Transylvania (Abraham Ortelius, 1566) ora[ului (zona central`, cartierele into the Bronze Age and the First Iron Age. The Grigorescu [i M`n`[tur), ca [i cele din numerous vestiges discovered in the precincts mprejurimi (Gura Baciului) se afl` n of the city (the central area, the Grigorescu and patrimoniul Muzeului Na]ional de Istorie a Manastur districts) as well as those discovered Transilvaniei din Cluj-Napoca. in the surroundings (Gura Baciului) are now to n epoca dacic`, pe teritoriul be found at the National Museum of municipiului s-a dezvoltat o important` Transylvanias History in Cluj-Napoca. a[ezare autohton`, iar numele dacic al In the Dacian age an important indigenous acestei localit`]i, Napoca (sau Napuca) va fi settlement developed in the territory of the p`strat [i n timpul st`pnirii romane. Prima present-day city and the Dacian name of this men]ionare a a[ez`rii romane Napoca se place, Napoca (or Napuca), will be preserved at g`se[te pe un milliarium (born` kilometric` the time of the Roman rule too. The first 10
  • 9. Clujul la 1617 roman` din anii 107-108 a. Chr.). Localitatea mention of the Roman settlement of Napoca is Gravur` de Georg Houfnagel dup` va fi un important centru civil, to be found on a milliarium (a Roman milestone pictura lui Egidius Van der Rhye. me[te[ug`resc [i administrativ primind n dating back to 108-107 B.C.). The above- Cluj in 1617 124 p. Chr. titlul de municipium [i apoi, la mentioned settlement will be an important An engraving by Georg Houfnagel after sfr[itul secolului al II-lea p. Chr., va fi civil, handicraft and administrative centre a painting by Egidius Van der Rhye. ridicat` la rangul de colonia. S`p`turile which was given the title of a municipium in arheologice au dezvelit chiar n centrul A.D. 124 and then, in the late second century, it ora[ului urme ale vechiului ora[ roman: will be raised to the rank of a colonia. edificii publice, construc]ii din piatr` cu Archaeological excavations revealed traces of sisteme de nc`lzire, inscrip]ii, un atelier the old Roman city in the very centre of Cluj- pentru turnarea fibulelor, tezaure monetare, Napoca: public buildings, stone houses ceramic`, arme etc. n mprejurimi au fost equipped with heating systems, inscriptions, a 11
  • 10. workshop for moulding fibulae, coin treasures, ceramics, weapons etc. In the surrounding area research work was carried out, and rural settlements and villae rusticae (agricultural farms) were discovered at Dezmir, Apahida, Floresti and Chinteni. After the Romans left the province of Dacia at the time of Emperor Aurelian (A.D. 271), Napoca visibly turned rural. Roman traditions can especially be seen in the funerary rites. The vestiges of the Dacian-Roman population were found at Manastur-Gradini and at Floresti. The time of the migrations (the 4th-9th centuries AD), which was characterized by deep- going turmoil, left traces consisting in treasures of precious metals (at Apahida and Someseni they found Ostrogothic vestiges and at Cordos, vestiges left behind by the Gepidae). The tombs in the necropolis at Someseni belong to a Slavic population that lived together with the native Dacian-Roman one. The fortifications at Cluj- Manastur and Dabaca date back to the final period of the Romanians ethno-genesis. They are attributed to the Romanian population organized in cnezats and voivodats such as Gelus voivodat, who is supposed to have ruled over the aforementioned fortifications too. The beginnings of the mediaeval Cluj are connected to the fortification in the Manastur district (Calvaria, the 9th century) and the civil settlement in the centre of the city,